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E. W. WEST, PIT. D. 







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E. W. WEST, ril. D. 


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The book of Arda-Viraf is one of the most interesting- works 
of Pahlavi literature, as it contains the account of an imaginary 
journey of a pious Parsi }3riesl Ihrouffh heaven and hell, vvliich 
oflen reminds one of Dante's Divina Conimedia. Since ils conlenis 
iiave been iiitherlo very imperfectly kno\\ n in Europe throug-h Pope's 
Eng-Ilsh translation which was based only on modern Persian and 
Gujarati versions, I recommended the Governme,nt of Bombay, be- 
fore my departure from India, in the year 18G6, to intrust Destur 
floshang^ji Jamaspji Asa, among- other works, wilh the prepariilion 
of an edition of the orig-inal Pahlavi text of this work with a 
g-lossary. My request was readily acceded to, and the MS. which 
the Destur h'^d prepared, was forwarded to me early in 1870, by 
the Director of Public Instruction, for revision and publication. 

As it will probably be a very long- time before another 
edition of the orig-inal text will come out, I thought it advisable 
to make this edifio princeps as correct as possible, by subjecting- 
the Destur's MS, to a thorough revision, and making use of all the 
materials which were available in Europe, but inaccessible to the 
Destur, He had used live MSS., besides several Pazand versions, 
in preparing- the Pahlavi text, but none of them was particularly 
old. And as the two oldest and most valuable MSS. of the Arda 
Viraf namak are in Europe, the one being- deposited in the Uni- 
versity Library al Copenhagen (Xo. 20), the other being in my 

IV Preface. 

own possession (He), it was incumbent on an editor to collate 
them carefully. In order to accomplish this task, I went in the 
autumn of 1871 , in company with my friend Dr. E, W. West, 
to Copenhagen, where we found further useful materials in the 
splendid collection of Zand and Pahlavi MSS. which had been 
made by E, Rask during- his stay at Bombay. 

To facilitate the reading of the complicated and ambiguous 
Pahlavi character, a complete transliteration of the whole text has 
been added, which we have based on a kind of regular system, as 
may be learnt from the second of the introductory Essays. It is 
true, Destur Iloshangji had sent, along with his text, a complete 
transliteration which was of great use to us; but as the text we 
prepared, differed in many points from that which he had sent, 
as well as our system of transliteration from that which he had 
followed, we thought it expedient, for the sake of uniformity, to 
adhere to our own system. 

As the Pahlavi lang-uag-e is but very little understood in 
Europe, I deemed it advisable to add a complete translation with 
notes for the general reader. It is as literal as possible, and since 
great care has been bestowed on it, it may be relied upon. 

The Arda-Yiraf namak being, in the two oldest MSS., joined 
to the G6sht-i Fryano, which interesting tale bas been as yet 
wholly unknown in Europe, I resolved upon adding an edition of 
it, with a transliteration and translation, in the form of an appendix. 
This has been prepared by Dr. West with his usual care. 

Since several long passages in the Book of Arda Viraf, on 
the fate of the soul after death, are taken from original Avesta 
texts, such as are to be found in the fragments of the HadCkhl 
Nask which arc still extant, I Ihouglit it expedient to add, in a 

e f a c e. 

second appendix, an edition of bolh Ihe Zand and Pahlavi texts 
of those frag-menls (the latter being- here published for the first 
time), with a transliteration of the Pahlavi, an Eng-lish translation 
of the Zand text, and notes. 

For the introductory Essays T made largely use of the notes 
and remarks which had been forwarded to me by Destur Hosh- 
ang-ji to whom my best thanks are due. 

During- the preparation of this work, 1 have receiv:ed great 
assistance from Dr. E. W. West, without which its publication 
would have been much delayed. My best thanks are due to him 
for his most valuable services. 

I have also to acknowledge the great liberality and friendliness 
with which the librarians at the University Library at Copenhagen 
allowed us free access to their valuable Zand and Pahlavi MSS. 
during our stay in that city. 

The Glossary to all the texts contained in this volume will 
be published separately, next year. 

Munich, 8th September 1872. 

M. Haug. 

Introductory Essays 


M. Haug, Ph. D. 


E. W. West, Ph. D. 


The MSS. used in preparing the texts, "with an account 
of the versions of the Arda-Yiraf naniak. 

The text of the Arda-Viraf namak, origmally prepared by Destur 
Hoshangji from the Pahlavi MSS. B., X., P. and some Pazand MSS. 
hereinafter described, has been carefully collated with Dr. Hang's MSS. 
He, Hi 7, Hi 8 and the Kopenhagen MSS. K20 and K26, and several 
additions and corrections have been derived from these sources. 

The text of the tale of G6sht-i Fryano has been prepared from 
three of the same MSS., He, K20 and K26 , and collated with H? and 
a copy of Li5. While the text of the Hadokht Nask has been taken 
from He and Iv2o ; with, a few various readings of the Zand version 
from P- , which are given by Westergaard in his notes to the Yasht 
Fragments XXI. and XXH. The following is a detailed description of 
all the MSS. used. 

He is a very old and correct codex in Dr. Haug's collection, care- 
fully written, very legible, and in good preservation. It contains the 
series of Pahlavi works commonly known to the desturs as the 'greater 
Bundehesh', in two volumes, large octavo, comprising, respectively, 
17 and 13 clastak, jCizu, or bundles, of eight folios each, written 17 
lines to the page, except the last 5 folios of the first volume, and 
the last 32 of the second, which are written closer. 

The first volume has 13 extra folios of equally old paper, but 
more carelessly written, prefixed to the 136 already mentioned; and 
three more of the extra fohos (Nos. 12, 13 and 16) are missing. The 
contents of these extra folios are: the Khurshed Ny^yish and Khurshed 

iv Introductory Essays. 

Yasht in Zand and Pahlavi, the gifts and qualities of the thirty Yazads 
(imperfect), the Zand alphabet, and a fragment of the first chapter of 
tlie Arda-Yiraf namak, I. 1—38, which is designated Hea in the notes 
to the text. And the contents of the 136 folios, properly belonging to 
the first volume , are as follows : 

1. Visparad, Z.-Pahl. , with a colophon dated the 29^i> of the ninth 
month A.Y. 766 (corresponding to the 1^* of October A. D. 1397). 

2. Selections from the Gathas (Cludak avistdk-i gdsdn-i afzum- 
/i/7(^, Z.-Pahl., comprising Yasna45, i-c. 46, 6,7,17. 48,3. 51,8-9. 52, 1-4, 
53, 1, 2, 8. 28, 1, 30, 1. 31, G, 21. 33, u. 34, 8, 10. and 59, 30, 31. either wholly, 
or in part. 

3. Three fargards of the Hadokht Nask, Z.-Pahl, as published in 
this volume, p. 269—300. 

4. Auharmazd Yasht, v. 31, preceded by the sentence: ahc narsh 
ashaono .... fravareta , mentioned in Westergaard's note ; Z.-Pahl. 

5. Pahlavi Rivayat, part I. ; Destur Hoshangji states that this is 
the work which is also called Shayist-la-shayist. 

6. Zand-Pahlavi Glossary, as published in 1867. 

7. Pahlavi Rivayat, part II. 

8. Patit-i khiid, in Pahlavi. 

9. The duties of the seven Ameshaspends, in Pahlavi. 

10. Valuation of sins, in Pahlavi. 

11. Miscellaneous passages, in Pahlavi, as to when meat must 
not be eaten ; the three heinous sinners , for whom there is no resur- 
rection; the respect due to a man who knows the scriptures by heart; 
and the place where a man will rise from the dead, which is the spot 
on which he died, or the first spot his corpse touched, if he died 
suspended in the air. 

The contents of the 104 folios of the second volume, are as follows : 

12. The book of Arda Yiraf, in Pahlavi, as published in this 
volume, p. 3 — 138. 

13. The tale of Gosht-i Fryano, in Pahlavi, with colophons, the 
latest of which is dated the 19"' day of the eleventh month A. Y. 766 

Introductory Essays. v 

(corresponding to the 20^'' of November A. D. 1397). This tale is pub- 
lished in this volume, p. 207 — 24G. 

14. The lengths of shadows at noon, and at the auzdtrmd gah; 
in Pahlavi. 

15. Bundehesh in Pahlavi, containing 30 of Anquetil's chapters in 
the following order: ch. 15—23, 1—14, 24—27, 31, 33 and 34. 

16. Yasht of the seven Ameshaspends v. II — 15, in Zand. 

17. Khurdad Yasht in Zand. 

18. Akharman's directions to Aeshm, regarding the Gahanbars, 
Myazd and Khvaetvadath ; in Pahlavi. 

19. When the formula Yathd aha imirijo is to be recited, from 
once to thirteen times; in Pahlavi. 

20. Miscellaneous sentences, in Pahlavi, containing advice on reli- 
gious subjects, and breaking off incomplete, at the end of the volume '. 

The texts in this MS. are more correct than in any of those which 
follow, and supply many omissions in the other old codex K20. In the 
Arda-Viraf namak, it supplies a sentence in ch. 53, which is missing 
in all other MSS., including those copied from itself; but it also omits 
sentences in ch. 5,32 and 34, which are found in K20, K26 and His. 
There is every reason to believe, from the apparent age of the paper, 
and the relative positions and dates of the colophons, that these latter 
have not been copied from an older MS., as sometimes happens, but 
that this codex was actually written in A. D. 1397, by the Peshyotan 
Ram Kamdin whose name occurs in the colophons ; the 50 days dif- 
ference in their dates, being necessary for writing the 151 folios which 
intervene between them. 

Iv2o is also a very old codex, No. 20 of Rask's collection in the 
university library at Kopenhagen ; it is a contemporary of He , but is 
not so well preserved; several folios being lost, and many others torn 
and much worn. It is a large octavo, written 20 lines to the page, of 

> A Pazand version of tliese sentences, and of article 18, occurs in the Lou- 
don MS., India office library, Z. and P. XXII., appended to the Bundehesh, fol. 
105—110; and most of that MS. is derived from Hj. 

vj Introductory Essays. 

which 173 folios remain, the last one being blank ; the folios supposed 
to be missing are fol. 1, 121, 145, 154, 155 and several which followed 
177. The contents of this codex are as follows : 

I, 2. The same as 12 and 13 in Hg, with a colophon (see notes 
on p. 245) dated the IS*** of the tenth month A, Y. 690 (corresponding 
to the 8th Qf November A.D. 1321); the first folio is "missing. 

3, 4, 5, 6. The same as 14, 3, 4 and 18 in He, followed by a 
colophon dated the IS^i^ of the ninth month A. Y. 720 (corresponding 
to the 2d of October A. D. 1351). 

7. The same as 5 in He, followed by a Persian colophon dated 
the 9^'' of the seventh month A.Y. 700 (corresponding to the 30*'' of 
July A. D. 1331). 

8. The same as G in He. 

9. Bundehesh in Pahlavi, as published, in fac-simile, by Wester- 
gaard in 1851 ; one folio is missing. This is the text translated by 
Anquetil, and differs in arrangement from that in He, besides supplying 
the extra matter contained in Anquetil's ch. 28 — 30 and 32. 

10. Bahman Yasht in Pahlavi. 

II. Answers of 3)^^, the sage, to his pupil, in Pahlavi; of 
which one or two folios are missing i. 

12. The tale of the accursed Abalish, in Pahlavi. 

13. Replies of Ataropad-i Marspendan, a Greek and a Hindil, to 
the Persian king ; in Pahlavi. 

14. Yasht fragment XXH. 39— 42 of Westergaard, Z.-Pahl., which 
breaks off incomplete at the end of a folio, the next two being lost. 

15. Srosh Yasht Hadokht, v. 0—22, Z.-Pahl. ; the beginning is lost 
with the missing folios. 

IG. Selections from the Yasna, Z.-Pahl., comprising Yasna I1,i7.— 
13,8. and part of 29,6. 

' This part of the codex wants re-arrangement ; the proper order of the folios 
(as they were numbered last year) seems to be as follows: 142, 147, 146, then pro- 
bably two missing folios, 143, 144, 148 and thence onwards. 

Introductory Essays. vii 

17, 18, 19. The same as 19,7 and 8 in Hg; but the latter portion 
(about one-seventh) of the concluding Patit is lost. 

It appears from the above lists of contents, that each of the old 
codexes contains articles which are not in the other, although nearly 
three-fourths of their contents are common to both ; thus , the articles 
1, '2, 9, 10, IJ, 16, 17 and 20 in He are wanting in K20, and the ar- 
ticles 10 — 16 in K20 are wanting in He , while the Bundehesh in K20 
differs from that in He. 

The three dates, found in the codex K2(), follow one another in 
the irregular order A. Y. 690, 720, 700; and although extending over 
a period of thirty years, they occur within a space of 36 folios, in 
which every fresh article begins on the same page as that on which 
the preceding one ends, with hardly any interval and no change in the 
handwriting. The colophons must, therefore, have been copied, by the 
writer of this codex, from the original MSS. which he was copying. 
Judging, however, from the state of the paper, the codex must be 
about 500 years old , or nearly contemporary with He. It is worthy 
of notice that Mihrban Kai-Khusru, the writer of the original MSS., 
from which the articles 1 — 7 were copied , appears to have been a 
great grand-nephew of Rustam Mihrban, the writer of the original MS. 
whence the articles 12 — 13 in He were copied; this may be clearly 
inferred from the genealogies given in the colophons (see p. 245, 266). 
Furthermore, it appears from their colophons, that the same Mihrban 
Kai-Khusro copied the old Yasna and Vendidad, K5 and Ki , now at 
Kopenhagen, from MSS. written by the same Rustam Mihrban, his 
great grand-uncle. 

The actual writer of K20, whose name is unknown, is probably 
responsible for the numerous omissions of words with which it abounds ; 
and he must, therefore, have been a rather careless copyist. But his 
trivial blunders are thrown altogether into the shade by those of the 
writer of K21 , which is a copy of K20 made about a century ago, in 
the handwriting of Destur Darab, as Rask believed, but this is doubtful, 
as the writer often makes nonsense of his text by misreading the ori- 

viii Introductory Essays. 

ginal. K21 contains 158 folios written 17 lines to the page (except the 
first), followed by 14 extra folios which contain a repetition of part of 
the text. As it very rarely supplies anything more than is now legible, 
in the defective parts oflv2o, it must have been written when that MS. 
was, very nearly, in its present state ; it omits words, phrases and even 
folios (such as fols, 133 — 141, 146 and 147 of K20), and misreads 
words which are still plainly legible. 

Another copy of K20, written by Kaus Fredun in A. D. 1737, is 
P7 , No. 7 in Anquetil's collection at Paris. This seems to contain the 
same matter as K20 in its present state, with the addition of the Nam- 
stayishni and Sirozah, which follow the Patit. 

N. represents two MSS. used by Destur Hoshangji, which agree 
very closely in the text of the Arda-Viraf namak, and have both been 
chiefly derived from He. One was written by Destur Asaji Noshirwanji, 
of the family of Destur Jamasp Asa, some fifty or sixty years ago, but 
is not dated; it consists of the articles 2 — 13 in He. The other was 
written by Destur Noshirwanji Jaraaspji Asaji Fredunji Bagarya^, and 
consists of the following treatises: article 1 from He, four ISirangs in 
Pazand, articles 2, 3, 4, 15 and G from He, Patit-i pashimani, Nam- 
stayishni, Kar-namak-i Ardashir Papakan (all three in Pahlavi), and 
articles 12, 13, 5 and 9 from He. According to a colophon at the end 
of article 6, that portion was completed on the "^^^ day of the third 
month A. Y. 1108 (corresponding to the 29^'' of December A. D. 1738). 

K2e is an imperfect, but very carefully written, MS. of the Pah- 
lavi tales of Arda Viraf and G6sht-i Fryano, No. 26 in the university 
library at Kopenhagen ; its date is lost with its last folios, but the 
paper seems more than two centuries old. Only 53 octavo folios re- 
main, written 15 lines to the page ; the missing folios are 1 — 7, 41 — 48, 
51—54 and those which followed 72, and the missing text is Ard. Vir. 
ch. 1,1.— 4, 6. 64,8.-83,8. 89,10.-100,4. and Go. Far. ch. 4,23. to end. 

1 Bagaryft, or Bhagadyii, is the surname of all the Parsi priests having their 
share in thQ panthak, or diocese, of Nausari. It is from bhdga, Z. bagha. [Dest,] 

Introductory Essays. ix 

This MS. has not been derived from either He, or K20, but is probably 
descended from the same original as the very old Pazaud MS. His, 
hereafter described. That it has not come from Pis , is proved by its 
supplying the phrases omitted by He in Ard. Yir. ch. 4,35. 5,4-5. 32,2-6. 
and 34,5-6. And that it has not come from K20, is pretty clear from 
the variations noted in Ard. Vir. ch. 8,4. 10,2. 11,3. 12, 1. 14,3. 17, is. 
18,3,8. and 54, n. While some connection with His is proved by that 
MS. sharing in all these differences from the others. 

B. is a Pahlavt MS. of the Arda-Viraf namak, used by Destur 
Hoshangji ; the name of its writer is unknown, and it is not dated, but 
is supposed to be about a century old, having been corrected through- 
out, and interlined with Persian, in the handwriting of Destur Bahmanji 
Jamshedji Jamasp Asa. This MS. omits ch. 41 and 42. 

P. is another Pahlavi MS. of the same, belonging to Destur Pesho- 
ranji Behramji Sanjana of Bombay, and written by his ancestor Mobad 
Nawrozji Sanjana at Surat ; it has been corrected by Destur Peshotanji, 
and a copy of it seems to have been used by Destur Hoshangji. 

Hi7 is a modern MS. on European paper. No. 17 in Dr. Haug's 
collection; it is hastily written, but tolerably correct, and contains the 
Pahlavi texts of the Pand-namak-i Ataropad Maraspend, and the'Arda- 
Viraf namak, ch. l,i. — 44, 3. The latter seems to be copied from a 
revision of the text in He, as many small alterations are introduced, 
like those in ch. 7, 1. 8,1,2. and 17,9., which are often judicious, but 
must be received with caution, being merely modern guesses of some 
one well-versed in Pahlavi; as it closely resembles P., in ch. 12,ii-is. 
15,9. 16,9,10. etc., it may possibly be a copy of the revised text in 
that MS.; it also agrees with B. in omitting ch. 41, 

Lis is the London MS., India office library, Z. and P. XV.; con- 
taining 119 folios, octavo, written 10 to 12 lines to the page; its con- 
tents are as follows : 

1. Rules regarding the Dron ceremonial, in Pahlavi; being the 
conclusion of article 7 in He. 


X Introductory Essays. 

2, 3, 4. The same as ^, 9 and 13 in Hb , and evidently derived 
from that codex. 

5. Patit-i Ataropad Maraspend in Pazand, by another hand, and 
on different paper ; with a Persian colophon dated on the evening of 
the b^^ of the tenth month, but no year is mentioned, and the writer's 
name has been carefully blotted out. 

6. Shikand-gumani in Pahlavi, by the same writer as the first 
four subjects, but containing only the first three-eighths of the text. 

This MS. was one of the collection of Dr. Samuel Guise, and its 
age can be approximately ascertained from the fact that the MS. L26 
(which is in the same peculiar handwriting as the Pahlavi portion of 
Lis) contains a colophon on fol. 62, dated the IT*'" of the tenth month 
A. Y. HOG (corresponding to the ^^^ of August A, D. 1737); but the 
name of the writer is not mentioned. 

His is a very old Pazand-Sanskrit MS. of the Arda-Viraf namak, 
No. 18 in Dr. Ilaug's collection. It is a square duodecimo of 103 
folios, the first 98 containing the alternating Paz. -Sans, text, written 1 1 
to 17 lines to the page, and concluding with the following Sanskrit 
colophon : 

Sanvat 1466 varsJie Chaitras'udi 13 hhaume navma Arddd- 
Viraya-ndma pustakam ervada-Rdmena crvada-Kdmdina-sutena sim- 
dareaa samddhdnena likhitam: 'In the Samvat year 1466, on the IS''' 
of the light half of Chaitra, early on Tuesday (?) , the book of the 
Arda-Viraf namak was written, with suitable devotion , by the herbad 
Ram, the sou of herbad Kamdin'. 

This date corresponds to the 18'^ of March A. D. 1410 i; and the 
writer may possibly have been the Ram Kamdin who was the father 
uf Peshyotan, the writer of He, although his writing is dated 12 1/2 years 
later than that of his son. 

The Pazand text of this MS. corresponds pretty closely with the 

1 It must be obberved that the Samvat year, ia Gujarat and the Konkan, be- 
gins with Karttik s'ud, or seven months later than in northern India. 

Introductory Essays. xi 

Pahlavi of the old codexes, and especially with K26 as already noticed; 
but it differs from them, in supplying a passage, in Ard. Vir. ch. 87, 1-5., 
which seems necessary to complete the sense, and some others in the 
last two chapters, which are not so requisite ; its orthography, moreover, 
is bad, and its misreadings numerous. 

Among the Pazand MSS. used by Destur Hoshangji, is one without 
Sanskrit, which also corresponds very closely with the Pahlavi text, 
though very corrupt in orthography and minor details. It is neatly 
written and partially interlined with Pahlavi, and has tlie following date 
appended: Sanvat 183S, S'ake 1704 pravartrndfte, Phdlgunavadi cha- 
twdas't: 'The fourteenth of the dark half of Phalgun, Samvat 1838, 
in the course of S'aka 1704 ' (corresponding to about the IS**' of March 
A.D. 1782). 

A third Pazand version of the Arda-Viraf namak is accompanied 
by a translation both in Sanskrit and old Oujarati, the three versions of 
each sentence being written successively. Of this version, Destur Hosh- 
angji possesses two copies. The first is in a very old MS., containing 
the Khurshed, Mihir, Mah and Atash ^Nyayishes, the Auharmazd Yasht, 
the Dahraan, Ardafravash and Gahanbar Afringans, the Dhup Nirang, 
a Patit and Ashirvad, all with a Sanskrit version ; also the Arda-Viraf 
namak and Bahman Yasht, both with Sanskrit and Gujarati versions. 
The date A. Y. 784 (A.D. 1415) is appended to the Ashirvad, and the 
Arda - Yiraf namak has the following colophon : yddris'am pustake 
drishtan tddris'au likhitam mayd; yadi s'uddham as'uddhanvd 
mama dosho na dtyate; ervada-Rdnd (Rdmena?) ervada-Kdm- 
dinasuta likhitam: 'As seen in the book, so it was written by me; 
whether correct, or incorrect, no blame is attributable to me; written 
by herbad Ram (?) son of herbad Kamdin' (probably the same as he 
who wrote His five years before). 

' This can be correct only if Chaitra vad of the 8'aka year (which is the 
same as Phalgun vad of the Samvat year) be taken as belonging to the same year 
as Chaitra s'ud ; which is not the general rule. 

xii Introductory Essays. 

The other copy is described by Destur Hoshangji as being well 
written, and exactly similar to the first, but the copyist seems to have 
been unaccustomed to Sanskrit. It concludes with two colophons in 
Prakrit, one from the original MS. whence it was copied, and the other 
mentioning the actual writer of the copy; these may be translated as 
follows: 1. 'Written by the priest Bahiram, son of the priest Laksh- 
midhar; in the Samvat year 1507, on Monday, the 12*11 Ix^i^^y day of 
Margas'irsh, in the course of the Variyan yoga, in the As'vini nakshatra 
(corresponding to about the 16*^ of ISovember A. D. 1450); in the lands 
of Nagasaraka (the old name of Nausari)'. — 2. 'On Wednesday the 4*'' 
of the dark half of S'ravan in the Samvat year 1844 (corresponding to 
the 21«* of August A.D. 1788) the U^'^ day of the 11*'' [Parsi] month; 
on this day the book of Arda-Gvira-nama is made complete ; written by 
herbad Shapurji [son of] Fr^dunji [son of] the heaven-residing mobad 
Manekji Homji Kekabad Kavasji Ilirarana of Surat'. 

This third Pazand version commences with a Pazand translitera- 
tion of the following couplets from the Shahnamah : 

It is also remarkable for great alterations in the introduction, which 
make Arda Viraf a contemporary of king Gushtasp. The following is 
a translation of this introduction, prepared from a copy of the text 
supplied by Destur Hoshangji ; its late date is proved by the use of 
the word khashm^ Ar. fv-ais. , for 'husband'. 

Tn the name and honor of the good creator of all those who behave 
well (vasam vazdvand), and with the assistance and blessing of the good 
pure religion of the Mazdayasnians, the \Yords of this narrative of ArdS 
Viraf ' are recounted. 

At the time when king Uushiasp received the good religion of the 
Mazdayasnians from Auharmazd, the lord ; and the pious Zaratl\sht Spitama 

Written Ardd Vird, Sans. Arddd Gvird punisha, throughout. 

Introductory Essays. xiii 

vrn9 gone to glory; as rrushtasp, Dalag, Gospadasht, Frashoshtar, Maidy6- 
mah aud other Mazdayasnians were seated together, and happily influenced, 
they said thus: 'Let us select, from the Mazdayasnians, one who is very 
'free from sin; and let us give him a narcotic to eat, so that his soul may 
'go to the other world , that it may see the soul of the descendant of Spi- 
'tama, the pious Zaratusht; that it may see the thrones of Auharmazd and 
'the archangels ; that it may see heaven, and the Chinvat bridge, and Eashn 
'the just; and that it may see hell, and the souls of the wicked in hell. 
'And it will know whether these good works, which we Mazdayasnians per- 
'form, are effectual, or not; and it will bring us intelligence, if the endea- 
'vours we make be effectual, aud if those we dont make be ineffectual'. 
And they were unanimous about it, aud said thus: 'Arda Viraf is the most 
'innocent and best of us Mazdayasnians'. [Then as in the Pahl. text of ch. 
J. 36 — 41: nearly verbatim.] 

Then king Gushtasp and the other Mazdayasnians arose, and went into 
the abode of the sacred fires; and they cast lots among themselves, and the 
lot came to Arda Viraf. 

Afterwards, aeYen sisters, the seven wives of Arda Viraf (as all of 
them were his wives, and had learnt the religion by heart, and recited the 
prayers), Avhen they heard those tidings, they were as grievous to them as 
if they had come upon them most severely ; and they went before king 
Gushtasp aud the other Mazdayasnians, and bowed and stood upon their 
feet, and they spoke thus: [as in the Pahlavi version, II. 8 — 12; nearly 

Then king Gushtasp, when he heard those words, became angry and 
said to them thus: 'May the wind carry you away, and the wolf devour you 
'and tear off" your bones'. 

Then Arda Viraf, as he saw that Gushtasp was angry, appeased them ; 
and he went before Gushtasp, joined his hands on his breast, paid his re- 
spects, and said thus : 'If it be customary, let me eat food, and pray to the 
'departed souls, and make a will (andarz) : and afterwards, give me the 
'narcotic'. Then king Gushtasp said thus : 'Act accordingly'. 

Afterwards, Arda Viraf went to his own sacred fire, and performed 
the Yazishn ceremony, and prayed to the departed souls, and ate food. 

xiv Introductory Essays. 

And the sisters prepared a narcotic, and flavored it with a cup of wine, and 
dressed Arda Viraf with other clothes, and gave notice to king Kai Gush- 
tasp and the other Mazdayasnians. 

Then king Gushtasp and the other Mazdayasnian?* came, and they gave 
Arda Viraf the narcotic, and he slept upon the carpet. And they instructed 
the herbads, intrusted with the place, that they should protect the body of 
Arda Viraf, by watching, and should recite the Nasks. .And those seven 
sisters sat around the carpet of Arda Viraf, and repeated the Avesta during 
seven days and nights. [Then a$ in the Pahlavi version, III. 1 — 4.] 

And those sisters, as they saw that Arda Viraf looked up, became as 
joyful as if they were in heaven during life ; and the herbads offered salu- 
tation to Arda Viraf, and went before king Gushtasp, Dalag, Gospadasht, 
Frashoshtar, Maidyoniah and the other Mazdayasnians, and gave them no- 
tice; and they went towards Arda Viraf. And Arda Viraf, as he saw king 
Gushtasp, went to meet him, and spoke thus: 'A blessing from [as in the 
Pahlavt version, III. 8— 11; nearly verbal im,] 

Then king Gushtasp said thus : 'A perfect heart hast thou, Arda Viraf, 
'who art the messenger of us Mazdayasnians, and may the blessing be thine ; 
'tell us truly about that which thou hast seen'. And having taken his hand, 
all the Mazdayasnians sat down together, and spoke thus: 'Say what thou 
'hast seen in heaven and hell, and. at the Chinvat bridge; of these speak 
'truly, so that we also may know of those who have possession of Garodman'. 

Then Arda Viraf said thus: '1 am hungry and thirsty; first food is to 
'be given to the body, and afterwards questions are to be asked, and work 
'appointed'. Then king Gushtasp ordered that they should bring, for Arda 
VirM, nice food, woll-cooked and savory broth, and cold water, and pleasant 
wine. Then Arda Viraf consecrated the Dron and Baresman, and ate the 
food, and completed tho sacred repast with sweet basil (ocymuni) and wine, 
and said grace. [Then as in the Pahlavi version, III. 21, etc.] 

J3estur Hoshangji observes that the Pazand orthography of this 
introduction is 'horrible'; it is however scarcely so bad as that of some 
other modern MSS. The remainder of this Pazand text differs but 
little from the Pahlavi version, and that chiefly in certain omissions, 
and alterations in the order of the chapters. 

Introductory Essays. xt 

Besides the Pahlavi, Pazand, Sanskrit and old Gujarati versions 
of the Arda-Viraf namak, there exist versions in Persian prose and 
verse, and in modern Gujarati, which all differ materially from the 
original Pahlavi, especially in the introduction which is referred to the 
time of Ardashir Papakan. Of the Persian prose versions, one is con- 
tained in H28, Xo. 28 in Dr. Hang's collection, an incomplete octavo 
MS., apparently more than two centuries old, consisting of 91 folios, 
written 7 and 8 lines to the page, and mostly in a very large hand- 
writing ; from 3 to o other folios are missing (viz. either fol. 48 , 90 
and 94, or fol. 48, 49, 91, 95 and 9(i}, which must have contained the 
text corresponding to the Pahlavi ch. 14, 19-21. 50,4. — 51,5. and i01,2u 
to end. The introduction, which forms about one-eighth of the whole, 
combines the Pahlavi account of Arda Yiraf, as Destur Hoshangji re- 
marks, with the earlier tradition of Ardashir Papakan's proceedings for 
re-establishing the religion. The following is a complete translation of 
this introduction : 

I maintain praise for tlie One God wiio oreatod us just as he wilU-d 
and wills, and unto our prophet. 

They say that when Ardashir Babagan was king, as he settled him- 
self in the monarchy, he slew ninety kings (some say he slew ninety-six 
kings), and olfared the world of enemies, and restored it to tranquilhty. He 
summoned before him all the Dcsturs and Mobads who existed at that time, 
and said thus : 'The true and correct religion which Almighty God revealed 
'to Zaratusht {peace be unto him), and Zaratusht made current in the world, 
'no longer remains with me, so that I would make a collection of tenets and 
'assertions and sayings, from the world, and place confidence in only one'. 
And he sent people through all the provinces, and every place where learn- 
ing and priestcraft existed, and summoned all to bis court. A multitude of 
forty thousand men went up to court. 

Afterwards, he demanded and said: 'Which are those who are the 
'wisest of these?' Then they inquired, and selected four thousand of the 
wisest, cut of that assembly, and informed the king of kings. And he said, 
a second time: 'Be careful a seoond time, and separate from that assembly, 

xvi Introductory Essays. 

'such persons as are discerning and wise, and possess a better recollection 
•of the Avesta and Zand'. Four hundred men appeared who possessed a 
better recollection of their Avesta and Zand. Another time they were care- 
ful, and from the midst of these, they selected forty men, who possessed a 
recollection of the whole of their Avesta. Again, among these select, were 
a certain seven men, in whom no sin had appeared, from their earliest years 
till the age at which they had arrived ; and they were excessively careful, 
and pure -hearted in thoughts and words and deeds, and their hearts clave 
unto God. Afterwards, they conducted the whole seven to king Ardashir. 

Then the king directed tlms : 'It is necessary that I should dispel these 
'suspicions and doubts from the religion, and all men should be of the reli- 
'gion of Auharmazd and Zaratusht, and adopt the assertions and sayings of 
jthe religion; so that it may become clear to me and the learned and wise, 
'what the religion is, and that these suspicions and doubts may disappear 
'fi'om the religion'. Then they replied thus: 'No one is able to give this 
'information, except one who has committed no sin, from the early age of 
'eight years , unto the time which has arrived ; and this man is Viraf, than 
'whom there is no one purer, or more spiritually enlightened, or more true- 
'speaking ; and on this account, it is necessary to make choice of him. And 
'we six others will carry on, in some place, the Yazishn ceremonies and 
'Nirang prayers which are appointed, in the religion, for all such matters; 
'until God, the revered and glorious, shall reveal the facts to Viraf, and 
'Viraf shall give us information of them, so that everyone may become free 
♦from doubts about Ailharmazd and Zaratusht'. 

Viraf himself undertook this affair ; and king Ardashir welcomed those 
words. Then they said, this aifair would not be rightly accomplished, unless 
they went into the precincts of the sacred fire. Then they arose and per- 
formed their design and went away. 

Afterwards, those six men, who were desturs, pei'formed the Yazishn 
ceremonies on one side of the place of fire , and on the other sides , those 
forty, with the forty thousand imm of the desturs wlio had come into the 
precincts, all performed the Yazishn ceremonies. And Viraf washed his head 
and body, and put on clean clothes, and perfumed himself with sweet scent ; 
he stood before the fire, and repented of all sins. 

Introductory Essays. xvii 

Virfif liad seven s^isters, and as they received those tidings, all the 
seven came, weeping and lamenting, and said thus: 'We are seven veiled 
'heads at home, and have no brother but this one; and our trust is all in 
'him; now you wish to send him to the other world, and we know not 
'whether we shall see his face again, or not, for you will leaye us unpro- 
'teeted ; we are without father and mother, and you will also leave our 
'home without a brother. We shall not permit it, for we have only one 
'brother ; choose some one else, and let this brother remain with us\ 

Th(^ desturs, as they heard these words, said: 'Suffer and fancy no 
'anxiety, for we will deliver Viraf to you again, safe and sound , in the 
'course of seven days'. And they swore an oath; and the sisters were 
satisfied, and returned. 

Afterwards, Ardashir, the king of kings, with horsemen clothed in 
armor, kept watch around the place of fire, so that no heresy should do 
anytliing, with concealed enmitj, against Viraf; and that no danger should 
approach him, nor anything occasion evil in the midst of the Yazishn cere- 
mony, during which prayers were offered up. 

Afterwards, in the midst of the place of fire, they placed a throne, 
and threw clean clothes upon it ; and they seated Viraf upon that throne, 
and let down a face-veil upon him. And those forty thousand men stood 
peifoi'ming the Yazishn ceremony, and consecrated the Dron cakes, and 
placed a little fat upon one of those Drons, as they consecrated the whole. 
They gave one cup of wine to Viriif with well-thought thoughts, and they 
gave him one cup with well-spoken words, and they gave him one cup with 
well-done deeds '. Afterwards, Viraf, when he had drunk the three cups, 
dropped his head. on to the cushion at once, and slept. 

Then during seven nights and days they performed the Yazishn cere- 
mony on the spot. Those six desturs were seated by the cushion of Viraf ; 
and those thirty-three other men, who were selected, performed the Yazishn 
ceremony around the throne ; and those three hundred and sixty additional 
men who were selected, performed the Yazishn ceremony around these; and 
those thirty- six thousand performed the Yazishn ceremony around the cupola 

' This sentence is abbreviated, as well as the two which follow, owing to a 
tulio being- torn in the -M.S. 


xviii Tntrorlnctory Essays. 

of the place of tire '. And the king of kings , clothed in armor and seated 
on horseback, with his troops, encircled the outside of the cupola, and allow- 
ed no passage there for the air ; and in every place where they sat per- 
forming the Yazishn ceremony, a company of people were stationed with 
drawn swords and clothed in armor, so that the troops themselves were in 
every place, and no one else mingled with them; and at that place where 
the throne of Viraf was, infantry in armor were stationed around the throne, 
and allowed no passage, to the throne, to anyone else but those six desturs. 
Whilst the king of kings went in and came out of that place, and kept 
watch around the place of fire , and disturbed with this responsibility , he 
remained watching Viraf whilst seven nights and days elapsed. 

After the seven nights and days, Viraf moved again and revived and 
sat up. And the people and desturs, when they saw that Yiraf returned 
from sleep, w^ere glad and joyful, and received pleasure; and standing on 
their feet, they bowed and said: 'Thou art welcome, Arda Viraf ; look back 
'again at that which is the holy heaven ; how hast thou come ? and how 
'didst thou go? and what didst thou see? tell us too, that we also may 
'know the description of the other world'. 

Arda Viraf said: 'First bring something, that I may eat; for it is 
'seven nights and days, since this one has obtained anything, and I am 
'hungry. Afterwards, ask whatever you wish, so that I may inform you'. 

Immediately, the desturs consecrated a Dron cake: and Arda Viraf 
muttered grace, ate a little with water, and said grace. Then he said: 
'Now fetch a skilful Avriter , so that I may relate whatever I have seen ; 
'and you will send it, early, into the world, so that a knowledge of 
'spiritual matters and heaven and hell may extend to everyone, and they 
•may know the value of virtuous actions, and may abstain from bad ac- 

> It is evident that the text has omitted the 3600 who must have been sta- 
tioned between the 360 and the 36,000. It will be observed that Viraf and the 6 
others are the 7 last selected; tliese and the 33 of the first ch'cuit, are the 40 
proviouHJy Hclcctcd ; these and the 360 of the second circuit, are tlie 400 of the 
earlier solcii ion ; these and the 3600 of tlio tiiird circuit, which have been omitted, 
art- tliL' 4(MK) of the first selection ; anil tiicsc, with the 36,000 of the outer circuit, 
tuufctituto the whole 4(M)(l() priests. 

Introductory Essays. xix 

tions'. Then they brought a skilful writer, and ho sat down in tlie presence 
of Arda Vtraf. 

This introduction, which corresponds to the first three chapters of 
the Pahlavi text, closely resembles Pope's English translation i, p. 1 — 0, 
but gives more details. The same resemblance continues throughout 
the remainder of this Persian prose version , which corresponds , more 
or less, to the Pahlavi text of ch. 4—33, 44—48, 34, 35, 38—41, 49—52, 
101 ; it omits the additional details given in Pope's translation p. 14, 
15, 37 — 40, but contains the long homily in p. 41 — 48 of the same. 
Pope states, in liis preface, that his translation is made from three 
Persian versions, the first in prose, by ^'oshirvan Kirmani ; the second 
inverse, by Zaratusht Bahirara (which will be shortly mentioned); 
and the third in prose, by the same, (which may possible be that in 
Has). His translation contains all that is in H28 (except the equi- 
valent of ch. 14, i-G, 19-21.), in a rather condensed form, together with 
the additional matter in his p. 14, 15, 37—40 and 93 — 101. 

Destur Hoshangji mentions another Persian prose version, without 
an introduction, which is contained in the Rivayat of Earaa Khambayati, 
and in other respects, does not difl'er much from those in verse. 

Of the versions of the Arda-Yiraf namak in Persian verse, men- 
tioned by Destur Hoshangji, the principal one is that by destur Zara- 
tusht Bahiram, which was composed in A.Y. 900 (A. D. 1530 — 1531) 
from an anonymous prose version (possibly that in H28), which destur 
Zaratusht states he has closely ff)llowed. 

A second version in Persian verse was written, in A.Y. 902 (A.D. 
1532—1533), by the celebrated Parsi traveller Kaiis2, who had come 

' The Ardai Viraf Nameh, or the Revelations of Ardai Viraf, translated from 
the Persian and Guzeratee versions, by J. A. Pope. London 1816. 

' It appears from tlie story of Kaus and Afshad (translated from Persian into 
Gujarati, in the Hadesa Xamu, by Framji Aspendiarji, Bombay, A.D. 1831), that 
they were two Parsi merchants of Yazd in i'ersia, who made a trading voyage to 
India in A.Y. 900 (A.D. 1531), and were wrecked near Div, losing all their goods, 

XX Introductory Essays, 

from Persia, with his companion Afshad, to KauaAri, where he had 
thrown much light upon religious matters. His work is more condensed 
than that of destur Zaratusht, but appears to be derived from the same 
sources, as it agrees with it in referring the introduction to the time 
of Ardashir Papakan. 

A third version in Persian verse was composed by destur ISoshir- 
van Marzban Kirmani, and a copy of it is contained in fol. 46 — ,jO of 
the Rivayat No. 29a in the collection of the Bombay Govt., written 
in A.Y. 1048 (A. D. 1679) by herbad Darab Hormazyar, who extracted 
it from the Rivayat of Bahman Punjyah, who brought it from Iran. 
It consists of 398 couplets, of which 32 are introductory, 110 are descriptive 
of heaven, 286 of hell, and 20 contain the author's peroration; ii is 
preceded by a treatise, of which only the last 187 couplets remain, 
giving a tedious explanation of his reasons for undertaking the woik. 
The introduction merely mentions that Arda Yiraf was sent to the 
other world by Ardashir Papakan, and refers to Zaratusht Bahiram's 
work for further particulars ; the author further states that, on reading 
a prose version of Zaratusht Bahiram's verses, and comparing it with 
the xavdrish, in company with two desturs, he determined to write his 
poem. In this version, Viraf's first vision is that of the dog Zariu- 
gosh, as given in Pope's translation p. 14 — 15, but which does not 
occur in the Pahlavi and Pazand versions, nor in 1128; then follows a 
short general description of heaven, and an account of hell condensed 
into fourteen visions, all differing considerably from the original. In 
the same Rivayat No. 29 a, fol. 275 — 276, is a repetition of 30 of the 

except a few pearls. At Div they received an invitation from iViunekshali Changashali, 
an influential Pars! of Nausari , then 70 years old, who wanted information ahout 
religious customs. They travelled by the circuitous land route, through Khambayat, 
Bhroch, Oklasir and Surat, at all of which places they found the I'arsis very ig- 
norant of their religious customs. Arriving at Nausari, they were entertained by 
Manekshah who consulted them about several religions observances which had fallen 
into disuse, and especially about building a new dakhma for the dead. Finally, 
these two Iranian Parsis quarreled and separated. 

Introductovy Essays. xxi 

couplets referring; to Zarin-gosh, with an additiuii of 58 couplets about 
the duty of well-trcatiiio; dogs, otters and hedgcliogs. 

Besides the old (iujarati translation attached to the third Pazand 
version of the Arda-Viraf namak, Destur Hoshangji mentions another, 
which is separate and by an anonymous translator, based upon Zara- 
tusht Babiram's Persian text ; judging from its language, this translation 
mast be fully loO years old. A free modern Gujarati translation of 
the same Persian text, was published in Bombay, some twenty years 
ago, at the 'Jam-i Jamshed' press; and it has been re-published since. 

The only other MS. which remains to be mentioned is H?, a 
Parsi '-Persian MS. No. 7 in Dr. Hang's collection, which has been used 
in preparing the text of the tale of Gosht-i Fryano. It consists of 235 
folios, octavo, neatly written by Darashah Mihrbanji, IT) lines to the 
page, the Persian equivalent of the Pars! texts being often interlined; 
and its contents are as follows: 

1. Minokhird. '2. Risalah-i Minokhird-i digar, in Persian only. 
3. The seven things made by .lamshed in Pars, Persian only. 4. Bun- 
dehesh, parti., containing AnquetH's ch. 18 — 2o, 1—14,24 — 2? and .'U, 
with a colophon dated Wednesday the 7'''^ of the twelfth month A.Y. 1178 
qadtm (corresponding to the 0*'' of August A. D. 1809). 5. Questions 
and answers, with the names of the twelve beings to be honored, the 
names of the ten species of men , and of the ten demons who trouble 
them, in Persian. 6. Bundehesh, part II., containing Anquetil's ch. 
15 — 17. 7. Divers statements from the Avesta and Din. 8. Jamasp 
namah. 9. The story of Akhd-i Jadu and G-osht-i Paryan. 10. Risalah- 
gujastah Abahsh ba mobad. 11. Risalah-i herbadan herbad u dastur-i 
an ayam ba 'ulama-i Islam, in Persian. 12. Discussion between a 
Destur and Musulman, regarding God and Ahriman, in Persian. 13. The 
book of Dadar bin Dad-dukht, in Persian, with a colophon dated Fri- 
day afternoon the 2^ of the first month A.Y. 1179, or the 27*1* of the 

' By 'Parsi' is liere meant what Parsi writers call 'Pazand' written in the 
Persian character. 

3pEU Introductory Essays. 

seventh month A.H. 1224, (corresponding to the S^^ of September A.D. 
1809). 14. Conversation between Auharmazd and Zaratusht regarding 
religion, lo. A repetition of part of article 6. 10. Yasna 4'), 2, n, 5, e. 
Zand-Parsi. 17. Short fragments about religious customs, and Zara- 
tusht's genealogy, in Persian. 18. Vendidad 1,3-6. Zand-Gujarati. 10. 
Part of Yasht 17,2,16. Zand-Persian. 20. Yasna 30,3. Z.-Pahl.-Parsi; 
and a few miscellaneous sentences. 


The system of transliteration adopted for the Paliiavi texts. 

Although the correct reading of the words may be the most diffi- 
cult task of an editor of a Pahlavi text, the most perplexing question 
for his consideration is the settlement of a satisfactory system of trans- 
literation, and his most troublesome duty is to adhere strictly to the 
system he has adopted. How far these difficulties have been overcome, 
in the present instance, the reader will be able to judge, after he has 
carefully considered the rules which the editors have adopted and en- 
deavoured to carry out, together with their reasons for adopting such 

"With regard to the correct reading of texts, it is only necessary 
to mention that the difficulty of identifying Pahlavi words rapidly 
diminishes as the student extends his reading and enlarges his vocab- 
ulary. The number of words which really admit of more than one 
identification is small, and Pahlavi orthography is quite as fixed as 
that of modern Persian. So long as the reader confines his attention 
to old MSS., he seldom meets with serious grammatical, or ortho- 
graphical, difficulties; the old copyists often omit words and phrases, 
by mistake, but they are satisfied with copying the text as they find 
it, to the best of their ability, and very rarely insert emendations of 
their own ; so their language does not differ much from that of the 
original writer, and is generally grammatical and inteUigible. Modern 

Introductory Essays. xxiii 

copyists , including most of those of the last two centuiies and many 
of the present day, are generally more ambitious ; they are not satisfied 
with simply copying the old copies as they find them , which would 
limit their errors to a few omissions and miswritings, but they make 
numerous emendations, which are rarely improvements, but almost al- 
ways corruptions of the text. That this is no exaggeration, may be 
inferred from the fact that the editors of the Arda-Viruf ISamak have 
had to consider many such modern emendations of difficult passages, 
and in nine cases out of ten they have foun<l the old reading preferable 
to the emendation. 

Having identified the words, the question of transliteration next 
arises, and may be solved by reference to three authorities. First, the 
Sasanian inscriptions which, being records nearly contemporary with 
most of the Pahlavi works, are especially valuable for fixing the original 
pronunciation of such words as can be identified with certainty ; un- 
fortunately, the existing copies of the longer Sasanian inscriptions ^ are 
so imperfect, that comparatively few words have been satisfactorily 
identified, and the pronunciation of some of the Hasanian letters is 
ambiguous. The second authority is the traditional pronunciation pre- 
served by the Parsis in their Pazand versions of the Pahlavi texts. 

1 Any traveller in Persia who would obtain and publish correct copies of 
any of the following Sasanian inscriptions, would do much towards settling many 
disputed points in Pahlavi pronunciation and construction : 

a) An inscription of 31 lines in a side compartment of the central bas-relief of 
Naksh-i Rajab. 

b) Two inscriptions of 11 and 12 lines in the inner chanibor of the Hall of 
Columns at Persepolis. 

c) An imperfect inscription of 70 lines behind Shapiir's horse at Xaksh-i Kiistam. 

d) Fragments of a long- bi-lingiial inscription on the detached stones of Pat Kiill 
in latitude 35 deg. 7 min. and longitude 45 deg. 35 min. 

When these inscriptions have been fully decipliered. considerable modifications will 
have to be made in any system of transliteration of Pahlavi which can now be 

xxiv Introductory Essays. 

which, unless it can be traced back to Sasanian times, can be used as 
a guide only so long as it is not contradicted by better authority. The 
third authority is an etymological comparison of the words with their 
known equivalents in other languages, which must be conducted with 
great care not to transgress the bounds of probability, and unless con- 
fined to the three , or four , languages which are known to contribute 
most of the Pahlavi words , the results of such an enquiry must bo 
extremely doubtful , if they are not confirmed by one of the other 
authorities. In the transliterations of Pahlavi texts, contained in this 
volume, the following fundamental rule has been adopted, with refe- 
rence to these three authorities, and every endeavour has been made to 
carry it out, with a due regard to the precautions indicated above: 

1) The orthography of the Sasanian inscriptions, so far as it can 
be reconciled with the Pahlavi letters, is to be considered indisputable, 
whenever it can be ascertained with certainty; in other cases, the tra- 
ditional pronunciation is to be followed, so long as it is not inconsistent 
with the Pahlavi orthography, and is not clearly contradicted by ety- 

Before proceeding into further details, it is necessary to adopt 
some general rule with regard to the vowels, as they are indispensable 
for articulation. The Pahlavi writings, like the Sasanian inscriptions, 
cuneiform and moderii Persian, and nearly all Semitic languages, have 
only three characters to represent vt)wels ; but it would be hazardous 
to assume (as has been rashly done in the case of ancient Persian) 
that the language possessed only four simple vowel sounds , three ex- 
pressed and one understood ; such an assumption would be contrary to 
all analogies, whether Arian, or Semitic. Arabic has fewer simple vowel 
sounds than any other Semitic language, but it assumes that three vo- 
wels (a, /, u) are understood, in addition to the three («, t, it) which 
are expressed. Other Semitic languages add, to these six vowels, the 
sounds of e, c, o, 6; and the sounds of e, c and o are also added in 
modern Persian, as pronounced in India. Sanskrit has eight simple 
vowel sounds, a, u, /, /, w, w, enndu; to which Zand has added three 

Introductory Essays. ' SxV 

additional (c, e and d). Kow as ancient Persian is closely allied to 
Zand, and I'alilavi is a lineal descendant of ancient Persian, with a 
limited admixture of some Semitic language resembling Chaldce, it is 
reasonable to suppose that .Pahlavi must have inherited most of the 
vowel sounds of those languages, to which so many of its words can be 
traced ; more especially those vowels which are again found in its own 
descendant, modern Persian. In accordance with these views, the follow- 
ing general rule has been adopted, which secures the use of a cir- 
cumflex with ail vowels expressed in the original characters, except an 
initial short a : 

2) The Pahlavi letters .u, 3, ), when they are vowels, must be 
read either a or a, t or c, u or d, and the short vowels a, c, i, o, u 
may be inserted, wiierever etymology can show good reasons for the 
existence of such vowels i. 

As the authority of the Sasaniau inscriptions is accepted as para- 
mount, it is now necessary to consider how lar this authority is avail- 
able. The Sasanian characters are quite as ambiguous as the Pahlavi, 
in some cases ; thus, both characters use only three letters to express 
the vowels, ^ = jj, 7 = .i, 2 = ^, and both use the same cha- 
racter ^ = ij for h and fc/;, and Q. = ^ for f and p; in many 
cases also, the Sasanian confounds / r and ) /, and when it does not, 
the 2 r and 2 iv, v arc ileutical; 3 d and j[^ t are also used very 
indiscriminately, and the consonants y and 1 w ^ v^ being also used 
to express the vowels *, c and w, d, are indistinguishable from them. 
These ambiguities also occur in Pahlavi ; but in addition to these, there 
is a special practical difficulty of distinguishing between the Sasanian 

1 . In the Pabl.-Paz. Glossary, p. 24C, it was proposed to use e and o for any 
unexpressed vowel corresponding to i, 'i, or u, {l, in the cognate languages ; and to 
use i and n only when those vowels were expressed in Pahlavi, and merely under- 
stood in the cognate languages. This is the usual plan of the Pazand writers, but 
when rigidly followed, it leads to such unnatural results that it has been abandoned 
for the more natural and regular system adopted in the text, 


xxvi Introductory Essays. 

"22 sit nncl 22 v, u, r + f, il, 7-. It follows from these remarks that, 
in Sasanian -words, the consonants ") d^ O^ f ^ p ^ ^ h^ hh, ) 1, r, 
1i2. sh, jp t, ^ V) f'l ^ 11 ^^^^ ^^^ the vowels are more, or less, am- 
biguous; and only the consonants J 6, S^' c/«, >• ry, \'h^ Om, ^ w, 
^ s and / s can be transliterated with certainty. As compared with 
the Pahlayi ambiguities, however, the Sasaninn readings afford means 
of distinguishing between m = ^ a and m = ^ h^ kh; between 
i z= y g and d ^ 1 d and 3 = 9 y; between j = ( ?i and ) = 
2 y, M, r; between the Semitic suffix ^ — rt man^ and the ordin- 
ary syllable ^ — iO man; and between such compounds as ^ = 
f^ az, or t^^ «c/?, and Qy = Q-^ c/f, or orp; •^ = ^3 t7a, ^ = 

^•^ .'7'^ J -^0 = "^^ 2/«5 -O == "^ *^'' ^^*^' 

The words already identified in the Sasanian inscriptions, confirm 
the transliteration attached to each of the following Pahlavi words, 
subject to such ambiguities as are mentioned above; the vowels being 
supplied in accordance with rule 2: 

3a^ akhar. ^J!^ hattmim. 

^ hat. ^0» afash. 

•J^^tV khitayd. ^^ afam. 

1 Mr. Thomas, in his latest remarks on this letter (Journal R.A. S. n. s. vol. V. 
p. 410 — 413), still adheres to his opinion that it represents the sound i, because 
Ct resembles the i in the Phoenician and some otlier old alphabets, and also ^ 
in Zand and Pazand, and because in one word (out of tweh'e identified) tt^'^i cor- 
responds to ^~)n hari in Chaldfeo-Pahlavl. These arguments would have some weight 
if there were no facts to contradict them ; but it has been shown , with tolerable 
Certainty, (Journal R. A.S. n. s. vol. IV. p. 364—368) that the Sasanian nf corres- 
ponds to the Pahlavi j^ and it has also been shown, in Hang's Essay on Pah- 
lavi, p. 112-114, that the pronunciation man can be etymologically explained, and 
the word fx!^j[^ (llajiabad inscrip. lin. S. 9, C. 8) actually occurs in Chaldee, in 
the form j^pi which fully confirms the reading taniman of the Parsia. 

Introductory Essays. 

))r^3i) khazUCui. 

— ^jj acltn — . 

^ »*» amat. 

^)^^ hankhetdn. 

3p^V0iJ^^ ArfaJihshatar. 

)^y^ homcin. 

■^^yo homanam. 

y^j5y^ Amrdn. 

yoJiit Alrdn. 

-^ hahci. 

_u)i 6«ra. , 

^u hukJtt. 

v^^ji henafshma?i. 

^u harman. 

))^ IKivan. 

^^ tamman. 

yov^ rnhcui. 



^^3 ragdman. 

tS zak. 

— j3 ;;t — . zija — , 

Ki yadman. 

K3 fjadman. 

i^^jQ shapir, 

))>*0 ycJicvdn. 

yjOA^jA kardakun. 

.M^^ malku. 

^ ma num. 

^ min. 

^^ minam. 

*if tnadam. 

^^y^ magopat. 

) va. 

w.^) nafshman. 

^) valmati. 

)y^) L-adtin. 

f) y^A> ycktihun. 

) k))i> yckavlmun. 

1 It will be explained, hereafter, that r? is used to express a Pahlavi ^ when 
it has, probably, the sound of d; therefore, t and d express the same Pahlavi letter. 

xxviii IntBodnetory Essays. 

The correct transliteration of the following Pahlavi words can also 
be easily settled from that of the Sasanian equivalent, which is attached 
to each, although the latter differs slightly from the Pahlavi orthogra- 
phy, and is subject to the ambiguities mentioned above: 

^a(y Sas. Akharmani. ^))^-^^ Sas. sazUimt. 

























/% i^p 






















































In the following words, the orthographies are not quite correspon- 
dent: -i(^ii^ Sas. dtasht, ^^j^m Sas. aeharpat, j^^^iju.^ Sas. 
Mazdayasn, ))^^ (etymologically ydmturt) Sas. yahmtCm. And the 
plural suffjx yi = j^ an elides a final d in Sasanian , but not in 
Pahlavi; as in )*0>^3.^ mcdkddn^ Sas. )^|)0 riudkdn; )»(X)00 ^''^~ 
dddii, Sas. (.^3^^ shcddn. 

A cursory comparison would lead one to suppose that the com- 
mon Sasanian final 7 t was equivalent to the equally common Pahlavi 

Introductory Essays. xxix 

final ) u, 6; but closer investigation does not quite confirm this suppo- 
sition. Of the 22 Sasanian words ending in 9 <", which are detailed 
above, five never have a final ) in Pahlavi, fifteen have it only some- 
times; and only two have it constantly. On the other hand, the Pali- 
lavi final' ) is often found in words which never have a Sasanian final 
9 t; such as all plural nouns (of which nine have been recognized in 
Sasanian) and the following: )f(^M Sas. adhi, ^yohyo Sas. Anircin^ 
^^idij Sas. ^mm, )fiiy Sas. ruhm^ )yi)0 ^^s. yazdun^ )^^ Sas. /cr«, 
)Y^^ Sas. dahw; so the correspondence of these two finals cannot be 
considered as proved, although the frequent occurrence of final 9j^ tt 
and 1"^ kt in Sasanian inscriptions, and of )^ and )a in certain rare 
Pahlavi books, is an argument in its favor. 

Next to. the contemporary evidence of the Sasanian inscriptions, 
it is necessary to consider what amount of reliance can be placed upon 
the so-called traditional, readings of the Pazand, the second authority 
we have adopted. A very little examination discovers that every writer 
of Pazand has his own system of orthography with regard to some 
words, and no system at all with regard to others ; thus, in three MSS. 
of the Mainyo-i Khard, we find ameshdspenda spelt eight ways ; hizvd^ 
seven ways; Hurmezd, six ways; and qaddc, eleven ways. All idea 
of ascertaining' the traditional pronunciation of the vowels, must vanish 
when it is found that the writers not only differ from each other, but 
also from themselves, in most words; and where they are consistent, 
they may be reasonably suspected of exhibiting rather the orthographi- 
cal ideas of their own time, than any old traditional usage. Among 
the simpler words, Destur Hoshangji writes, at the present time, 6or- 
zasJm, chem^ do, dorast, dosh, doshman^ e, goptan., gomckhtan, etc.; 
while MSS., 350 years old, have hurzJiislin, chim, du, durust^ dusli, 
dushman, i, guftan, gumekhtan^ etc. 

Admitting that modern Pazand readings can have no traditional 
authority, when they differ from those of old Pazand, it remains to be 
seen what reliance can be placed upon the Pazand of 350 years ago. 
Comparing this old Pazand with Sasanian, we find such inconsistencies 

3CXX Introductory Essays. 

fts the following: );^jj Ptiz. uigin^ Sas, adin; O(j0* P^z. vash, Sas. 
afash ; .^iy> Paz. t-ocm , Sas. f/fam ; ^i3.u Paz. Era , Sas, Aircin (Z. 
Airijana). Comparing it with the Pahlavi orthograpliy, w^e find several 
inconsistencies, such as auu; Paz. hame ; c^) t** Paz. AmerddiJ ; CtJ)^^ 
Paz. Aicerddd ; yyi Paz. «to«; -u», jm , Paz. c; yJ^iJ Paz. Eraz 
(Z. Alnjii); -Mi J Paz. 7'a; ^ytD^OO ■'^^'^^- <^«^"*''f^- Comparing it with 
the Zand equivalents, we also find many inconsistencies, such as — 5^ 
Paz. ave~, Z. vt — ; J-w^OO^^-** ^^^- (^ratishtdr, Z. rathacshtdro; 
p)^ Paz. titkhm, Z. taohlima; )f(^ Paz. dm, Z. dacna. 

The only safe conclusion that can, therefore, be drawn from a 
careful examination of Pazand, is that, although it probably preserves 
many old traditional readings of the Pahlavi, it is impossible to dis- 
tinguish these, with any certainty, from the mere mannerism of the 
writer, or that of his time. However valuable, therefore, the Pazand 
may be as an interpreter of the ambiguous Pahlavi, in a general way, 
it cannot be accepted as an authority in the smaller details of trans- 
literation, unless confirmed by careful etymology, when the Sasanian 
reading is unknown, or ambiguous. 

These remarks apply, of course, specially to the orthography of 
Iranian words which, with a few exceptions, are all that the Pazand 
actually transliterates. For the sounds of the Huzvaresh words, wdiich 
the Pazand nearly always translates, the traditional guide is the Pah- 
lavi-Pazand Glossary, and Destur Peshotan, in the preface to his use- 
ful Pahlavi Grammar i, argues that this Glossary, being more than 
1200 years old, must have been compiled at a time when the pronun- 
ciation of the Huzvaresh words was well known; he cannot, theiefore, 
recommend any deviation from the pronunciation so recordel, and he 
attributes its variations from other Semitic languages to corruption 
when the foreign words were first adopted by the I'ersians (Gram. p. 40). 

> A Grammar of the Pahlvi Language, by Peshotun Duetoor Beliramjee 

Suujanu, Bombay, lb71. 

Introductory Ksaaya. xxxi 

-This argument depends upon three assumptions: first, that the correct 
pronunciation was known when the Glossary w\as compiled; second, 
that it was written down in Pazand at that time; and third, that it 
has never been altered by subsequent copyists. It is not easy to prove 
any of these assumptions, but it is perfectly easy to compare the pos- 
sibly contemporary pronunciation of the Glossary with the undoubtedly 
contemporary authority of the Sasanian inscriptions ; and the result of 
such a comparison is that out of the 51 Huzvaresh words identified in 
the Sasanian inscriptions, as given in the lists on p. xxvi-viii , the pronun- 
ciation of 25 differs from that given in the traditional Glossary; while, 
on the other hand, only thr^e, or four, of the Sasanian readings present 
any serious etymological difficulties. The inevitable conclusion from 
these facts, is that careful etymology is a safer guide to the correct 
pronunciation of Huzvaresh words, than the Pazand transliterations of 
the Glossary. 

Having thus examined the principles upon which a systematic 
transliteration of Pahlavi may be based, it remains to be explained 
how -these principles have been carried out, in the transliteration of the 
Pahlavi texts contained in this volume. And in doing this, it is neces- 
sary, in the first place, to define the limits of careful etymology, on 
which so many of the details are found to depend. 

As the Huzvaresh portion of the Pahlavi appears to be a remnant 
of some dialect of the Assyrian ^ , differing from that of the cuneiform 
insciptions, but closely allied to Chaldee and Syriac, those languages 
afford the safest basis for etymology, and the more distantly connected 
Semitic dialects, such as Hebrew, Arabic and Ethiopic should be used 
only in cases of difficulty, and with great caution. The Iranian portion 
of the Pahlavi, which is identical with the Pazand, being a descendant 
of ancient Persian , and one of the parents of modern Persian , can be 
best explained from those languages , but wit some special exceptions. 
Nearly all the extant Pahlavi writings are either translations from the 

' See Haug's Essay ou Pahlavi, p. 138—142. 

xxxii Introductory Essayg. 

Zand, or are closely connected with the Zoroastrian religion ; the trans- 
lator would, naturally, be much influenced by the orthography of his 
text in all words except those in constant colloquial use ; and the reli- 
gious writer would have to draw his inspiration from such translations; 
the influence of the Zand orthography upon the Iranian portion of the 
Pahlavi must, therefore, have been greater than would be supposed 
from the distant relationship between the two languages. The ancient 
Persian is of little use in distinguishing between the vowels c and I, 
and 2i ; and the pronunciation of these vowels, given in dictionaries 
of modern Persian, appears to be merely that current in India, where 
the vernaculars have a special tendency to corrupt % into e and a into 
oi; in Persia itself, the vowels c and o are said to have nearly dis- 
appeared under the predominating influence of Arabic; under these 
circumstances, the most obvious course is to refer to the Zand, whoso 
elaborate vowel system is likely to afford assistance in determining 
these vowels. In accordance with these remarks, the limits of careful 
etymology may be defined by the following rules : 

3) Semitic words should be traced, if possible, to ChaldeS and 
Syriac; and derivations from Hebrew, Arabic and Ethipoic should be 
treated with great cautions. 

4) Iranian words , relating specially to the Parsis, or their religion, 
should be traced direct to Zand, even when they also occur in Persian ; 
but when they are not specially Parsi words, they should be traced to 

1 Tliis tendency is particularly strong in Parsi Oujartiti, and leads to such 
pronunciations as Angrej, hehesht-, bojorg, del, dojaJch, ehesdn, ehhfkir, cnsdf, 
goldm, goso, lioham, Jcedmat, Meal, sdheb, Zaratosht, etc. 

2 It is necessary to guard against the idea that the Persians pronounced the 
Semitic words whilst reading, or used them in conversation; for they appear to 
have always translated them into Persian , and used the Persian equivalent ; as the 
English write viz. and lbs., and read namely and 2WUnds. This habit accounts for 
the total disappearance of these Semitic words, as soon as the PahUm character was 
disused; see Ilaug's Essay on Pahlavi, p. 127, 180. 

Introductoiy Essays. xxxiii 

Persian, merely referring to the Zand equivalent to ascertain if e, «', o, 
or u should be used instead of a, /, ?, u, or a. 

In applying these rules, many doubtful oases occur, which can 
only be settled, somewhat arbitrarily, on their several merits: thus the 
Zand prepositional prefix hem- generally becomes an- in modern Per- 
sian (Iiangdm being one of the exceptions), so tliat ^(^yo and .^^ 
would be read Itanjamaii and handdm if traced to Zand, or anjiiman 
and anddm if traced to Persian; with a due regard, however, for rule 
4, the Zand reading has been adopted for Jtcmjaman, and the Persian 
reading for anhur, andcshid ^ anddzul , arifjdrd ^' anddm ^ andarz, 
andokht, etc. 

The transliteration of iJ, ^ and 5 is beset with many complica- 
tions, as they stand for botli vowels and consonants, and for more than 
one of each. 

The lettPi' a represents the consonants h and kh in many words, 
of which the following are a few instances ; it stands for It in ^^ hctt 
JiJ^ hazdr, ^^^^ hasht, y^ Jiam^ ^^yo hangdnij ^-^yo Jniinat ; }jify(o 
chaJidr, -uiij3 zulaihd , Y^-^ daJiisIm, yow^ jnalundn, ^X5>w) ra!i- 
isht; -uo^ zrdi , -MfQ) stih, -u)4JQ slmkdh , jl^^ mdh, ^) vch ; 
and it stands for kh in 3aQ» khdr , Ao/y kJidk, yfji khan, Jftl)^^-" 
khrafstar, fQ)i>yA} khvdst, ^yo khiid , )yi khun; hj^^ akhar, J^iy^ 
apdkhtar, ^i hakht, ~u^ lakjimd, 9tV-^ sakid; J>.(y akh,^^ ?mkh; 
when the //, or ^7;, is final, the _u is often enlarged into o. There 
is a tendency in Pahlavi to preserve the consonant i* before -^ sJi, in 
cases where it has nearly, or entirely, disappeared in Persian, as in 
^i^^ii)^3 Zavatuhasht and J^f^-M^O^gJ pddakhsfiah; for this reason, 
it is doubtful whether -i^ii^ (Z. dtursh) should be read dtakhsh^ 
or dtdsJi ^ but the latter reading has been adopted, as the more pro- 
bable; the words 922J;^:sJ, '?'22J;^:sJ and J.\J22J;^^J occur in the 
Naksh-i Riistam inscription, lin. i 7, '!i, .jO, but owing to the practical 
difficulty of distinguishing between 22. sh and 22 ru, wr, it is doubt- 


xxxiv Introductory 

fill whether these words are to be read utasht and dtashdn, or dtaroi 
and dtarodfi, or Atari and Aturd?i. 

The mitial vowel a is generally a short a, like I and j<, there 
being no other way of expressing the short initial a; in some cases 
however, the initial vowel is lengthened in the cognate languages, and 
then the initial a should be read a, as in -i(5-"9tV dtdsh, ))^(y dtaro, 
^ dv and dz, ^f^O* dvdddn, ^o* dzard, ■^^ dzarm, ^^>05>* 
dvtkht, 3)^ dzur, or dzvar ^ ^)0* dvord^ IJftD)?)* dpustano^ )Y)^ 
dfrino^ ^^V"" dJudak, -^i* ds, yosm dsdn. ^y^a dsruk, ^^^ 
dsydv, y&^^M dsmdn^ jf^M dsn^ -^^OO-** dsJitth, ^)^w dshup, 
^i)Aji dkds; fQ))3<u dkusty ^^V^ dmukht, yndj^ dmurzishn^ )|»^ 
d)igim, etc. With a few doubtful exceptions, m is the only initial vowel 
in Pahlavi, like f in Persian and Arabic, and {< in Hebrew and Chal- 
dee ; but it forms initial diphthongs with the other two vowels, ) and 
>i, as in -u^yoyo Auharmazd, -J^l^ aubash, ^^^y) aupdrd, 
5)y^^y) aifftincmd, fQ)^^ aupast, jjj^Q)^^^ auzdistdr, ^yy* 
aurvar^ Ji^yo auzir (Z. uzayara), ^O'pQ))** austdd , ^^fQ)^ 
dusturdak^ ^J^fOy> aCisofrUl, yji^yt aushbdm; ^x* ait, y^ha 
xitrdn, ^i^ij Atrich, or Atrw, ^ mgh, g))(^ «2/wf, ^j{J amman, 
etc. It may be observed that in none of these words, can the initial 
diphthong be traced to an original 6, or c, although the Pazand writers 
often use o, or c, to represent such diphthongs, which practice ' is 
justifiable in only a few cases, such as the following: (oyt aoj, -&u ac, 
tlCO"** "^^'*"5 -^tO-" a<schand, ^^i^Ji acrpat, .^■^•w acshm^ or khcshm. 
Excepting the idhafat J i, the only available instances of words com- 

1 This practice has, no doubt, a close connection with the aversion of Parsi 
Gujarati to the diphthongs ai and au^ which it always changes, if possible, into e 
and 0, as in eh, Ar. ^ywJLt ; esh, Ar. jji^xr. ; ojaVi Ar. >K*f ; o?«d, Ar. O^^f; 
oJihacl, oshad, Sans» ausliadha; etc. 


mencing with any other vowel but ^, arc the rare and uncertain forms 
j^)*Oij^(o^ uzilalusknih ^ y in ^1, ^VtVJtl)"* tstddak soLxa^^jI, and 
JfO^-^jrO)-^ Isadvdstar; when )*(50 yct'^^shn is intended to commence 
with a vowel, it is written JH^^** atzislm, as often occurs in the 

The medial, or final, vowel m is always a long «, but it is some- 
times used where only the short a occurs in the cognate languages, 
as in 'J(^*i^(}i dtdsh ,jii.jf; ^)y^V^ amdvand^ Z. amavahtem^ which is 
sometimes further lengthened into ^jy'm*' 5 ^O^J ^«^/*^ <^^>^^'-, ^**0*J 
hdhar ^^j ; ^-tiyi BdJtrdm f Iv^ ; O^-H^'d F'^'*''!/ r-f^^H'-' -^W^^ 
pdh7idi ^1-*^^.; ^ityo^ pdndk sUj; ^O*^ <«fc/'i c^^xj; )^^>'0>^ 
Tdkhmorapo, Z. Takhmo-urupa ; ^^jj^o chdshtd tXxxi.s. ; 3a(^3 
sa/jar ^\; J^O*-^ zdkham ^y^ ^^w^ii sdhmgim ^-JT^-g.^ ; J;*o 
ddnar^ Z. danare; ^-OOO Gdyomard^ Z. 6V<f?/o + mareta; and 
yw^3^3i»^ mdzdayasndn^ Z. mazdaijasna] etc. 

The letter f often represents the consonants ?i and i; ' , and some- 
times r and /; when initial, it seems to be always a consonant, like 
. and 1, except in the doubtful instance mentioned above, and is limited 
to the sounds n and f, being often the conjunction va^ which is nearly 
always joined to the following word in JMSS., though sometimes to the 
preceding one, if it end in ^ or ^ . The letter ) stands for n in t^) 
ndmak, ,^y) nafshman, ^iij nask; ^^yo andk^ qo rcmj , '^f(^ 
sang; yo^M dsdn, y{^y roshcni, wa km, etc.; and it stands for v in 
) va, ^^ vdd, -u^) vartd, ^-li-w^OO) Vishtdsp ; ^^y^ harvisp 
^yi khcivid , Jtl)W-^ zivast, etc.; as a final v it is rare, though it 
can be found in the rather doubtful forms y) ntv ^aj , and u jav yz^. , 
When ) represents the Chaldee y, it seems best to follow the Semitic 

More probably the English iv. 

xxxTi Introductory 

practice and consider it a consonant, as in ))^ paean, yy levin., ))a 
kcvan, ^9^ iiuindavaiu , jwy) cdddn^ i) val , ))OJ) vartkCin^ ^) 
vad , etc.; and tlie same rule may be reasonably adopted when ) = 
Chald. K, as in )^) vakhdun, ^) valman^ w^) vazliin^ etc. 

The occasional use of ) for /• and /, in addition to its common 
sounds of M, t', r«, 0, is best explained by the history of the Sasanian 
characters representing those letters '. On the earliest Sasanian coins, 
the character for n is like <, wdiile a letter like 2 is used for ?', /, f 
and [1; somewhat later coins and the earliest rock inscriptions have 1 
for /«, 2 for r, v and il, and / for /and r ; and later inscriptions make 
still more use of / for r. In the course of time, i n and 2 r, l,v,v, 
both changed into ) ^Yllich thus inherited the sounds r, /, n, v and «; 
and / /, r changed into i> and 3, both of which retained tlie sounds 
of / and r; thns we lind both 9|^2'^ and "^(^/"^ kart^, in the inscrip- 
lions, for )^)^ and )^A karto. In Pahlavi writings, the following 
words have been noticed, in which ) stands for r: ))^^ dtaro, ^^^ 
avdrik, yi^y)^ dfrhiagdn^ ^f]^ afrino, ""4^ '^Z'^^'*'''^' V^'JI' ^'"^" 
rudud^ -u^y^yi Auharmuzd , ^^OO""^)*' Artakhshatar, j3jqjj^^ 
Artakkslnr.1 ^j^)yo khdrsand, ffi^)yo Hoi^vadad, -Jiu bard, ^^nbcrat- 
man, ^u barman, ^)^ frdz , ^p)^ farzand, •^^]^ 'parashajja^ 
^^Md pdrsUl, ^|»)^ furdund, -w))^ tord^ ^^y)^^ Spcndarmad, 
^-^TO ^'^^z ?'</"'■ 1 ))^00 ■'^l>"t>'o> JI'I^OO ■^li(^(tveru, ^^)^ kirfak, ^)^ 
kard, ))^)') ka fit fin, _uu^ kird, ^)^^y^ Mdrspend^ l)^-^ Mitro, 
-u)^ mar and, -»*^)^ marantd, -u)o (jabrd , )ugji dapiro^ ^u)y 
(ianrdk, ^^)y drust, ±)y (jiird, etc. And ) stands for /in S)^ pdag, 
■^)*0 sI'Jufii'i )^_ fJ^K^ff (C'hahhco-Pahl. kai, a harsher pronunciation of 
L) t«/}, -u)^ kola, -\^^ mdayd, -u u (jamld, ))) w ycmalelun (also 
written )pV)j ^f J^^^'h ^^^• 

See Thomas's Notes on Pehlvi coins, etc. Journal R.A. S. vol, XIIl, p. 377—379, 

Introductory Essays. xxxvii 

When medial ) is a vowel, it may be read either «, or o, accord- 
ing to the etymology of the word ; thus we read it u in all cases where 
it cannot be traced to any other vowel but u, or u, in the cognate 
languages, as well as in those cases where the etymology is quite 
uncertain; a few instances, in which it corresponds to ii^ arc ))J^ 
khefvCui and other Huz. verbs, ^)^<u aslmud, 9^)^ Inikht, )Y» khiui, 
)y^i birun^ zf^lfiJ puf^fnan, etc. It corresponds to a short u in other 
languages, in such words as —yo hu-, )*0^ P dmdrzishn^ ^t^fY* 
anijust, J^^){ hurddr, Su hurz^ 5pu hulaml , 3)^ pilr, ^^))^ 
piirsuf ^ )H^))^ kiinishn, Ttl)^) nakhust^ -^yj^ daregush , ^^y r/uft, 

^iju ijCirhak, ^y f)urd^ ■^^f {J'^'-^'U ^ W ^^'"'■^^^■5 ^^^j* gi'imun, 

^i^y diimhak, tt2))V f^^"*^ ^^^-'i ^^^^ "^ ^^^^ superlative suffix ^)^ 
- turn , and the ordinal suffix ^) - iim. The medial vowel ) is trans- 
literated 0, first, when it corresponds to «o, or 0, in Zand, or Chaldee, 

as in f^yyi hu-rost^ ')^\Y^ anoshak, in hot, ^y^yj^ pardhom, 
yj)^ ponjo, ^)^ toklnn, -m))^ lord, |t2)p ''^^^1 )*0r ''^^'^/^^'^ -'Or^ 
Srosh, ^yi^ slwlmau, ^)^ kof, -wj^)^ kokbd, J^ mor., )^:> dron, 
ij^iiu (jospend, •J{^y gosh, jjj^o^u yoshddsar, ^y ijum, etc.; se- 
condly, when it appears to correspond to any other vowel, or diphthong, 
in the snme languages, besides those already mentioned 1, as in ^jf^^ 
afsos, ^)0» dvurd, u^)^j^ji ashkombd, ^) }*' Ajiierodad , ^fy» 
andokht, -^jiyi baresuui, a5)u bondak 'a slave', ^if^-w)^^ pddokh- 
shali, ^p^ frOd, yiQ))^) post, ^OOldJ PO.s/(«, ^^)^ tohtk, ^)yi^)^ 
tuhdnom, ^^)^ tofuik, ^)^diJ rasldom, J^^ zofar, 33)yiQ)^ maslorg, 
^3^ mozd, i^ mog, yi^^y] vannshn, ^) ^) vlmond, JAiy g6hai\ 
fQ)U dost (anc. Pers. daustur), ^)y gondak, etc. 

> This is the general rule of the Pazand writers, so far as can be judged 
from their very irregular readings; its adoption, therefore, prevents any very wide 
departure from the Pdzand, with regard to this vowel ; and the same remarks apply 
to the similar rule regarding the vowel ^ c. 

xxxviii Introductory Essays. 

The transliteration of final ) is complicated with a question of or- 
thography which leads to much uncertainty and requires careful consi- . 
deration. There is no difficulty when the final ) is clearly w, or v, as 
in the examples already given (p. xxxv), to which may be added such 
words ending in ) as )^Ji harijan, )^ lajcm, yy levin ^ ^ min and 
m«w, and many words ending in yo - diij y{^ - isJm and y - in , - cw ; 
also such words ending in )) as )J^0» op']ju?ij ))i bun^ ))^ pavan^ 
))(o chiin^ )I00 shtvan, ))j kevan and kCin, )^ mun, )y^ dron^ all 
crude Huz. verbs in )) - i7n, and many words ending in )y -run^ \\ 
-un, and )%t -gun. In a few words, the final ) appears to be ii, as in 
y^ ahu^ UJJ aha, ))^ ta?m, )y^} RashuUj y ru, ^ viu, )*00)J 
dusJiaha; but of these we also find the forms ^y»Q*, liJ, ^), ijj, 3^ 
and ^yfj^y. And in some cases, a final ) can be readily identified 
with a Zand 4 o, or ^ tto, as in ))^(y Ataro (Z. gen. uthro, pi. nom. 
ace. dtaru), )f^ dtno (Z. pi. nom. ace. dacndo)^ D^OO shatro and 
))^^ Mitru (Z. nom. Mithro)] but this explanation is not applicable 
to the infinitive suffix ))^ , which seems to be the only remaining case 
where the final \) is constant. 

The chief difficulty, however, in transliterating a final ), arises in 
those cases where it seems to be an optional final , either added , or 
omitted, by the writer, without any apparent reason, but according to 
some vague rule which practically divides the MSS. into three classes. 
First, the modern MSS., in which the writer is not satisfied with copy- 
ing his text, but revises it with doubtful success ; such writers generally 
add an extra ) to every final ) w, except that of the Semitic suffix ^ man 
and often to the syllables yt dn, y{^ shn and y in^ when they arc 
medial; but they rarely add the optional final ^ to ^, or any other 
letter. Second, the very "old MSS., which arc much more sparing in 
the use of ^ after ), and after ^ they generally separate it, and read 
it as the conjunction ^ va beginning the next sentence; from a careful 
examination of 3 chapters of the Bundehesh and IG of the Arda-Viraf 

Introductory Essays. xxxix 

numak in the MSS. He and K20 (which are nearly 500 years old), it 
appears that the old writers used the optional final ) only once in an 
average of nine occurrences of the plural suffix y^ d?i, the pronom- 
inal suffixes yo^ -tan, )*00 -shun, yAy^ -man, and most words end- 
ing in Y>i -an; while they used it after the abstract suffix y^ -ishn 
and the word ^ly riibdn, nearly as often as they omitted it. Third, 
the MSS. which seem to luive been rarely copied, such as the Din-kard 
and Jsirangistan, but of which only modern copies have been examined; 
these add the extra ) to a final ) n oftener than tliey omit it, but they 
also add it to most words ending i'^ ^ ^, A /i", ^ p, /", and (o ch ^ j. 
AVhen a suffix is added to the word, it generally elides the optional 
final ) 5 but there are many exceptions to this general rule, in all class- 
es of MSS. Turning to the Pahlavi legends on coins', we find the 
optional final ) sparingly used on the coins of the Arab governors of 
Persia, and the rulers of Tabaristan, shortly after the downfall of 
the Sasanian dynasty in A. D. (loi ; it is added occasionally to ^ in 
several numerals ending in ^-i^JO sJiast, ^)) navad and ^ii sad, in 
the names ^j}j>^ cXJli* , ^J-i^J^ Khurshcd , ^JJ^-^i ^py.^, etc- 
and in ^p^y afzud ; it is added to ^ in ^)a^^ V'^^ , ^0 (O in 
^^jy^ ^j^ju'ftXjf, and to final yt in yoyoy^ Marvthidn, yo-^A Kir- 
mdn and other more doubtful readings ; but the merely optional cha- 
racter of this final ) is as evident on the coins as in the books, by the 
numerous instances in -which it is omitted ; it is also worthy of note 
that it is added to the same letters, ^, ^, (^ and ), in both cases, 
while the remaining letter a, wdiich takes the extra ) in some books, 
does not occur as a final on these coins, so far as has been observed; 
and the only certain instance of a plural in u) -dn (which occurs in 

' See Mordtmann's essays in the Zeitsclirift der D. M. G., and Thomas's in 
the Journal of the R. A. S. 

XL Introductory Essays. 

the khalifs title y^^^jy^^^y) "^^■^if fimtr-i varoWimkdn, 'commander of 
the beheving') does not take the optional final, although it occurs 
several times. 

If this final j were a consonant, or indicated a change of sound 
in the preceding consonant, it would be so essential a part of the word, 
that its frequent omission would be difficult to explain ; and if it merely 
indicated the end of a word, or the suppression of a final short vowel, 
it ought to be much more frequently used. But its optional character 
indicates that it is no essential part of the word. Destur Hoshangji 
considers it as a representative of any final vowxl, in the same way as 
f and X are representatives of a short initial vowel, and he extends 
this hypothesis to many cases where medial j takes the place of a and 
i in the cognate languages; this was evidently the "opinion of most of 
the writers of modern MSS., in many cases; and also of the older 
writers, with regard to )^. That certain Pahlavi words retained an 
original final vowel , in a modified form , is evident from the frequent 
occurrence of the final 9 / in the Sasanian inscriptions, which seems 
to be used in a similar manner to the final ) in Pahlavi , although it 
cannot be shown to be quite equivalent to it (see p. xxix). And there 
is nothing impossible in the hypothesis that the Pahlavi, whilst generally 
dropping the complex terminations of the languages whence it derived 
its words, may occasionally have retained such a tetmination; in fact, 
we know this was done in such cases as the termination )) -Cm of the 
crude Iluzvaresh verbs, the word -^JJ^^ atusJi {'/j. nom. dtarsJi), etc.; 
and we have only to extend this hypothesis, by supposing that some 
writers rejected all vowel terminations, while others occasionally retained 
a vowel to represent them, and we obtain an explanation of the op- 
tional use of a final vowel. 

That the Zand terminations 4 ^ and ^ do often become ) in 
Pahlavi, instead of being dropped, is proved by the compound words 
.^^^iS^u; amcshospend ., Z. pi. nom. ace. amcshdo spcnta :, ^^^^H^)^ 
pfirijo-ilkcsli^ Z. paoii\ij6-dka(1slta ] ))^KH3^^ pcslnjotanu^ 7j. peshutanu] 
)6^ tjiy^ Tdkhmorapo, Z. Takhmo - uriipa ; J*'V(2>*0r'^ srosho-cha- 

Introductory Essays. • XLi 

ratidm, Z. sraosho-charana; ^-OOO GuTjomarcl^ Z. gayo -f mareta; 
"K^y^TO)**) vdstrijosh , Z, vdstry6-fshuyas;*:ijOyh) Ncry6sang,Z. Nair- 
yo-safiha; y^^y^ garddmdn, Z. garo-demdna ; etc. We are, there- 
fore, prepared to find that the optional final ) ^ as well as the constant 
final (in the words quoted in p. xxxviii) , sometimes represents the same 
Zand terminations, and may therefore be read o, as in j^)^ dfrtno ; )^^)ii 
arashko, Z. arasko] )^iy riibdno, Z. pi. nom. ace. iirvdno; ))HdY 
roshanO^ Z. raochanho; )\iJ^ zartno , Z. zairino?] [\y^ sriibo, 
'horn', Z. pi. ace. srvdo ; . )^^y{^ ycdato^ Z. yazato] j^OO-"^ vahishtO; 
)^ey^^^yoi) 7iahdnazdisht6; ))yi dram; ^ytl)^ dasto ; ))«(j^ daslnno; 
)i^\> dumbo; all past participles ending in )^ - to^ as )^)a karto, 
Z. kereto ; etc. With a due consideration for these facts , and for the 
obscurity in which the identification of this letter still lies, the following 
general rule has been adopted for its transliteration ; while care has 
been taken not to admit this optional final ) into the texts , except 
where it occurs in the old MSS. 

5) ^yhenever it is possible that the optional final ) may be the 
equivalent of the termination d, or do, in some form of the word in 
Zand, it should be transliterated by o; in all other cases it is supposed 
to represent some obscure vowel sound which can be represented by u. 

The same obscure vowel o can also be used for the final of the 
infinitive suffix ))^ -tano, and of a few other words, where the final ) 
is constant, but cannot be traced to an original 6, do, u, or it. 

The letter 3 often represents the consonants ?/, d and g, and some- 
times j; when initial it seems to be always a consonant, like ^^ and 
\ except in the doubtful instances mentioned in p. xxxv. It stands for 
y in yi^^ yazislin, ^y yam: yf^y ruyin, f^-^ ziydn, Ji)^ muyak, 
etc.; it stands for d in ^f^i dasto, ^y denman; ^^iiy» andcshkl, 
a(j(X) shcdd; t^yo homand, 5->^ pazd, etc.; it stands for ,9 in -Aiy) 
•gahrd, -^3 garm; )yyi dngun , J^^Jtl) sadtgar; 'S)^ pelag, ^3^^ ta- 


XLii ♦ Introductory Essays, 

fcar<7, etc.; and it stands for ^* in Wj jih, \h^ Jam , ^iiayu Jcwidsp, 
5-^ jawi«A;, yij jdn, ^)^ jdnuk, ^y jahj, ^y javid and a few 

When medial A is -a vowel, the rules adopted for reading it t, or 
e, are similar to those for reading li,, or d, for ^ . A few instances , in 
which it corresponds to ^, in the cognate languages, are )W)5)> dfrlno 
Y>iJ^^ avirdn, t^"** ^^^^j i't ^'^'^j -"H^ ti?id, ^) niz, etc. It cor- 
responds to a short i in other languages , in such words as 3^it 
Mkhar, J-^i^)** hu-chthar, ^^OO-^^ Tishtar , ^^^^ tishgd, )H^^^ 
ttshn, )Ji^S chtgiiii, k)(o cJiim, ^)W(« ChinCivat, V^jC^S)^ rapituvin, 
^^^^3 ztsht, Jii dil, MJ^M) nuirik, y(Ji^) nihdii, ^^) nihtp, etc. 
The medial vowel 3 is transliterated c, when it corresponds to ae^ f, 
or c, in Zand, or Chaldee, as in c^y-»0» dkhezid^ ^-WCOO-^^"** ^^^' 
tcshtdr, C^^))^ khurshcd, ^^iiy^ andcslud^ ^5a)c^^ khve- 
tukdas, -H^^y) khvcsh, ^^-b-u aerpat^ -^^^ khcshm, -"^l befd, 
J^M hesli^ Jjji hevar, ))^j^ Fredim , ^^^^ pcstd^ ^3 zcn^ -^ 
gcs, -O^^ fc(Vt, ^^.^ mczid, ^^^ m^sh, .M^^) neshman, ^aj) ?^c- 
wia/c, Y{)0^ fjchdn, etc.; an exception has been made in the case of 
the word )f(^ dino, as the Pazand writers adhere strictly to that 
Arabic pronunciation, although the original Zand word dacna, pi. nom. 
ace. daaido, indicates that deno ought to be the old Persian pronun- 
ciation. The medial vowel 5 is also transliterated c, when it appears 
to correspond to any other vowel, or diphthong, in the same languages, 
besides those already mentioned, as in )*>JtJ)-^^ pcstdn, -^^^^ pesh, 
•^^ ^^^''i I^OO ?/(?«^<5j ))')^00 Shatvcruy ^^ kef, ^)Hi^^ kcshvar, 
-X5) ^^^'' ^rtJH-^) Ncryosajig, ^i) vesh, etc.; exceptions have been 
made in the words ^%i^ mtnid , y^^y^ rmnishn, ^)y^ mmavad and 
others from the same root, in which — y^ ought to be read men - , ac- 
cording to the general rule, as it represents the Zand main-. It would, 

. Introductory Essays. XLiii 

no doubt, be more satisfactory, in all cases, to depart from the general 
rule of the Pazand writers, which substitutes e for af, as they have 
themselves done in minul and mainijo; and the various Pahlavi equi- 
valents of the Zand prefix paiti, indicate that there is no very good 
reason for condensing the diphthong into a single vowel ; thus, Z. paiti 
becomes ^^ in -^^^ padash^ J^j^^ patkdr ^ ^d)^^4J P<^tkuft, 
^p^^^ patlmdnak^ ^^^^ padmiikht, fQ))^d pc^^^vast, 5))^^ pad- 
vand, etc., and -i^^ in ^Jo^^^ pathjdrak^ ^^i^^^ padiraft, ^id^^ 
padirak, etc. ; it becomes ^^^ in -*00""^^ pddakhshah^ -O-u)^^^ 
pddafrdSj JH^^^^ pdd adahishn ^ etc., nnd ^^^ in ^^^ pud- 
ijdv, etc.; it becomes ^^ in ^-u^^ i-*^^/^^'"? P^d pctkham, etc., and 
■^^d) ^° ^^OO-^^fi) pctishtdn, etc. ; besides the further modified forms 
of ^ pa- and oq*^ pdh - , in a few words. Now it is evident that, 
if we admit the principle of the short vowel i being understood as 
well as «, all these forms closely approximate in sound, thus we can 
read ^^ paiti-, ^^^ paitt-, ^^ pditi-, ^^^ pditi-, ^^ paiti - 
and ^c^^ paiti - ; it has been thought, however, too wide a departure 
from 'tradition', to adopt such readings in the transliteration of the texts. 

There are several words which occur in two forms, one in which 
the vowel ), or .i , is expressed, and the other in which it is omitted ; 
this variation in orthography indicates clearly that the short vowel u, 
0, ^, or c, must be understood in the latter forms, thus, we find both 
^ a»^ andmurz and ^J**^ andmurz, ^-^yo humat and ^j** humat, 
CO'O'")^ t^''l^hshid and C^-^-m^ tukhshtd, )yo^ saklnui and ^Ja 
sakhun, ■^j)S) vazurg and *ijff\ vaziirg , 9t>*r^ drukht and ^(yj^ 
driikht, ^)^3j> gazdum and _^3jJ gazdum; f^y rost and fQ)3 rost, 
53^ mozd (Z. mtzhdem) and d^^ mozd] ^■ufQ)3^ avistdk and 
AiifQ)0* avistdk, ^Jiiiyii harvtsp and ^iiy^ harvisp , ftl)"^^ ^^^^ C'^- 
irista) and jiQ)3 r/.vi, ^^O-^-^) dahisJm and )Hd^ dahishn, ^OO"^"") 

XLiv Introductory Essays. 

vahtsht and ^OO''') vahisht, y(_)0) W'/««^ ^^^ )»0») ? lih a n ■, J^j^i dilir 
and Ji35 diUr, the suffix y -ic/j (Z. c/?a) and (O -/c/i; J^^^ kheshm 
and .^-u kheshm, -J(^33 rcs/i and jf^) res/?, w^ fecm and ^a Aem, 
^TtD^O gcJcstak and ^f^DO gajestak, etc. 

But besides these, there are many other words in which the same 
short vowels occur in the cognate languages , and may therefore , be 
reasonably inserted in the transliteration of Pahlavi; such are ^-^0* 
afsurd, yny^f^^ astukhvan, ^^rCJ))** austurdak, ^Ji hurid, yo^^ 
pasukho, -u)5<^ shukuh, ^yo) nuhum, ^f) numud, ^))*» Horva- 
dad, -u)^ kola, ^yo) Vohuman; ^JtD^^ khdkistar, ^ii khirad^ 
^^Y^ harvist, 3 It, -wfQ> stih, JtD^'-'O ^'"^'^^^' ^^^ abstracts in y^^ 
-ishn, -^^ kirm, /^^)^ kirfak, ))^^ Mitro, ^ min, ^fy{^^) nipisht, 
fiJ^-w^OO) Vishtdsp, f^^)nishast, H^^^^) nikds^ ))i^) nikun, y{yi^^\ 
niMrishn, ^3 gird', yiy'S gh'ydn, y^^^ dashiii, u Yim; ^o^jj^ 
aperendyik, ^)^j lekum, 3j^ kahed, ^J^ kcrp , ^^AdJjJdJ^ Keresdspo, 
^yGtY"^ ^ncii'cnchinid , \Y) v arena , -^y^ daregush, ^)^^y gospend^ 
^y denman, etc. 

As many Zand verbs have a different vowel in the crude form of 
the present, to that in the past participle, a difficulty arises in deter- 
mining, according to rule 4, whether the vowel of the Pahlavi verb 
should be t or c, u or 6. The simplest solution of this question, is 
to adopt the Zand practice, and use both forms, as is already done in 
Persian in other instances, such as 4>fc> and <\j6»>, Oyijuj and JuU*w, 
•^yoyi and tXjLcvi , C>yX and Ov-yo, t>^ and JoL^i, etc. Thus we 
read ^OO^^^ pdhrikht and ^O^J^(y^ pdhrcjcd, ^^O^ rtkht and 
^^3 rfjcd, 9g>»j^ siikht and c^(«;0 ^^jcd) ^OO-^f* gumikht and 
^O"0* fjumcjcd, etc. 

Next to the vowels, one of the most uncertain points in Pahlavi 

Iqtrodu6t€H7 Essays. xLv 

is the sound of ^ in many words ; and the confusion of its two sounds, 
t and d, dates from Sasanian times, as the inscriptions have both yaz- 
tdn and yazddn, vazlunt and vazlimd, havmt and havind^ hattmimt 
and hattmund. The sound of t for ^ cannot be justified in ~u^i} 
'earth', -ui^^ ^ruler', -uc^^^ 'teacher', ^p 'river', 3i3yi^ 'third', 
-juu^)^ 'mule', -MOU) 'rose', 3-^^ 'second', -^{^w 'wheat', etc. As two 
sounds of this letter must, therefore, be admitted, they are represented 
by t and d\ the latter being used whenever it is deemed best (in ac 
cordance with rule 4) to trace the ^ no further than a Persian j>, as 
in all verbal suffixes ending in ^ (those ending in \^ to, to, being trac- 
ed to Zand). It is worthy of notice that though Pahlavi generally 
retains a Zand ^ unaltered, yet after ) n it always changes it into 5 , 
if the orthography be correct; thus ^p zud, Pers. J.\ , must not be 
confounded with ^p za7id. 

A final ^ fc is always retained in the transliteration, as it can be 
shown that it was formerly pronounced in Persian ', although it has 
generally been softened into », or dropped altogether, in later times. 
The old sound of k is still retained in a few Persian words, thus we 
find both (ilK^ and K^^, ^r^-»i and Svaxo, etc.; and the Persian 
plural and abstract suffixes ^\^ • gdn and ^-gi, in which (Stakes 
the place of 5 in the original word, can only be explained by assuming 
an original sound of k for the 5. "When a suffix is added to a Pah- 
lavi word ending in ^ fc, the letter is rarely alteied, but sometimes 
Y>i^ becomes )*(5, -j^^^ becomes J(j^ , 3^ becomes J3, etc., as we 
also find that .j3 is the usual form of ^3 ^ D of 4.5, etc.; in all 
such cases, the k sound is retained, to avoid unnecessary confusion, as 
the change of form is only partially adopted, probably to expedite 
the writing, and the rare occurrence of > gf in the Sasanian inscrip- 
tions, indicates that the sound of g was not very common in Pahlavi. 

' This subject was fully discussed in M. J. Muller's 'Essai sur la langue 
pehlvie', published in the Journal Asiatique for April 1839. 

XLvi Introductory Essays. 

In a few cases, the termination y{^ -gdn is added to a final a It, 
as in y^^yoiyi rObdnikgdn and yt{^^^^ rudikgdn , which forms indi- 
cate the influence of modern Persian on the copyist. The final a is 
sometimes substituted for a final | , chiefly in modern MSS., as in the 
suffix of the past participle 4^ -tak^ Pers. io, sO, for \^ -t6\ 
Ji^)')-K}^ and Jj^,^^ii forjj^)5J(5^ ; ^^0)^3 for tftJ)^3 ; 
M HTQ) ^01" U^Jtl) 5 ^-^y ^0^' JJ-^)^ 5 ^^^'- '■> ^^^^ ^^ ^^ occasionally 
substituted for a final -« , as in a iJu for -ui3u . It may also be notic- 
ed that a final Persian s is not always the modern representative of 
a Pahlavi a, especially when the former follows a long vowel; thus 
we find -J^)^ pandh, •'iyQ)^ panjdh, •'iy^^ tapdh, ^(2 clidh, 
a^^jj sipdh, JL(y^ mdli, 'Ji(X5^ gw^h', -"l^'X) ^/'^^"/' 5 -»*)» guh] 
•j(\) vchy -JkiA^ zreh, etc. 

Comparing the Pahlavi abstract suffix ^ with the termina- 
tions of the words just quoted, and especially with that of ^) vch, it 
may be suspected that the modern Persian abstract suffix ,^ 4 has 
dropped an original final h , in the same manner as the adjective suffix 
^^ -I has dropped the final k of the Pahlavi J0 -ik. This suspicion is 
confirmed, to some extent, by the occurrence of several words ending 
in 0^0 -iht, in the Sasanian inscriptions, which appear to be ab- 
stract nouns'. It may further be noticed that the Pahlavi suffixes 
j0 and M sometimes interchange, as in -^^^Or ^^^ -^y^r^ "K^^"^ 
and J>jy^, -\)V^ and .iy^3. With a due regard for these facts 
and probabilities, the Pahlavi abstract suffix ^ has been transliterated 

> Some of the Sasanian legends on gems supply further confirmation, see 
No. 58 and 60 of Thomas's catalogue of Sasanian gems, in the Journal R. A. S. vol. 
XIII. p. 424, on both which gems the word O^OJ^^OO^ls rdstihi occurs, which 
can hardly be any other word than the Tahlavi ^^^MJ rdstth; the legend on 
No. 54 is also probably ^^f)'??^^ rdstlh. 

Introductory Essays. XLvii 

-th. Some of the old Pazand writers read this suffix as -ash, probably 
mistaking it for the other Persian abstract suffix yi^ -ish, Pahl. y^^'^ 
but this latter is added merely to crude verbs, whereas j^ 4h, Pers. 
,^ , is a general abstract suffix. 

The Pahlavi suffix y^^^ just mentioned as forming abstract nouns 
from crude verbs, is still found occasionally in Persian, as in, 
^**j.v , ^*iJ5^, ^^JLXjo , etc. ; but in most cases the final ^ n has 
been dropped. In accordance with the Persian pronunciation, this suffix 
is transliterated -ishn\ or -tshn when the vowel is expressed in Pah- 
lavi, as in ^3^ dahtshn and a few others. 

The suffix OQy is used for two purposes. First, for forming ad- 
verbs from adjectives (like the English suffix -hj), in which case, it 
is transliterated -yish, being taken as a Semitic suffix, see Hang's 
Essay on Pahlavi, p. 116; the Pazand writers read it -ihd, and might 
quote the Persian adverb L.g.Aj, Pahl. '•'^0()))^ taniiihd, as a confirma- 
tion of their reading; but it may be noticed that this adverb is derived 
from a substantive, and not from an adjective like other adverbs end- 
ing in -^^y^ • Secondly, a suffix of the same shape is used to form the 
plural of a few nouns; this is also transliterated -ihd by the Pazand 
writers, and as it is Isb -hd in Persian, their reading has been followed 
in the texts; the following are instances of this plural form, which is 
rare in Pahlavi -AOy^fOJ^J^ khrafstarihd , •*{y^y)ij khadumakihd, 
o^^J^u bandakthd, -^OOrOJId) postihd, jl^L^^ zakarihd, -*0y^.^ 
jdmakihd, •'i^^ti))^ kustihd, J^f^^di) naskihd, etc. 

The verbal suffix of the 2* person singular, which is variously 
written -u , o , jui , j/* ^ or u/y , is transliterated - ih , -th, or 
yih, on the assumption that it bears the same relation to the Zand 
suffix -/u", as the suffixes ^ -am and ^ -hi, of the 1«* and 3* per- 
sons singular, bear to the Zand suffixes -mi and -ti, the final vowel i 
being dropped in the Pahlavi suffixes; thus we read homanih for 
-M^yo and y^f* i hdnumih for -au'^)A) and -j^^yw, and homanyih 

XLviii Introductory Essays. 

for j^^Y» . In ^Ji))^ ychcvimdsh^ the suffix ^iX -ash is merely 
the termination of the Paz. ^-ui bash = Pers. JiLt , 

The Pahlavt ^ often corresponds to the Persian i^ , as in ^)<Oit 
dshup, ^yo khiip, m hup, ^3(o charp, ^-i(j shap , )^^) naparto, 
yj^) nthtp^ )Y^i daptro, etc. Some of these words have an alter- 
native form in Persian, in which . is substituted for k»), and in such 
cases, it might be better to read t; for ^, as has been done in ^ dv, 
j^^^^jS^ zuvdnihj y^^yo^yjt/^ kdruvdntkdn, etc. 

The two letters n often correspond to the Persian ., and when 
the word is a compound ending in Jin -bdr, y*»i -bdn^ or Ji -6a;', 
the ) is assumed to be the Zand final .^ o of the first member of the 
compound, as in )A)i)fQ)Ji astobdti, Jmj^n asobdr, J-»H)JtJ))^ husto- 
bdr^ \)fti)^ dastobar, etc. The letters j) sometimes also corres- 
pond to the Zand » v, and are then generally transliterated ub, in 
accordance with the Persian example of loW) (^- hizva) ; thus, we read 
ujjaQ» yasharubo, )*n)^ tvbdn, yiiy rubdn, yoij^ zubdn, Jt2)^))^ 
dubdrast, etc.; and the same reading has been adopted in 4<uiy ru- 
bdk, yi^iy riibishrij )*'JH)^00 ddtogubdn, ytiy gubishn, etc., although 
the last two words might perhaps be preferably read ddtogobdn and 
gobishn, in accordance with the vowels in the ancient Persian forms 
gaubataiy and agaubatd. In jy-^)A) hd-srob and uy^ srobo, where 
u corresponds to Z. av, the reading 6b has been preferred to ub. 

The two letters ^) also correspond to the Zand » v, and are 
then transliterated uv , as in ^)Y& Chinuvat , |U)^y3 zruvdno, 
^M}^p zUvdnih, etc.; and they correspond occasionally to the Zand 
tt^M;, as in W^JC^^i rapituvtn. 

It would appear from these examples, and from f^X3^))A» ha- 
varsht, Z. hvarshta, that the Pahlavt writers considered the Zand » v 
as a double letter. In a similar manner, they usually take the Zand 

Introductory Essays. xux 

ji y as a double letter, and represent it by y, or ^, ly ^ as in 
-X:e>OO^e) padtydvih, ^Jo^y^^ pathjarah, ^^3 ztydno, eK)») 
niydz , etc. 

The letter i> is used as a final in a few worlds of Semitic origin; 
it represents r in Lj^ akhar, i:>5^ zakar^ and sometimes in i>-*(y^ 
mekhdr; and it represents I in ijj a? and i) val "When a suffix is 
added to these words, the i> remains unaltered, as in ^^-^ akharich, 
'J{^^^^ zakarth, etc.; and the same remark may be made with regard 
to the final ^ 5, as in ^^ii^ii dkdsih , J^^^n)) vandskdr, etc. 

The letter 9 (jh is found in only a few words as ^^ azagh^ 
^J: ^ aigh, Sas. 'J'PiJ a:k] 9 . bagh , Z. hagha; ^1000; )^ 
roghan, Z. raoghna; )9ghal, Chaldaeo-Pahl. kal] m'^ ghozal^ 'a 
fowl'; ^magh, Z. magha] 405 drogh , Z. draogha; etc. 

When the letter /o corresponds both to the Zand fU and the Per- 

V \ ^ 

sian V s, it is usually transliterated^", as in ^(»^ taj^d^ ^O-' ^^" 

In reading Pahlavi, it is necessary to recollect that the writers 
of MS.S. frequently omit a loop in the formation of compound charac- 
ters, and occasionally add extra loops, thus ^ may be either (oa or 
^i*, ^ may be fl3 or ^), ^35 niay be fiii or ^i5, ^ may be (oi 
or ^3 , etc. ; ^^ is used for ^ , and ^ probably stands foi' ^ in 
•^l^)*?!*' — ^)fiJ-^)H3[P amcshospcnd ^ although tlie former (which 
seems to be a comparatively modern form) can be read amahraspend, 
with some degree of probability. The most remarkable instances of 
the addition of extra loops , occur in variants of the word )*(_)000 
shcdddn, which has seven loops, instead of four, in one instance 
in the MS. He. The compound V)*!, which is provisionally read 
atyy, may also perhaps be best explained as 3ii ay with the addition 
of extra loops, in the words ^O'H)'** ^^^y^'^i "^^^ ^X?-" ^VJUd^i )^ 5 


I, Introductory Essays. 

A^iJkitit atyydsak, xauL ; etc. The compound j(y is sometimes writtem 
My, when it occurs in the Huzvaresh verb jwy) vddun, 'do, make', in 
order to distinguish it from the verb )^) = )Uj) vakhdun, 'hold, take'; 
and the same kind of tail is occasionally added to c^, probably indi- 
cating that ffj is to be pronounced ed, like the Zand letters )*KJ» It 
may be further remarked that the letter (9 ch is sometimes written 
gj , and occasionally like the Zand fj^ th; this change of fl ch into c> 
th accounts for the word -^^(o chUfi, Pers. j-Vr*, becoming thisJi, or 
this, in many Pazand MSS. 

The words )^^y{^ and y»(^ are read ycdato and yadaddn, be- 
cause the z in Z. yazato is more likely to become d than j in Pahlavi, 
as Z. azcm = anc. Pers. adam, etc. , and some words are written in 
Pahlavi with either d, or z, indifferently, as ^p)^ farzand and 3^)^ 
fardand, yoS zamdn and ^_^ daman, yof^S zamastdn and yoft})£ 
damastdn^ ^S zamtk and .i)<^ damik, etc. 

In _A>.^u»^ Auharmazd and ^)4^ Yazdakard, it is doubtful whe- 
ther the -A» is merely a contraction, or whether the original ^3 zd, 
corrupted into Hi dd, has finally become -ai. The reading zd has 
been retained in accordance with the Sasanian orthography O^J^Ol^l^ 
Atiharmazdi and OJ[>J\}J'? Yazdakartt. 

The preposition U5 is read y7n] and when the same compound 
character occurs as a verbal suffix, it is read -yen, being identified 
as the Zand suffix -yen of the S^ person plural of the optative mood: 

In some words, d appears to have been substituted for h, thus we 
find both )y^4' mekadlun and \y\^J^ mekablun; ^^) neked, Heb. 
n^p:; and )y^'5^ yezdcrun, Chald. 13T. It would be hazardous to 
assume that this substitution has arisen from any regular phonetic 
change; but it can be readily explained as a mere misreading of ill- 
formed letters, the j b being easily mistaken for a large —J d which 
is a common final form of ^ in old MSS.; when medial,, the i & has 

Introductory Essayg. ti 

probably first become ) v (as in ^)4 for ^ja, etc.J and this ) has been 
turned at the bottom to join the following letter, which Avould change 
it into ^ , as occurs thrice in the MS. He in the word ) \>3a(_)0(^yi) 
for )lV-'4X)Cr'^ * 1^\^\^ mechanical change of 4 6 into ^ </, also ex- 
plains the derivation of ^u yuddn from Z. yava?i, the regular form 
of which would be )*'lWi according to the rule whereby the Zand » 
becomes j) in Pahlavi. 

A final ^ i, in Persian nouns, is often traceable to a Zand dh , as 
in i^y^ 'scent' Z. haodha, ^jIj 'foot' Z. pddha, ^^s 'face' 7j. raodha^ 
etc. In Pahlavi, such words end in i which is often circumflexed and 
must then be read c/, in accordance with the Zand form rather than 
the Persian, as in ^)j hod and ^p rod. And these examples have 
been considered sufficient authority for reading d in other cases, where 
5 corresponds to Pers. ^^ t and the Zand equivalent is unknown, as 
in iy rud 'brass', i^ mud 'hair', ^j)) naduk 'good', etc. 

As all the Pahlavi numerals , from 'two' to 'ten', are Semitic , it 
is natural to suppose that the numeral 'one' must be also of Semitic 
origin and traceable to Chald. nil; this assumption is further confirmed 
by the traditional reading of the word, the circumflex with which it is 
often written , and its Sasanian orthography, all of which indicate that 
it contains the letter rf, and 4^ = 4^ 'one' is therefore read kha- 
d-Qk. When this numeral is the first member of a compound word, its 
final ^ is often omitted, as in J'^i^fJ khadu-hdr, ^^^^ khadu-tdk, 
5l^KJ khadu-muk, etc. In .J^ii* khadih 'anyone', and fiji^^^ khad- 
ihdn 'any people' (traditionally adash and adashd7i), the numeral 
appears to be further abbreviated into ^i* khad. When the numeral 
'one' is appended to a noun, like the Persian 'idhafat of unity', it is 
generally represented by the cypher v in old MSS. , which is trans- 
literated by the Roman numeral i, as in N-^ty gahrd-I 'a man', 
\ w^i) nSshman-I 'a woman', etc.; in modern MSS., this cypher 
is usually corrupted into the common idhafat J i ] sometimes, in old 

Lii Introductory Essays. 

MSS., ou ac is substituted for \, especially in i](9 utt ac chand 
for ^)(0 \ 1 chand ^ Pers. tXA^^Jo, 'several'; and ^j> hich^ Pers. 
^xiC = >sjl 'any', may perhaps also have been (9 \ originally. The 
Pazand writers read e for this cypher, as well as for wjf, but whether 
it should be read ac, or Jehad, is very uncertain. 

The habit of reading the Pazand yak^ or e, for the Huzvaresh 
AwV khadiik, appears to have led Pahlavi writers to the conclusion 
that ^ was a proper representative of any initial ?/«, aya, or at; 
thus we find ^<, or ^jj, substituted for jui in ^^ khaduf, ^)*»^)iy 
khadukdnak^ ^HK^ khaduinak, etc. It is also possible that the use 
of the compound >()*» for an initial y, or a//, (see p. xlix) may have 
arisen from this substitution of ^ khadu, or \^ khadu-I, for m 
ay. In o^y giydh, Pers. sU5, the cypher \ appears to have been 
substituted for 3 y. 

It will be observed that most of the words beginning with ^ 
khadu and a^ khaduk, are hybrids, partly Semitic and partly Aryan ; 
so also are all the forms of Huzvaresh verbs with the Aryan suffixes 

^' SO*' ^' H^» ^» -^' -^i -*0' )*0' •^' ^' ^^^' ^*^®^' iiy^'iti 

words are 3^jji ahtclar, ^^^ amidar, J^n harmanar, Jj^(fOO* 
akhtmunar and ^)^)^ gahrdum^ , in which the supeifluous finals 3^, 3 
and ^) can only be explained as the finals of the Pazand equivalents 
>tV^., >c>U, ;t>U, y^^y^ «"d ,*i^>o; and in 5)^ tanid and uj dyin, 
the superfluous circumflex can be best explained as merely indicative 
of the d in S^^ and slXjI. In the hybrids -^)U-»0000 shcdayyd- 
yazakih and ^OO-HX^OO^)* javtd-shcdayyd-ddd, the IIuz. -fcQQOO 
shcdayyd is merely substituted for the Paz. dct'. In u^3ij3aQ» yashar- 

' This rare form occurs in the MS. K20, in the tale of Gosht-i Fryano, 11. 45; 
and it may be merely a blunder, as the proper Huzvaresh of mardimi is ansliutd, 
rather than gabrd. 

Introductory Essays. Liii 

■dish , ^1v^ yasharmok, )\y'»iy yasharuho^ 3a(yp^ fravyashar and 
similar words, the ) in )aQ» can hardly be satisfactorily explained, un- 
less we assume that a Huzvaresh form )aQ» yashar ^ Heb. *l^'\ has 
been substituted for the Zand ash, asha, ashe, or ashi] whether this 
explanation can be extended to •^y-*0'^ = Z. vahishtcm , is yet 

A few Pahlavi words can be read either as Semitic, or Aryan, thus 
)Yifj» may be hand (Z. anya) , or akharan (Chald. j'inN); -"^ may 
be and (Z. a?ia, and), or hand (Syr. p^) I -*" 'this' may be ac (Z. 
acm, aya), or A? (Syr. ^<ry); -u* 'one' may be aS (Paz. c), or khad 
(Chald. in); .^^ may be shnom (Z. khshnaoma), or s/iZam (Chald. 
cb^'); etc. 

Of the Huzvaresh verbs formed with the prefix i ye, only two 
retain the sound ye uncorrupted in the Pahl.-Paz. Glossary, namely, 
)yoi^^ yczbckhim (which owes the preservation of the ye sound, pro- 
bably to its Pazand equivalent commencing with the same sound) and 
)y^^i yezderun. In fourteen of these verbs, the y has been corrupted 
into j in the Glossary, as often happens in modern Persian (as in 
,jL=^ for Z. ydiu, cXa-Xm^ for Z. Yima khshacta, etc.), although the 
y is always found in such of them as occur in the Sasanian inscriptions 
(see p. xxvii) ; these verbs, with their corrected pronunciations, are J^^'^X^ 
ydtun^ )jf^^ yakhscnun, ))^!i^ ydnitun, ))yi^ ychccun , ^)^^ ydt- 
tun, )y^'\) ydltyuii ., ))y^ yctibuu , )y^Ji) yektclun,))y^^ ycht.hun, 
) ft)^ yekavmun, )y^t> ^ ))) t> yemalelun, DC^i? yemttiin and )y^j* 
yameyun. Three of these verbs are also found with the initial J> yek 
further corrupted from jak into .^3 zek, which corruption is retained 
in the transliteration , because the Pahlavi letter is changed ; these 
verbs are )y^-i3 zcktelun, ))^^^^ zektibun and, more rarely, ) H)^-^ 
zckavimun. In four other Huzvaresh verbs, the prefix ^ ye has been 
corrupted into i da in the Glossary; these verbs, with their corrected 

Liv Introductory Essays. 

pronunciations, are ))^»y^ yekhabkhiin, ))y^ V^hahun, )^iii^ yezhemun 
and )y^^ yedrun\ in ji n>0 1 the circumflex may perhaps have been 
introduced to indicate that its Pazand equivalent, ^jjft>, begins with a 
d\ but the corruption of y into <Z, in the other three verbs is not readily 
explained, unless we assume that the ^ y, corrupted into j ^ was further 
altered into 3 z, whence the final step to 3 ti is easy, either by phon- 
etic change, or by misreading the letter. 

It may further be noticed, with regard to Huzvaresh verbs, that 
the u in the final syllable of the crude verb, is not always expressed; 
thus, we always find ) uj hemnun and );0-\) yahhsenun , and very 
often ))j) yemalelun. In the Din-kard, several of the other verbs occur 
with the short u unexpressed in the last syllable ; and the same is the 
case, in the Sasanian inscriptions, with regard to Semitic verbs ending 
in {jpO -itun, such as ij^'?0/ ramitun^ Jj^^i^ sazUun, J(^'?3'22 
shaditun, i^OJ^ khazitun and <(^92^ havttun. 

It has been already mentioned that ) v is the usual representa- 
tive of the Chaldee V (see p. xxxv-vi), but in a few cases, thePahlavi 
3 g, or \Qh, appears to be used for the same purpose, as in ^^^^ 
ttshgd^ 'nine', Chald. TlV^/^] and )\^ghal^ 'to', Chald hV', see also z6- 
pamaman, Pahl.-Paz. Glos. p. 243. 

These remarks will probably be sufficient to point out the diffi- 
culties which any systematic transliterater must be prepared to over- 
come, and to show the mode of treating them adopted in this volume. 
The only exceptions which have been made to the general rules, are 
in the following words: the idhafat J i instead of t, )f^ dtno instead 
of dcno, A)u gunak instead of gonak, )Hif-^ nnnishn instead of mcn- 
ishn^ and other words in which %i^mm, standing for Z. main, ought 
to be read men according to the Pazand rule usual in other words, 

. Introductory EBsaya; LV 

The Arda-Yiraf namak, its contents, and probable age. 

The visions in heaven and hell which are related in the book 
of Arda Viraf, the pious Parsi priest who is said to have gone, when 
still living, from this world to the realm of the dead, to bring an account 
of the fate of our souls after death, are still read with the greatest 
interest by the Parsi community, and firmly believed in, especially by 
the female part of it. This is evidenced by the fact that there exist 
several Persian versions of the work in prose as well as in verse, 
and Gujarati translations to make it accessible to all classes of the 
Zoroastrian community (see p. xxi). It was occasionally read before 
large assemblies of Zoroastrians, the effect of which is thus described 
by Destur Hoshangji : 'It speaks volumes both for the effective style 
'of the Arda-Yiraf namak and for the implicit faith which the Parsis 
'placed in what was written theiein, that a few years ago, when the 
'book used to be read before them , overpowered by consciousness of 
'guilt, the punishment for which was so terrifically described, they, but 
'especially the gentler sex, used to weep. It was a most affecting spec- 
'tacle to witness the awakening conscience exhibiting itself in trickling 
'tears'. At the same time Destur Hoshangji, contrasting the present 
state of the Parsi community, regarding matters of religious belief, with 
that in which it was about twenty-five years ago, remarks: 'The feel- 
'ings of Parsis, even a century ago, would have been much offended, 
'had they been told that the Arda-Viraf namak was nothing else but 
'a mythological work. In our days of progress , not only a professor 
'of another creed and religion, but even a Parsi Destur is permitted 
'to say so'. 

In Europe it also excited coubiderable interest when its principal 
contents were, however imperfectly, first made known by J. A. Pope's 
English translation in i8iG, which was not based upon the original 

Lvi Introductory Essays. 

Pahlavi text, but on some of the later Persian versions (see p. xix). 
It is principally the description of hell and of some of the punishments 
awarded to the wicked which bears occasionally a striking resemblance 
to the accounts to be found in Dante's Inferno^ though it cannot be 
supposed for a moment, that the book was actually known to the great 
Italian poet. As the Arda-Viraf namak contains, on the whole, much 
that corresponds to Christian notions of paradise and hell, some scho- 
lars have not hesitated to trace it to a Christian source. This they 
thought to have discovered in the so-called '■Ascensio Isajce vatis, i. e. 
the ascension of the prophet Isaiah , one of the many apocryphal works 
which have reached our time only in an Ethiopic version as preserved 
by the Christian church in Abyssinia ». But since the comparison 
which had been made between this Christian work and the book of 
Arda Viraf, was basel only on Pope's translation of the latter, which is 
by no means an adequate rendering of the original, wholly erroneous 
conclusions w^ere drawn from it. There is, in fact, not a single cir- 
cumstance which would justify us in deriving the visions of Arda Yiraf 
from those contained in the Ascension of the prophet Isaiah ; but all 
tends to show that there exists not the slightest historical connection 
between them 2. The only points in which they coincide are that Isaiah, 
as well as Arda Viraf, journeyed through the heavenly regions, the 
splendor of which gradually increases, and that there are thrones, 
crowns and beautiful clothing awarded to the souls of the pious. But 
in all the numerous other particulars there is a great difference. In the 

1 The Ethiopic veraion has been published, along with Latin and English 
truinlations, under the title: 'Krgata 'Isdyeyds nahtye Ascensio Isaiie vatis, 
opusculum pseudepigraphum, multis abhinc seculis, ut videtur, deperditum , nunc 
autem apud Aethiopas compertum, et cum versione latina anglicanaque publici 
juris factum a Kicardo Laurence LL. D. etc. Oxonii 1819. 

« This has been shown at full length in Hang's Essay 'Uber das Ardai Yir&f 
nameh und seinen angeblichen Zusammenhang mit dem christlichen Apoiiypliun, 
die Himmelfahrt desJesaia betitelt. Sitx.ungsberichte der kgl.bayerisehen Akademie 
der Wissenschaften. Jahrgang 1870. L 3, pag. 327—864. 

Introductory Essays. LVii 

visions of the Jewish prophet, there are seven heavens mentioned, which 
are situated one above the other, the seventh being the uppermost and 
highest; but in the Pahlavi text of the Arda Yhaf there are only four 
heavens mentioned, the first three being the abode of those good and 
pious souls who had not professed the Zoroastrian religion, whereas 
the fourth, the GarOclmdn , is reserved for the Zoroastrians. It is true, 
in one of the Persian versions and in Pope's English translation which 
is based upon it , there are seven heavens mentioned ; but this is an 
adaptation to Mohamedan and Jewish notions which were strange to 
the Sasanian times in which alone, as we shall see, the book of Arda 
Viraf was composed. In the Ascension of Isaiah, there are rulers men- 
tioned over each heaven ; but in the Arda-Yiraf nothing of this kind 
is found, nor are the angels on the right and the left side of the throne, 
which constantly occur in the former, mentioned in the latter. Isaiah 
does not descend to hell, nor does he give any description of the 
infernal regions; he only sees how diabolical powers fight with one 
another on the firmament, but he does not mention the particular 
punishment of any crimes and sins C(jmmitted on earth. Besides, the 
religious ideas in the two books differ widely. In the Ascension all 
is thoroughly Christian, in the book of Yiraf all is Zoroastrian. If 
the Ascension had been the source of the visions of Viraf, we should 
find some allusions to the Christian reUgion ; but as not the slightest 
trace of them can be discovered, we may take it for granted that both 
works are quite independent of one another, and that the book of Yiraf 
has certainly not been derived from any Christian source. 

^Ye shall arrive at the same result, if we compare this book with 
other works treating of visions in the other world, whether they be of 
Jewish, or Christian, origin. In the old Jewish literature, the most 
remarkable production of this kind is the 'History of Rabbi Joshua ben 
Levi 01^5 J2 ^''y^'liT "Dl n'^^'yo' ' , which describes a journey undertaken 
by the said Rabbi (in the third century of our era) through heaven 

See A. Jellinek Bet-hamidrash 11. pag. XYIII— XXI and pag, 48—53. 


Lviii Introductory Essays. 

and hell. In paradise there are seven houses mentioned, in which the 
different classes of the souls of the pious reside ; but they do not cor- 
respond, in any way, to the heavens mentioned in the book of Viraf ; 
neither does the description he gives of the houses in hell, in which the 
souls of the wicked are confined, bear any resemblance to the punish- 
ments in Viraf s hell. 

The originality of the visions of Arda Viraf may be regarded as 
being beyond doubt. They are so thoroughly Zoroastrian that only a 
professor of that religion can have seen them. This will appear from 
a brief summary of the contents of the work , with such remarks as 
will be necessary for illustrating them. 

The Arda- Viraf namak which has been divided, in this edition, 
into 101 chapters, begins with a long and detailed introduction which 
occupies the first three chapters. It is just this part in which some of 
the Pazand and Persian versions differ so considerably from the Pah- 
lavi original a& published here (see pag. xii-xix). The account which 
is here given of the state of the Zoroastrian religion in the times pre- 
vious to the mission of Arda Viraf, and of the reasons which induced 
the Magian priesthood to send him to the other world, is highly inter- 
esting. The Zoroastrian religion was during the first three centuries 
after its foundation by Zarathus'tra Spitama, in its purity. After the 
lapse of this period, the devil induced the wicked and accursed Alex- 
ander , who came from the west to destroy the residence of the Persian 
kings, to burn the sacred books which had been preserved in the 
archives of the residence and to kill the priests and learned men and 
other men of distinction. In consequence of this invasion by Alexander 
the Macedonian, and his destruction of Persepolis, the whole political 
order of Iran was reversed; many wars ensued, and the Zoroastrian 
religion decayed. Many religious creeds and sects arose, and there was 
none who knew the religion until, under Shapur II, the celebrated 
Adarbad Mahrespand appeared, who proved the truth of the Zoroastrian 
religion by undergoing the ordeal of having melted brass poured upon 
his breast without being burnt by it. But notwithstanding such a 

Introductory Eesaya. Lix 

miracle, the doubts which existed as to the truth of the Zoroastrian reli- 
gion, were not wholly removed. Then the spiritual guides of the 
Zoroastrian community, the Desturs, assembled to devise a new means 
for testing the truth of their reHgion and re-establishing it on a firm 
base. They resolved upon sending one from among them 'from the 
land of the living to the land of the dead ' , to ask the heavenly spirits 
whether, or not, the different religious ceremonies performed by the 
priests had the desired effect. Now a large assembly was convened 
at the celebrated temple of the Frobag fire. From the number of the 
priests who were assembled, the sum total of which is not stated in 
the original, seven were elected. These seven selected three out of 
their number, and these three, one by the name of Yiraf who is also 
called the Nishapurian. Yiraf accepted the dangerous and unpleasant 
mission to the other world only upon the condition that they should 
cast lots to ascertain whether he should be destined to enter on 
such an errand. 

Viraf had seven sisters wfio were married to him according to the 
Zoroastrian custom of the next-of-kin marriage which was regarded as 
one of the most meritorious works to be achieved by a Zoroastrian. 
These came crying and weeping before the assembly to beseech the 
desturs not to send their brother and husband, their only support, on 
such a dangerous errand. They were comforted and promised that he 
should be delivered to them after the lapse of seven days. Then a place 
was selected for him at a certain distance from water, fire, etc. on 
which occasion he was treated as if he were already dead. After all 
preparations for the great journey had been made by washing his hands, 
putting on new clothes, etc., Viraf drank three cups filled with a nar- 
cotic, called mang (baiiga in Zand), and fell asleep on the carpet on 
which he was sitting. Destur Hoshangji makes the following remarks 
on this draught: 

'The administration of these doses of Mang mixed up with wine, 
'causing a supernatural sleep of seven days duration, reminds one of 
'the custom oi Dhattur a, or stramonium, eating in India, which is well 

Lx Introductory Essays. 

'known in this country, particularly in Gujarat. It is believed there 
'that when on a weekday, particularly on Saturday which is sacred to 
'Hanuman, a few seeds of Dhattura are given to a child of about seven 
'years of age (it being then considered innocent) , he or she will , if 
'asked, prophesy all future events through its effect, and will even 
'prescribe remedies for any difficulty. For instance, if a woman should 
'be desirous of knowing whether she would ever be in the family way, 
'and were to ask the Dhattura eater about it, he would reply to her, 
'that she would give birth to a child, if she did such and such a thing, 
'or if she performed Yatra (pilgrimage), or offered sacrifice, or that she 
'would never become a mother, as the case might be'. 

'The child to whom the Dhattura is given, must be one who is 
'born in an extraordinary manner. Thus, instead of being born with the 
'head first, as is usual with the birth of children, it must be born 
'with the feet first. One evening previous to taking the Dhattura seed, 
'two, or more, women go to the tree from which the seed is to be taken, 
'and give it an invitation thus : 'come to-morrow into the body of such 
"and such a one and give all answers truly'; whereupon they pour 
'some water on the tree. On the next day, early in the morning, they 
'go and take the seeds off the tree, and give them to the child. Some 
'times, if they be afraid of giving such a poisonous drug to a child, 
'they administer it to an idiotic credulous man'. 

' It is remarkable to note here, that the notion of seeing a celestial 
'orb through the medium of somniferous or narcotic drugs, was prevalent 
'amongst the ancient Persians for a long time , as we find in later 
'books. For instance, in the Zartosht nameh there is mentioned amongst 
'other miracles of the prophet Zoroaster that he once consecrated a 
'cup of wine, and milk and fruit, and gave the consecrated wine to 
'king Gushtasp to drink; the king, then, was asleep for three days, 
'during which he saw in heaven, amongst others, his own paradise and 
'met there other celestial bodies at which he greatly rejoiced'. 

All the time Yiraf was sleeping, his seven sisters and the Desturs 
kept watch around him, recited Avesta and Zand and chanted the 

Introductory Essays. Lxi 

Gathas to protect him on his perilous journey. On the seventh day 
Viraf awoke. He ordered a skilful writer to write down all he saw, 
in heaven and hell, during a seven days' journey. 

The account of the journey commences with the fourth chapter. 
In the first night Viraf was received by Sraosha and the angel of the 
fire, Ataro Yazad, who acted as his guides during the whole journey. 
Being regarded as dead, he had two guides, and not only one; since a 
corpse is, according to the Zoroastrian law, always to be carried by 
two men. Taking three steps, he reached the Chinvat bridge, which 
separates heaven from hell, and this world from the other world. Here 
he saw the soul of a pious man sitting, whose fate he now describes. 
The description is identical with that one to be found in the Hadokht 
Xask (see AppendLx H, pag. 279 — 293), the Vishtasp Kask and the 
Mainyo-i Khard, and is evidently taken from the first, or some similar 
Zand source. The most prominent feature in it, is the appearance of a 
beautiful virgin i who represents the good thoughts , words and deeds 
of the soul. This virgin appears to be the better half of the soul which 
remains in the invisible regions whilst the other part resides, endowed 

' This beautiful maid has probably given origin to the Huris , or celestial 
virgins, of the Mohamedan paradise. It is true, the good works appear, according 
to Mohamedan notions, in the shape of a man who is splendidly dressed and per- 
fumed (Mohamedanische Eschatologie, iibersetzt von Dr. M. Wolff. Leipzig 1872. 
pag. 64). But the Huri, who exists in heaven long before the arrival of her husband, 
and is ready to receive him as soon as he has reached his destination, does also 
represent nothing but the better half of the soul. She conducts her husband to his 
celestial abode , where he then finds thousands of virgins who do not appear to be 
regarded as proper Huris (Mohamedan. Eschatologie pag. 201 — 203). As the idea 
of the appearance of a virgin to the soul of the deceased had been very common 
among the Zoroastrians already in ancient times, it is not to be wondered at, if 
Mohamed on his travels heard something about it. Such a virgin suited exactly 
his paradise; but as celestial joys and pleasures appeared rather dull to the Arabian 
prophet without sensual enjoyments, he converted this better half of the soul, its 
invisible root and counterpart, into a wife ! 

Lxii Iniroductory EsBays. 

with a body, in the corporeal world. It is probably identical with the 
Fravashi. That this virgin was believed to exist, before the soul entered 
the body, clearly follows from the circumstance of her telling the pious 
man that her original beauty had been increased by his good works. 

Yiraf passed the Chinvat bridge with the assistance of his two 
guides and under tho protection of some other angels, such as Mithra, 
Rashnu razis'ta, etc. His guides declared themselves ready to show 
him the pleasures of paradise, and the terrors of hell (ch. 5). The first 
place he came to, after having passed the bridge, was the abode of 
the Hamestagdn i. e. the ever stationary. As their good and evil works 
are equal, they must always remain in the same condition, until the 
day of resurrection; for their good works are strong enough to prevent 
them from going to hell, and the evil ones too strong to permit their 
passage to heaven (ch. 6). 

Now he arrives at the different paradises. Their number in the 
Zoroastrian writings is generally four. The first which is called Uu- 
mat is in the star track; the second called Hukht in the moon track, 
and the third called Huvarsht in the atmosphere of the sun ; the fourth 
is Garodmdn {gard-demdna in Zand). The souls which Viraf met in 
the first three paradises , were sitting on thrones and shining with the 
radiance of the stars, the moon and the sun, respectively. In the first 
two places are those who have done much good without having been 
devout and pious Zoroastrians. In the atmosphere of the sun are those 
monarchs and rulers who do not appear to have been professors of the 
Zoroastrian creed (ch. 7 — 9). 

The Garodman is more fully described than the three preceding 
heavens. It is the abode of the pious Zoroastrians of all classes, who 
had recited the prescribed prayers , and completely conformed to the 
Zoroastrian law. On entering this heaven, he is called upon to taste 
'immortality', or better, the draught which imparts immortality and makes 
the soul oblivious of all worldly cares (see note 1 on pag. 159 of the 
translation). Here the angel of the fire reproached him for having put 
green wood on the fire, which is forbidden in the Zoroastrian religion, 

Introductory Essays. Lxiii 

as all the wood, with which the sacred fire is fed, must be quite 
dry (ch. 10). 

Now the archangel Vohuman received him, and brought him before 
Ahuramazda, the Amesliaspentas, and the Fravashis of Zarathus'tra 
Spitama, Kavi Vishtaspa, and other promoters of the Zoroastrian reli- 
gion. Ahuramazda then ordered his two guides to show him heaven 
and hell (11). He is now led through the different sections of Garod- 
man. In the first place he meets the souls of the liberal, since liberality 
is regarded as the highest virtue by the Zoroastrians (comp. Mainyo-i 
Khard 37, 4.), which circumstance explains the princely donations made 
by the Parsis, up to the present day, for public purposes. Next to the 
souls who practised liberality when living, come those who had chanted 
the Gathas, and repeated the prescribed prayers ; then follow those who 
had contracted next-of-kin marriages, which is regarded as one of the 
most meritorious works by the Zoroastrians. After these come the 
souls of pious rulers, and monarchs (probably of the Zoroastrian creed), 
then those of the speakers of truth, since truthfulness is regarded as 
one of the greatest virtues (12). 

After having seen the rewards given for liberality, piety, next-of- 
kin marriages, just ruling and headship, and truthful speaking, he was 
shown a number of female souls who seem to have been kept apart 
from the males. They had honoured water, fire, earth, trees, in short, 
the good creation, and behaved in every respect as pious Zoroastrians (13). 

Now follows the bulk of Zoroastrians divided into four classes, or 
castes: priests, the performers of the Izeshne ceremony; warriors, with 
whom those are classed who killed many noxious animals, such as 
frogs, lizards, serpents, ants, flies, etc., which is considered a very meri- 
torious work by the Zoroastrians; the agriculturists and artizans (14). 
A separate abode is assigned to shepherds who fed sheep and quadru- 
peds, and protected them. There are further especially noticed the souls 
of householders and justices who had made a desolate place prosperous, 
and carried out works of irrigation ; the souls of the faithful , the 
teachers and inquirers , and those of interceders and peace-seekers, 

Lxiv Introductory Essays. 

since intercession nnd mediation is a very meritorious work with the 
Parsis (15). 

The rewards of all these classes of happy and blessed souls are 
not specified. They are all in great splendour, sit on thrones, or walk 
in pleasure and joyfulness, are dressed in clothing embroidered with 
gold and silver, etc. 

Ytraf, after having thus wandered through the various sections of 
Garodmau, was led by his two guides to a great gloomy river, which was 
the tears of those who make lamentation for the departed ; for it is 
not allowed to lament the dead, as it does them harm (16). 

Viraf was led back to the Chinvat bridge. Here he saw the wicked 
soul which wandered over the place where the life went forth. It was 
accompanied by a very ugly damsel representing its evil thoughts, 
words and deeds. She appears to have been its counterpart before 
entering the body, a kind of evil Fravashi, since her original ugliness 
had been increased by the wickedness of the soul to which she belonged 
(compare the same idea regarding the soul of the good). This soul 
then took three steps through the place of evil thought (dushmatj, that 
of evil word fdushiikhtj ■, and that of evil deeds fdush-hiivarshtj^ and 
reached hell by the fourth step (17). 

Now he describes hell. It is dark and gloomy, cold and hot, and 
full of stench, and noxious creatures. No one sees the other; every- 
one thinks he is alone (18). 

After this first preliminary description of hell, 'or rather of a part 
of it, there follow a series of punishments which were inflicted for 
various crimes and offences, many of them being described in great de- 
tail. The following crimes are deemed worthy of punishment : sodomy 
(1 9) ; approaching water and fire on the part of a woman during her 
menstruation (20); murder of a pious man i. e. a Zoroastrian (21); 
intercourse with a menstruous woman (22) ; talking when dining, since 
this is strictly forbidden in the Zoroastrian religion (23) ; adultery on 
the part of a woman (24) ; walking without shoes (25) ; scorning her 
husband on the part of a woman (2G) ; cheating in weight and measure 

Introductory Essays. LXf 

(27); misrule (28); slander (29); unlawful slaughtering of cattle and 
sheep, since these animals are only to be slaughtered according to a 
certain rite (30); greediness and avarice (31). 

In all these chapters no particular person is mentioned, on whom 
the punishment is inflicted; but now follows the name of a lazy man, 
Davanos, who had much wealth and power, and whose only good work 
was that he once cast a bundle of grass, with his right foot, before 
a ploughing ox (32). 

Now follow again various punishments for particular crimes and 
offences, such as: lying (33); throwing hairs into the fire (34); sorcery 
(35); apostacy (36); neglect of water and fire (37); polluting water and 
fu-e by bringing bodily refuse and dead matter to it (38); defrauding 
labourers of their hire (39); speaking falsehood (40); use of public 
warm baths (41). 

The series of punishments for particular crimes and sins is again 
interrupted by the account of people who were always crying becauce 
they had no legitimate father (42); and then continues as follows: 
not acknowledging one's own children, on the part oi a father (43); 
infanticide (44); perjury and extortion (45); acquisition of wealth by 
dishonest means (46); apostacy and deceit (47); killing, ill-treating and 
neglecting of dogs (48) ; false measuring of land (49) ; removal of boundary 
stones (50); making of false covenants (51); breach of promise (52). 

After having witnessed the severe punishments which were in- 
flicted in hell for the crimes and offences mentioned, Viraf was carried 
back to the mountain Chakat-i-Daitih i below which the Chinvat bridge 
is situated, into a desert, and shown hell in the earth (53). Whether 
this hell is identical with that one already described in the preceding 
chapters, or different from it, does not seem to be very clear. But it 
appears from the description which is given in the 54*^ chapter, that 
it was considered as somewhat different , as may be concluded from the 
designation 'darkest heir, whereas that hell which was described pre- 

See Pand-ndmak-i Adarbdd Mdraspand, by Sheriarjee Dadabhoy, pag, 80. 

Lxvi Introductory Essays. 

viously may be taken as hell in general. This 'darkest hell' is described 
as a very dark pit full of stench, and filled with an endless number of 
souls, everyone of which itself to be alone. This description agrees, on 
the whole, very well with that one given of hell in ch. 18. In the 
'darkest hell' one expects to find the greatest criminals and sinners ; 
but the crimes and offences for which punishments are inflicted are 
frequently the same, as those which were punished in hell in general; 
some are however different. The crimes here mentioned are the follow- 
ing : mortal sins , such as extinction of the Bahram fire (which is the 
most sacred of all), destruction of a bridge over a rapid river, speaking 
falsehood and false evidence, rebellion and anarchy (55); misappro- 
priation of religious endowments (56); lamentation and weeping (57); 
washing oneself in large standing waters, fountains and streams (58); 
giving no milk to an infant, on the part of a woman (59); adultery on 
the part of man (60); unbelief (61); faithlessness and spitefulness on 
the part of a woman (62); disobeying to, and abusing a husband 
(63); pregnancy from other men, and destruction of the child (64); 
distressing the parents, and asking for no forgiveness (65); slander (66);, 
bad administration of a city (67). 

Now follows an account of a husband and his wife; the husband' 
went to heaven, the wife to hell for having practised idolworship; she 
reproached him that he did not guide her to heaven; her only punish- 
ment in hell is to be in darkness and stench, whilst he sits in heave© 
full of shame (68). 

Then are again punishments mentioned for the following crimes! 
and offences: adultery on the part of a woman (69); abandoning the 
husband (70); sodomy, and seduction of the wives of others (71); not 
heeding menstruation (7'2);' beautifying of faces and wearing of the hair 
of others (73); unlawful slaughtering of beasts, cattle and sheep (74); 
muzzling of the mouths of beasts and ploughing cattle (75) ; preparing 
of food during the time of menstruation (76) ; overworking and ill-treat- 
ing of beasts (77) ; pregnancy from a strange man (78) ; taking bribes, 
and false justice (79); keeping short weights, bushels and other small 

Introductory Essays. LXvii 

measures (80); adultery on the part of a woman (81); abusiveness (82); 
concealing of meat from the husband and eating it (83); poisoning (84); 
adultery on the part of a woman (85); violation of a next-of-kin marriage, 
on the part of a woman (86) ; nursing other children and not giving 
milk to one's own child (87); seduction of the wives of others (88); 
selfishness (89); telling lies (90); false judgment (91); keeping back 
benefits from mankind (92); inhospitality towards travellers, and charging 
money for what they use (93) ; emaciating of children by not giving 
them milk (94); leaving one's own child without milk, and running after 
a strange man (95); defrauding the earth of the seed which is due to 
her (96); speaking of falsehood (97); eating of dead refuse, and killing 
of a water-otter (98); rebellion and revojution (99). 

At last Viraf saw Anro-mainyus', the Evil spirit, who always 
mocked and ridiculed the wicked (100). He was then carried back to 
Ahura-mazda, admonished by him, and entrusted with a message to the 
Mazdayasnians, that the only way to heaven was the keeping of the 
Zoroastrian religion, and that all is perishable and becomes dust except 
he who, in the world, repeats the Ashem-vohu formula', and performs 
duties and good works, that is to say, he alone is privileged to rise 
on the day of resurrection. Thereupon was Yiraf carried back to 
his place (101). 

Regarding the nature of the punishments which are described, 
there is considerable variety. Darkness and stench are shared by all 
the inhabitants of the infernal regions; but there are particular means 
of punishment besides, such as: noxious animals of all kinds, like frogs, 
snakes, ants, worms; rain, snow, hail, heat and cold; devouring 
and drinking of nasty, filthy and impure matter, such as dead refuse, 
menstruous discharge, blood, eating of one's own flesh and brains. 
Further dreadful corporal punishments are employed , many of which 
are probably only an imitation of those which were actually used in 
Persia. Such ones are the following: hanging with the head down- 

On its importance see the 1*^ chapter of the Hadokht Nask. 

TAviii Introductory Essays. 

wards ; cutting out the tongue ; flogging with darting serpents ; breaking 
and separating of limbs; being torn by dogs, pricked by arrows, spurs, 
stones, etc. ; cooking and frying of the body ; phmging in mud and 
stench; eyes scooped out; trampled upon by demons; tongue scraped 
with a wooden peg; being dashed from side to side; etc. Many sinners are 
sentenced to useless and painful occupations, such as carrying a mountain 
on the back through snow ; measuring dust and ashes, and eating them; 
standing up in hell with the body of a serpent and a human head; 
digging into a hill with the breasts, or with the fingers ; scraping one's 
own body and face, and gashing the breast with an iron comb; licking 
a hot oven, and burning the hand under it. 

In many cases there is ^ combination of punishments. For instance, 
scraping one's own body and face with an iron comb, and digging an 
iron hill with the breasts , as a punishment for a woman who gave no 
milk to her own infant, but nursed other children through a desire for 
wealth (87). 

Very frequently the punishments are in accordance with the crimes 
and offences which have been committed by the sinners who are pun- 
ished. Those who cheated in weight and measure , are measuring dust 
and ashes, and eating them (27). Those who muzzled the mouths of beasts, 
are lying under the feet of cattle, their bellies being torn and their bones 
being, broken (75). Those who slaughtered unlawfully cattle and sheep, 
have their limbs broken and separated (30). Those who spoke false, 
have their tongues cut out (97). Slanderers have their tongues gnawed 
by serpents (66), Those who had improper sexual intercourse and 
seduced women, are suspended from a gibbet with the head downwards, 
having sexual intercourse in this posture, whilst semen is being poured 
into the mouth, ears and nose (88). The judge who gave false decisions, is 
sentenced to slay his own child and eat its brains (91). The wife who 
has been disobedient to her husband and abused him, is licking a hot 
oven, and has her hand burnt under it (63). Women who were starv- 
ing their own children by giving them no milk, or killing them, have 
generally to dig a hill with their breasts (44. 78. 87). Those who have 

ftttroductory Effsays. Lxix 

been much lamenting and weeping, have the head cut off, and the 
tongue keeps crying (57). Adulterous women have their bodies gnawed 
by noxious animals (24); or have their tongues cut away, and eyes scooped 
out, being at the same time infested by noxious creatures (81); or have 
an iron coating on the body, the mouth being turned back to a hot 
oven (85). Unbehevers eat their own excrement (61). 

These instances may suffice to show that the numerous punish- 
ments which are described, are not chosen at random, but bear some 
relation to the crimes and offences for which they are inflicted. It is 
the idea of the strictest justice which pervades the whole description 
of hell. No crime or offence, let it be moral, or ceremonial, or a mere 
misdemeanour, according to Zoroastrian notions, is left unpunished ; but 
at the same time, no good work, however trilling it might have been, 
is left unrewarded even in hell. The lazy Davanos who suffers in hell 
for not having used his great wealth and power for the relief of others, 
is rewarded for the single good work he did when living. With his 
right foot he cast once a bundle of grass before a ploughing ox ; hence 
it was free from punishment, whilst his body was gnawed by a noxious 
creature (32). A lustful man who had often gone to married women, 
had with his right foot killed frogs, ants, snakes and scorpions; whilst 
his sinful body was placed into a brazen caldron, his right foot re- 
mained outside (60). 

Regarding the arrangement of the crimes and offences mentioned, 
there is nowhere any system, or plan, perceptible. All are thrown toge- 
ther, the most heinous crimes may be followed by trifling offences. 
Several crimes and offences are mentioned more than once, for instance 
adultery (24. 60. 62, 69. 81. 85. 88. 95.), infanticide (44. 64. 78.), nursing 
other children (87. 94.); but each time the wording is different as well 
as the punishment. 

The contents of the Arda-Viraf namak exhibit a fair specimen of 
the practical working of the Zoroastrian religion and code of law. We 
learn from it that the Zoroastrian morality differs in many points from 
the Jewish and Christian one, although those actions which are con- 

LXX Introductory Essays, 

sidered crimes according to our codes of law, are in almost all cases 
viewed in the same light by the Zoroastrians. We may thus divide 
all the crimes and sins which are mentioned, into two principal classes, viz. 
1) those which are regarded as such by the Christians also; 2) those 
which are taken for sins only from a Zoroastrian point of view, being 
a violation of the precepts of the Zoroastrian religion. 

i. Of the crimes and offences of the first class, which have been, 
or are still, punished according to our codes of law, are the following 
enumerated : 1) murder which is, however, confined to the killing of a 
Zoroastrian, as it is left undecided whether the slaughter of a man 
of another creed, especially of an idol-worshipper, is regarded as a 
punishable crime ^ (21) ; 2) adultery on the part of men, as well as on 
that of women (24. 60. 62. 69. 81. 85. 88. 95.); 3) infanticide (44. 64. 78.); 
4) poisoning (84); 5) sorcery (35); 6) sodomy (19. 71.); 7) cheating m 
weight and measure (27. 80.); 8) breach of promise, whereof it is 
expressly stated that it makes no difference whether the promise should 
have been made to a Zoroastrian, or a non - Zoroastrian (52) ; 9) telling 
lies and deceiving (; 10) false covenants (51); 11) slander 
and calumny (29. 40. 66.) ; 12) perjury (45); 13) dishonest appropriation 
of wealth (46); 14) taking bribes (79. 91.); 15) keeping back the wages 
of laborers (39); 16) misappropriation of religious property (56); 1.7) re- 
moval of a boundary-stone (50); 18) turning people out of their pro- 
perty (49); 19) misadministration and defrauding (67); 20) apostacy 
and heresy (36. 47.) ; 21) rebellion (99). There are further condemnable 
from a religious point of view : 1) abandoning the husband (70) ; 2) not 
acknowledging one's children, on the part of a father (43); 3) cruelty 
towards subjects, on the part of a ruler (28); 4) avarice (31); 5) lazi- 
ness (32); 6) illiberality and egotism (89); 7) envy (92). 

* According to the genuine Zoroastrian doctrine, which may be gathered 
from theGathas, it appears to have been meritorious to kill those who did not con- 
form to the Zoroastrian religion, the so-called dregvanto (Yas. 31,18.). But the 
Zoroastrians do not appear to have converted as many by the sword as the Moha- 
medans; though the Magian priesthood has always been more or less fanatical. 

Introductory Essays. Lxxi 

2. The following actions "are regarded as sins, punishable in hell, 
from a merely Zoroastrian point of view: 1) not heeding the laws re- 
garding menstruation, on the part of women (72), by touching w^ater or 
fire (20), or preparing food (76); 2) pollution of water and fire by 
washing in standing, or running waters, or throwing impure matter 
into it, as well as into fire (34. 37. 38. 58.); 3) intentional extinction 
of fire in general (37), and that of the most sacred fire in particular 
(55); 4) use of public warm baths (41); 5) unlawful and unnecessary 
slaughter of cattle and sheep (30. 74.); 6) ill-treatment of animals of 
the good creation, such as cattle, sheep , dogs, w^ater-otters, by starving, 
beating, or killing them (48. 75. 77. 98.); 7) carrying a dead body alone 
(38); 8) destruction of a bridge over a rapid river (55); 9) intercourse 
with a menstruous woman (22); 10) eating when talking, and muttering 
no grace (23); 11) eating the grain which is destined to be sowti(96); 
12) devouring dead refuse (98); 13) disregard of the poor and good 
(68), principally to travellers by not granting them what they ask for, 
or charging for what is given them (93); 14) distressing parents, and 
obstinacy (65); 15) lamentation and weeping (57); 16) disobedience of 
a wife to her husband, stealing property from him (63), concealing 
meat from him and eating it (83), and abusing him (26); 17) beautify- 
ing of faces, and wearing the hair of others (73); 18) nursing other 
children (87. 94.), and leaving her own child without milk (59. 95.); 

19) violation of a next-of-kin marriage, on the part of a woman (86); 

20) walking without shoes (25); 21) unbelief in the religion of Ahura- 
mazda (61); 22) idol-worship (68). 

After having mentioned all the crimes and evil actions which are 
rewarded with a place in hell, we may also cast a summary glance 
on the virtues and good actions by which heaven is gained (12 — 15). 
There are the following to be noticed: 1) liberality; 2) piety and obser- 
vance of the religious rites; 3) next-of-kin marriages; 4) just government; 
5) truth; 6) obedience; 7) keeping of fire, water, etc.; 8) killing of noxious 
creatures; 9) tending of sheep; 10) making desolate places prosperous; 
11) irrigation; 12) teaching; 13) intercession and mediation for friends, 

Lxxii Introductory EssayB. 

Of the meritorious works which are here enumerated there is one 
at which a Christian reader may be rather startled to find among then- 
number. This is the next-of-kin marriage, which was in ancient 
times contracted not only between cousins, but between brothers and 
sisters , and fathers and daughters (see pag. 149 , note 1). In our 
codes of law, marriages of this kind are strictly forbidden, as 
sexual intercourse between the nearest relatives is a punishable crime. 
The circumstance that it is so much recommended to the Zoroastrians, 
and such high merit attached to it, seems to indicate, that it has been 
revolting to the feelings of many Zoroastrians , and that they obeyed 
the religious commandment rather against their own will. Now it has 
fallen into disuse altogether, as there are only marriages between c ousins 
permitted. This institution appears to be closely connected with the 
foundation of the religion. The purity in thoughts, words and deeds, 
which is the chief principle of Zoroastrian morality, was best preserved 
and propagated in the race , as they believed , when those who had a- 
common origin were joined together for the same purpose. 

Now the question arises as to the author of the book and the 
time in which it was written. From the notice contained in 3, 22 — 24. 
and 4, 1 ., one may conclude that there existed an account of the visions of 
Arda Yiraf which was believed to have been dictated by himself. But the 
whole contents and the wording of the introduction, at the end of which 
the passages in question are to be found, are such as to exclude the 
assumption that our work might be that original account. It is , how- 
ever , not improbable that it may be based on a more original account. 
The introduction, which in the present work fills three chapters of some 
length, is certainly a later addition. Besides this one there exist two 
others which differ considerably from it in some points. The one 
which is prefixed to a Pazand and Sanskrit version (see Introduction I. 
pag. xii-xiv), connects Arda VirM with the King Gushtasp under whose 
reign Zoroaster flourished, and places the event after the prophet's death. 
The other opens one of the Persian versions (see Introduction I. pag. 
xv-xix), and connects Arda Viraf with an event in the reign of Ardashir 

Introductory Essays. Lxxiii 

Babag^n, viz. the restoration of the Zoroastrian religion, which is des- 
cribed with such detail that we may safely trace this account to an 
old historical, or legendary, source. 

From these different introductions to our work, it appears to follow 
that the original account of the visions themselves had, in all probability, 
no introduction at all, and since no time was stated at which they took 
place, each subsequent author thought himself justified in connecting them 
with any of the great meetings of the Zoroastrian priesthood which 
had been convened for the purpose of settling matters of faith and cere- 
mony, or reviving the religion. 

If we consider the introduction which opens the Pahlavi text as 
published here, as that one wliich was prefixed to the earliest edition 
of the work, there can be no doubt that Arda Viraf must have been 
living after the time of Adarbad Mahraspand; for he is mentioned as 
being anterior to Viraf (i, 16, 33, 34.). Now the celebrated Zoroastrian 
divine lived at the time of Shapur II, the son of Hormazd (A. D. 
309—379) 1, as we learn from a statement contained in the Din-kard (see 
the note on pag. 144, 145). Viraf might, therefore, have been flourish- 
ing in the b^^ or 6*'' century A.D., or at least before the downfall of the 
Sasanian dynasty in the seventh century. As he is called 'the l^nisha- 
purian' (1, 35.), and there is several times a commentator on the Avesta 
mentioned by the same name (see pag. 148, note 1), it is not impro- 
bable that both are the same. 

At whatever time Viraf may have been living, the book containing 
his visions belongs undoubtedly to the Sasanian times. There is abso- 
lutely nothing in it wliich might be adduced as an argument against 
this assertion, though we cannot exactly settle the time when it was 
written, nor the name of the author who WTote it. 

» See Mordtmann 'Die Chronologie der Sasaniden' in the Sitzungsberichte der 
philosophisch-philologischen Classe der k. bayerischen Akademie der Wiasenschaf- 
ten 1871, pag. 11. 

Lxxiv Introductory Essays. 


Gosht-i Fryan6. 

The tale of G6sht-i Fryano gives the details of the story of the 
Yoishto yd Fryananam mentioned in the Aban Yasht 81 — 83, and the 
Fravardin Yasht 120. It relates that Akht, the sorcerer, went to the 
city of Enigma-expounders, and threatened to destroy it and its inha- 
bitants, unless some of them were able to solve thirty- three enigmas 
which he would ask them. G6sht-i Fryano was recommended as the 
best solver of enigmas, and after Akht had vainly endeavoured to get 
him to defile himself by involuntary contact with dead matter, whereby 
he would have lost the assistance of the holy spirits, G6sht-i Fryano 
prepares to solve the thirty-three enigmas, most of which are of a 
trivial character. 

By deciding that a worldly paradise is better than a heavenly 
one, he avoids a snare set by the sorcerer , who was prepared to dis- 
patch him at once to the heavenly paradise, if he considered it preferable, 
as had been already done in the case of nine hundred of the Magi, 
and the nine daughters of Spitama. His further replies are : that a 
dog is taller sitting than standing ; that a sparrow walks without step- 
ping ; that a cock's tooth is horny and its horn fleshy ; that a small knife 
is better than little eating ; that wealth with piety is full, poverty with 
piety is half full, and poverty with wickedness is empty ; that men wish 
to conceal old age, but cannot; that the man who neglects his duties, 
wishes to return to life when he meets the demon of death ; what are 
the periods of gestation of various animals; that a man who is safe, 
contented and rich , lives in the greatest pleasure and comfort ; that a 
king is like unto Auharmazd and the archangels ; that food acquired by 
honest exertion is the most savory; what things are the One, the 
Two, and so on, up to the Ten; that the coldest thing is the mind of 

Introductory Essays. LXXV 

a wicked man (to prove which, he induces the sorcerer to kill his own 
brother); that the hottest thing is the hand of a pious man; that water 
is good when it subsides, fire when it cools, and a tyi-ant when he 
dies; that falsehood is heavier than a mountain, a tongue sharper than 
a knife, a fortunate child sweeter than honey, the earth fatter than 
a sheep's tail, Tishtar the most liberal, and Yayo the most just; that 
the foot of the angel of water is handsomer than that of Hu-parsh, 
his own sister and Akht's wife ; that women have more pleasure from 
being with their husbands, than from dress and housewifery, which 
Akht denies and refers to his wife, Hu-parsh, who decides in favor of 
her brother, and is killed, in consequence, by her husband. The next 
enigma, which appears to describe some animal monster, puzzles 
G6sht-i Fryano, who obtains time for consideration, until Auharmazd 
sends the angel Neryosang to inform him that the monster is a man 
ploughing with a yoke of oxen. His remaining answers are : what is 
the best horse; that dust is dry and will not burn, while grease is 
damp and will burn ; what is a good king ; and that his own riches 
are what he eats and wears and gives to the poor. 

Having solved the thirty-three enigmas, G6sht-i Fryano, in his 
turn, propounds three enigmas to Akht, on pain of death. Akht takes 
time to consider, and goes to hell to consult Akharman, who refuses 
to give the solutions, for fear of injuring his own creatures. Akht 
returns from hell in despair, and is destroyed by G6sht-i Fryano. 

With regard to the age of the work there are no indications. 
The name Marspend in ch. 1, 7. can have no reference to the celebrated 
Adarbad Marspend ; and it is unlikely that the name Parviz in ch. 2, 60. 
has any reference to Khusro Parviz , although one may be rather in- 
clined to attribute many of the extant Pahlavi writings to his time, or 
that of Khusro Noshirvan. Very little reliance can be placed upon the 
style of the language, as the style of the writers of such late works 
as the Bahman yasht, Gujastah Abalish, long after the Mohamedan 
conquest, looks older, and is less like modern Persian, than that of 
the Din-kard. 

L^xvi Introductory Essays. 

Since the subject matter of the tale of G6sht-i Fryano is already 
mentioned in the Zand texts, we may presume that a book, containing 
the enigmas of Akht, the sorcerer, and those of his opponent, G6sht-i 
Fryano, was in existence even long before the Sasanian times, perhaps 
as early as the latter end of the Achaemenian period. Whatever may 
be the age of the present work, it is, on the main, certainly based on 
ante-Sasanian sources. 


Introduction to the Pazand-Sanskrit Arda-Viraf Namah, translated 
in p. xii-xiv; transliterated from a copy supplied by Destur Hoshangji'. 

[Pazand.] l Pa nami slianaishni dadhari vahe i vispaesam vasam 
razavand, 2 avat u vafreiigamni avizh vahi din i Mazdayasna, 3 a ma- 
daga Arada Vira wazha khvaneiid. 

[SaDSkrit.] 2 Athedanimatra Ardda-Gvira-nama pustakan likhyate. 

1 Namamanyatacha datuh uttamasya sarveshancha sakarmmavatam, 
2 asya prabodhas'cha uttamaya nirmmalaya dmermmajdaiasnyah, 3 idam 
mahattara A^dda-G^ira iti nama akarayanti. 

1 In the original, the Pazand and Sanskrit alternate in sentences, indicated 
here by the numbers, and a Gujarati version follows the Sanskrit. The text is very 
corrupt, and none but the most obvious blunders of copyists have been corrected 

» The cerebrals, visarga, and seventh vowel are represented by t, th, rf, dh, 
w, h and ri. A medial anusvdra is resolved into «, before gutturals, palatals and 
dentals; into w, before cerebrals; into w, before labials and vowels; and into n, 
before semivowels, sibilants and h. A final anusvdra is resolved into n, unless it 
is followed by a vowel, labial, or pause, in which cases m is used. The palatal 
nasal, after j, is represented by n; the first sibilant is a dental English sh, but is 
here represented by s' ; the second, or cerebral, sibilant is here represented by sh, 
though elewhere it has been printed sh with the usual distinctive dot of cerebrals; 
the elision af an initial a is indicated by ', and words connected by a compound 
consonant are not separated. 

Lxxviii • Appendix I. 

4 0a gall darak Gushtaspa shah dim vahe Mazdayasna ezh Hor- 
mizda khvadhai padarafta, 5 va asho Zarathushtra Spentama pa bakhta 
shud, 6 ki Gushtaspa ii Dalag u Gospardashta u Feresaushtra u Mai- 
diomah aware Mazdayasna pa agani nishashta haiid, 7 khshkard guft 
heiid 8 ku : Vazoshaum ezh Mazdayasna yake agunahtara , 9 mangi 6 
khardan dahom, 10 anda rva 6 ananbam shahod, 11 vined rvani Spetama 
asho Zarathushtra, 12 vined u gaha u Hormazda u ameshaspendan, 
13 vined vaheshta u Chinuwad puhal u Rasna i rasht, 14 u vined 
dhozhakha u rva i darvaiidan pa dozhakh; 15 be daned ku iii kerba i 
ema Mazdayasnan kunom, hasht ayao ne; 16 avraia agahi awered, 
17 agar hasht tukhshasni kunom, agar nesht ke i kunom. 18 Vasha 
padash ham daishta bud hend, 19 vasha guft 20 ku: Ezh ema Mazda- 
yasna Arda agunahatar u vahetar. 21 Pash Ardai Vira chuii shn^ a 

4 Tasmin samaye chattatan yada Gustaspo raja dinim uttamam Ma- 
jadaiasnim Ahurmajdat svaminah pratyakaroti, 5 punyatma Jarathus'tro 
yah Spintamaputro bhagyo gatah, 6 rajna-Gustaspa-Dalagas'cha Gospa- 
dastas'cha Pharasa,us'tras'cha Ma,idiomahas'cha aparecha Majdaiasnya 
ekatra sannivishta asan, 7 sata samalochya avochat 8yat: Sodhayamah 
Majdaiasnebhyah ekam apapataram uttamatarancha, 9 mangicha khadituii 
dadami, 10 yavat atma tasmin prades'e prayati, 11 nirikshayati atmanan 
yo Spitamaputrasya punya-atmano Jarathus'trasya, 12 nirikshayaticha 
dhyanam Ahurmmajdasya amaranancha gurutaranam, 13 nirikshayaticha 
svargabhuvana-Chandorapuhulancha setun Rasna-iajnan satyam, 14 nir- 
ikshayaticha narakabhuvanam atmanas'cha ye durgatimataii narakabhu- 
vanam; 15 vis'eshatas'cha janati idam punyaii yat vayam Majdatsna 
kurmmahe, asti kiiiva nalii; 16 asmakam prabodhatayaii samanayati, 
17yadyasti adhyavasayaii kurmmaho, yadi nasti no kurmahe. 18 Techa 
tatra ekamatah sanjatah, 19 tais'cha uktaii 20 yattasmat Majdaiasne- 
bhyah Ardda-Gvira-purushah apapataiah punyavantah uttamataras'cha. 
21 Pas'chat Ardda-Gvira-purushah yathaiva tadvachanamas'rinot pada- 

' Should perhaps be ne. 
' Trobably shan. 

Ai^endix I. LXxix 

sliakhun asbnud, awar 6 pae eslitad, 22 vash dasht pa kash kard, 
guft 23 ku: Agarata manishni shihed, aigunum mangi ma dahod auda 
nahicha awaganum ; 24 agar nahicha 6 men aed, kam mafidaha shavom 
6 a anbam aslioa darvauda, 25 iu pedani u durushtiba barom, u rasbtiba 
awazb awarom. 

26 Pash Gusbtaspa sbaba u aware Mazdayasna akbesht befid, 27 u 
andar man atasba sbud beud ; 28 awasba aganin nabicba avagend bend ; 
29 nabicba 6 Arda Vira mad. 

30 Pasb a bapta kbvahar hafta zan i Ardai Vira cbun isb bama 
zan i 6i bM bend, vasba din narm u yasbt kard esbtad bend; 31 kasba 
a sbakbun asbnud , aigasba awa gara bud cbun dasba u ^ garatum mad 
bae. 32 Vasba pesb i Gusbtaspa sbaba u aware Mazdayasna sbud 
beSd, 33 namaza burd bend, 34 be pae esbtad bend, 35 vasba gufta 

bbyam urddbastbitah, 22 tenacba bastaucba kaksbayau kritau, uktancba 
23 yat: Yadi bbavatam manasah spribayati, tadbanaga^ mabyam mingim 
ma dattah yavat dangarakam^ aspbabayati; 24 yadi dangarako mayi 
samayati, kamavan prayami prades'au yat muktatmanaii durgatimatancba, 
25 idancba dutakaryau sundarataya nayami, satyatayacba vyavrityama 

26 Pas'cbat Gustasparaja aparecba Majdaiasna samuttastbuh, 27 
antas'cba agnibbuvane samuyan; 28 tecba samavayena dangarakaii 
samaspbalayan; 29 dangarakam Ardda-Gvira-purusban samayat. 

30 Pas'cbat tab sapta bbaginyo ya Ardda-Gvira-purusbasya sarvapi 
bbaryab asya sambbutah santi, tasan dinikomalananvaracba krita aste; 
31 yat tabbih etadvacbah s'rutam evau dubkbinyab sanjatab yatba kila 
tasaii tat yat mababbaritarau dubkban sampraptam. 32 Tas'cba purah 
Gustasparajno aparesbuncba Majdaiasnanan samayayuh, 33 pranamancba 
akurvvan , 34 padabbyam urddbastbita , 35 tabbis'cba uktan yat : Ma 

' Perhaps kasha i, some words being omittod between them. 
* Probably a miswriting of taddnhn. 

» So in Hjg; here it is variously written dvgaraka, (lu)i(fufaka, danguraka 
and dxingaraka. 

Lxxx Appendix I. 

ku: Ma kuned shunia Mazdayasna in thesh, 36 chi ema haft zan 
khvaliar horn, 6i yake kliasbma ; 37 har liaft zan khvahar khvashm dad 
jani horn; 38 cliuu khvanae ke haft freshwi, 39 esha frespa shtunae 
azher ailda kard eshtad, 40 ka a shtun be shtanend, esha haft frespa 
be ofteud. 

4i Pash Gushtaspa shaha, kash a sakhun ashnud, khsham kard, 
42 6 eshai gufta 43 ku: Shuma ra vad be barad, 44 guraga be khvarad, 
45 Vata agasht be duhjad^^ 

46 Pash Arda Vira, chunsh a did ku Gushtaspa shaha khshma 
kard, esha ra khvareshaiidi dad; 47 vash 6 pesh i Gushtaspa shud, 
48 dasht pa kash kard, 49 shtaisni vash kard, 50 vash gufta ku : Agar 
dashtur hed, khvarasni khvarom, 51 u rvani yazom, 52 audarj kunom; 
53 mang pas dihed. 54 Pas Gushtaspa shah guft ku: Hamaguna kun. 

55 Pash Arda Vira adaro i khvesha shud, 56 vash yazasni kard, 

kuru yuyam Majdaiasnah idau kinchidapi, 36 yato vayan sapta bhary- 
yah small, asau ekas'cha bhartta; 37 saptacha bhaginyo asya bharttuh 
bharyya asmi; 38 yatha grihamekaii sapta kshanah, 39 teshaii kshana- 
nam adhastambha eko raadhya vibhagakrite aste, 40 yadi adhastam- 
bhah samatutushyat saptapi kshanah sampatanti. 

41 Pas'chat Gustasparaja, yat tadvachanamas'rinot, kopau chakara, 
42 tasancha, uktaii 43 yat: Yushman mahavato nayet, 44 vyaghrah 
khadantu, 45 bhavatinaii sviye asthini svasanakarshatu, 

46 Pas'chat Ardda-Gvira-purusheiw, yathaiva drishtaii tat Gustaspo 
raja kopaii chakre, santoshah pradattah; 47 sacha purato Gustasparaja 
agachehhat, 48 hastau kakshayaii vyadhat, 49 stuticha prachurafi cha- 
kara, 50 techa avochat: Yadi ades'o bhavati khadyam bhakshayami, 
51 atmanam aradhayami, 52 samarthyanancha karomi; 53 mangim 
pas'chat dattah. 54 Pas'chat Gustasparaja avochat yat: Ityevan kuru. 

55 Pas'chat Arddii-Gvira-purushah agnibhuvane sviye avrajat, 56 

For fresp. 

Perhaps for anytisht be bahjdd (or danddd). 

Appendix 1. uxxxi 

u rvan yazid, khvavesni khvard. ;")? Esha klivahara manga shakhta, 
')S o zam i iiiai klivar kard ; 51) 6 Arda Vira awave vastarg kard ; 
GO Ivai Gnslitaspa shah aware Mazdayasna agahi dad. 

01 Pash Gushtaspa shfiha u aware Mazdayasnn amad hand, 1)2 
vasha oi Arda Vira mangi dad , 03 pa avar vashtarg anavinid i. 04 
Erawada gurnard gahe amokhteild, 03 ku tan 6i Arda Vira pa pash 
paifid, u naska goifid. 00 A haft khvahar peramun i vashtarg i Arda 
Vira nishasht hefid, 07 awashta goind 68 aiida haftem roza shawa. 

09 Rvan i Arda Vira ezh tan shud o Chikaiti Dahiti Chinvad 
pahnl, 70 o haftem roz awaz amad, 71 u andar tan gumekhta. 72 Arda 
Vira awar akhesht, 73 chiini ki ezh a i khvash khvaw akhesht, 74 
Vahman maneshni u hurma. 

saeha ijisni chakara, atmanaucha samaradhayat, khadyancha Akliadayat. 
57 Tabhis'cha bharyabhih manga-ushadhi pragaiii krita, 58 patrecha 
mndhubhakshanan nikshiptam; 59 Ardda-Gvira-purushas'cha adhastad- 
vastranan nivasati; OO rajno Gustaspas'cha apareshancha Majdaiasnanam 
prabodhah karitah. 

01 Pas'chat Gustaspo raja aparecha Majdaiasna samayatuh, 62 
techa Ardda-Gvira-purushasya manga-ushadhi dadatuh, 03 vastras- 
yopari asvapayat. 04 Ervadas'rijantah, 05 yatlia vapustasya Ardda- 
Gvira-purushasya praharakena rakshanti , naskancha samuchcharanti. 
06 Atas'cha sapta bharyah parivartulam Ardda-Gvira-purushavastrasya 
upavivis'uh, 67 avasthavanieha samuchcharanti 68 yavat saptamam 

69 Atmacha tasya Ardda-Gvira-purushasya kayat agachchhat Cha- 
kaita-Daiti-namni girau Chandora-puhalecha setan, 70 saptamecha ahni 
avyavritya samagachchhat, 71 antas'cha tanau milatah. 72 Ardda-Gvira- 
purushah uparishtat udatishthat, 73 yatha kihi tasya sukhi nidrayah 
samuchchatah, 74 uttamamana uttamanandasya. 

1 A misreading of the Pahl. C^VO'h^ k/ivuphiUl ^- Pers. JouLfj-i.. 


Lxxxii Appendix I. 

75 U esha khvahara chufisha Arda Vira did kusli awar nigarid, 
76 aigisha awa huram bud hefid chiim kasha pa zendaga pa vahesht 
bud head; 77 esha erawada pesh i Ardti Vird a namazh burad hefid, 
78 shud hefid pesha i Gushtaspa shaha u Dilag u Gospadasht u Fere- 
shaoshtar u Maidyomah u aware Mazdayasna agahi dad; 79 eshii nazdik 
i Arda Yira shud heiid. 80 U Arda Vira chiiiiash Gushtaspa shaha did, 
padira shudi, 81 guft ku: DrM ezh Hurmazda i bag u aineshaspeiidan, 
8'J u drud ezh asho Zarathushtra Spetaina, 83 u drud ezh Shrosh 
asho , 84 u drud ezh Adra yazda , 85 u drud ezh dmi vahe Mazda- 
yasna, 86 u drud ezh ueki u ashani i ashoa pa vahisht. 

87 Pash Gushtaspa shaha guft 88 ku : Durasht dil thu, Arda Yira, 
i ema Mazdayasna pedambar, 89 vat driid bad; 90 thoicha ezh a did 
hae rashtiha 6 ema goe. 91 Vash dasht garaft, hama Mazdayasna 

75 Tabhis'cha bharyaBhih yathasau Ardda-Gvira-purushah drishtah 
kila upari nirikshatah, 76 anvata cvam uttamanandali samabhavat, yatha 
kila jivantya evau svargabliuvane pranita santi; 77 techa ervadah pura- 
tah Ardda-Gvira-purushasya pranamaii chakruh, 78 jagmubhya purastat 
Gustaspasya rajno Dalagas'cha Gospadas'cha PJiarisustras'cha Ma,idio- 
mahas'cha apareshancha Majdaiasnanam prabodhancha adaduh; 79 techa 
asannataram Ardda-Gviramayayuh. 80 Ardda-Gvira-purushah tathaiva 
Gustasparajanau dadars'a, pratyabhimukham prachalitah, 81 uvachayat: 
Pranamah Ahurnimajdaddatuh amarebhyas'cha gurutarebhyah, 82 prana- 
mas'cha punyatmano Jaratlius'trat Spitamaputrat, 83 pranamas'cha Srosat 
punyatmakat ades'apati, 84 pranamas'cha xVdarat iajdat, 8') prana- 
mas'cha uttamadiner-Majdaiasnyah, 86 pranamas'cha s'ubhat samadha- 
nachcha yat muktatmanau svargaloke. 

87 Pas'chat GustasparajA uvaclia 88 yat: Arogyan hridayafi te, 
he Ardda-Gvira-purushah, asmakam Majdaiasnanan dyut, 89 namostu 
tubhyam; 90 tvamapi tasmat yat drishtamasti satyataya asmaki briihi. 
91 Techa haste vidhritya, sarve Majdaiasna ekatra upavivis'uh, 92 techa 

Or perhaps did , the writing being ambiguous. 

Appendix I, LXXXiii 

aganin nisasht heiid , 92 vasha gufta ku : Go an i yat did pa vahesht 
u dozliakh u Chiniiad pulial ; 93 edum rashtiha goi anda emaicha danom 
ill i (Trudaman grift eshtarl. 

1)4 Pasli Arda Yira goid 95 ku : Varsh u tarsh horn; 96 nukhusht 
tan khvarsni dahtslini, pas purasaslini kunasni, kara framaisni. 97 Pash 
Gushtaspa shaha framud, 98 ku osh Arda Vira khvash kharsni, khuba- 
pukht hu-bui khvardi, u shard aw, khvash mae khvash gospeiid >. 
99 Pash Arda Yira drun barasman yasht, 100 khvarsni khvard, 101 
myazda rainid 102 pa sparhm u mai, vazh be guft. J 03 U staishni i 
Hormazda u ameshaspeiidan spash aiignrd, u Averedad u Ameredad 
aiigard, l(i4 u afreuga guft. 

avochan yat: Bruhi tat yattvaya drishtan svargaloke narakalokecha 
Chandorapuhalecha setau; 93 evaii satyataya bruhi yatha vayam vi- 
janimah tat yat samaye grihitamasti. 

94 Pas'chat Ardda-Gvira-purushah brute 95 yat: Bubhukshita- 
trishitas'cha asnii; 96 prathamafi tanoh khadyan dadata, pas'chat prash- 
nakuruta , karyancha ades'at. 97 Pas'chat Gustasparaja samadis'at, 98 
yat etasmai susvadu khadyaii s'uddhapakvaii sugandhavyanjanan s'ita- 
ancha salilau susvadancha madhun samayan. 99 Pas'chat Ardda-Gvira- 
purushena druna ejatah, 100 bhajyancha bhuktam , 101 miajdas'cha pra- 
charat 102 sugandhaih pushpaih madhunacha, maunavisarjjatam. 103 
Stuti Ahurmmajdasyacha svaminah amis'aspintanancha tridhaprahara- 
kasya jalamurttecha vanaspatimiirttecha saiismritah. 

' These two words must be a misreading of some Pahlavi phrase, including 
the verb, perhaps ^)WJfiW -!(^l^ aubash yansegimfl. 

LttXiV Appendix 11. 


Introduction to the Persian Arda-Virjif Namah contained in the 
MS. H28 , and translated in p. xv-xix. 1 

cXjc|*-=fc > o^-wLifc xXliLAsi. tV-jj-iLxj kLx) x5^ (s ;5k>yjl r»)io u*L^*« 

i^jvl xS' (^L^jl c>.a5^^ '^y-^y^ ij**-?. <-^ *^•^■^' sl^yO ^j JwX) vlyfli J»^^ 
^UcL-i ^ tXJtXjyr ^ xJ.4^ ^l\f wjij|j> vLflJ ^1"S•^ cVaaaIj \Lj cVjyljIo 

\| jJC*!*Aj tXJS ^ U**il ^^Lxifcjf &^ tXx)f *J Owx» cXao ^L^^ d^j'.xf (tX^k 
joo JL^s*- jjL-*kjl ijLxx x<3 Jk.jJ».$ JcLvO;.:^! SvU vXjJ i\AA.Ci|j> wj 
^f ^jLkxi y^^ v^jO tX.v.A<tilt> J.J \f \i4.2* LxA«.il ^jl*i^ji x5 cXjlVjvXj 
^L*!*j| acJ' ;'^)^) ij' ^'^ '"^ y*"^ '^^^ )^ ^^ tXJO^j OvX! ^.:;/.Aie ,^^5 <J>*^ 

' In accordance with the MS., this text is not divided into sentences, and 
no distinction is made between the letters g and ^. A few words, which are hardly 
intelligible, are transcribed as they appear to be written. 

Appendix 11. Lxxxv 

^AvXjf ^( ^OlO cXil^xJ vb y^~^ ,j.j( ^^-w*^ ^S^ tXJJ>|j> -^A^-b. ^^-^T^i 
5 U'^T "-^rib Si55T^ )yjALbkl iuaj' ».jf . ci^Aw-xJ i_/**^ Y^rr-^-^***'') ^ 

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1 ^ cXa^-o 


u^^^ V 

' J^-^:?>^ 7:^ 


<5^ ; cXA-i^^. 


Ci^AAJ L^5>Ia5^ 


j.iC tXxJCwJliX, 




J iXJ^y.J Y^'^-^ O-AiC 

»; -il;:?; 

j-CsJ" af |*-oljo U ^ jU^c^i ^Sti\y.^ c^Wr^ lj'<^J ^ 5' '"^ (J^-*-^' 

Lxxxvi Appendix 11. 

Tr ^3y^T^ <j^-§-^r! j^-jLaX! Lj j^£.^4.->i'f xi^ xJ Lj ci^Ai(LX.A;o 5l5o slS^xiol 

cXJoL^Aj fc^^^-i 50 iji^J'^ ^jLa-c >0 ^J^J OjjfXi ^^iic Lj lXJvAJ (^f &> 
. JoJoLxi>.J c^A^^j (j^vJ '; '^^7-5 • tX.J'^-*''^' y? 5yA5 Lj i^L^xiLjs^ . 

^^=* cVJ4>L.^j ^5>t> (jf>J (c^J ^J; i^;*-^^ ^ c\aa^.aj ^^^^<^ 5 <3ooLaa*oI 

X5 j^*J \Aaw.AXI Ci«.4.^J tXJjfj oLj^J ^Iv-i «-t\J5 tXj cXaA^AJ pkL^J 

tX.Joli> .tXj i'ol, defective j^:?^^ o^-wK i^Lis. ^^^^^^^ 5 ^J>Laa£.I \I 
^^^^^ ^^-^;;-^J ^^ ^tXi lXj ; ^A*,f^ ^i^ . . . ^'OL^ J^i y ^^A*j 
Km ^j( (J^^ ^^5 u')' ^*'^ 8lVjlX.aa«.j (^JOj.5 ^'^*:5 tXJOlO ^lXj 
fol. defective l_3(^.s\j ^ t>L^ \Lj L^jL^iC j.a.w^ xj y^ Oy.^ ^'^)^^ /r-^^ 
^^aJLaj n^aa*-j> (jiiw^ ^f ^ cX.jJwXax> ^^yj L^+^j ^L/i*j| v^wjLa-^ o.a5> 
tXJO^j sJoyXj x^ v^t^ ^v'<' Kmj . A« defective 0«.j XA^v^xi^j oLj^ 
t>j.x) cy.Aa^ . *iy.^wAJ ^1 . tXJJwXAX! ij"^'r:? c>..^J ^-S vJ t>v^ V 
^ lV.jc>vX1a,x) jjvwyj ^Lxi^jf Ow5 wj Oj.S^ vl cXjO^j SiXsyXj vaAxj x5 

• tXJk>».XA.>0 ^<(iyj cXaaJ slXXi^jf i^Ji 4.J t>-J )'y^ U**'**' Iff**' ^j' 

> A phrase, referring to the remaining 3C00 of the 4000 first selected, is 
evidently omitted here. 

Appendix II. r.xxxvii 

—"^Lvw^j . 3jk.>yio j.x,CO-».^ a£.L4..=>- ^^^' y-§-J cXi^^J isJCA«>-;i^J ,jIa> 
Jk.A-*iLj wA^:^_;.-i► sl^j'-;?' y? ^^ ''^57^ ''"^ AJJ^ 3jLa*w.jI ^ ScXA-Ci^j 

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\L».j • Aj^UcaaajI ^o o • A-AJCi-jAj (ji>"«l\ . cXjA>w oLi « tXJ>^y5^ 
ao cV^Ij 1^1 ^xj \lj xj . ^IvJ^ 1^'^)' ^'^^^ ^'"^ t\-iXft5 . kXiOjj 

)W '; l-^ ^^T?*^ *^ ; ^■^-*^; U>^ ; v5^^' ^^^■?" '-^•^^'-^ ;"^' ^^-^ 
^yx=&. J.I xJiLo ^Ivfj '^)' (♦■■fV'^'Aj (^'"^•■^ (^' Jl^-=»-l j.AJ L/j Lj ^"-j 

^Lcv ^->f o^AXIj y^j w»^XJ _l. . J>«-S\j xjL^ ^kXil ^'>^^ o^ijj 
^jmJ kXixilj x^J> ^>^>J Aj \f ^ »X*jIAj (^^r^ c-^<y ^^-^ ^ ^y.'^ 



The reader must be prepared to meet with a few type broken in 
the press, of which the following have been noticed: i inp. ll,lin.5. 

12.21. 1^6. 21,:,. 23,1. 35,22. 36,9. 37,6. 39,6. 43,4. 5(1,6. 69, i, 6. 82,3. 
8o,6. 109,4. 136,8. 231,7. 299,3. \ in 9, g. 29, 20. 42,2i. j> in 77,6. 
111,22. 208,7. 291,10. )M in 83, g. join 282, s. ^ in 289,9. 295,9. 

Read: in p. xvii. lin. 13. Ardashir. xviii. iG-17. how didst thou 
escape? xxi. 25. Risalah-i. xxiv. 27. Aryan, xxix. u. 9'^. xxxi. 30. 
with, xxxiiig. Ethiopic. i.xv. 16. because. Lxvi 3. thought itself. 15. of 
a man. in. (omit) to. Lxxviii. e. an anbam. 2,36. Peshotanji. 2, 40. 
Zand. ^,ib. fjajestako. 3, le. gajestak. 7, is. Nikhshdpur. Il,i6.bu-i. 
13,14. akhezid. 16, is. Arda. 18, lo. hu-rost, rust. 18, is. actHno. 
19,19. shnayinid. 20, 17. der-yazishnih. 22, 19. rist-akhez. 25, 17. yash- 
arubo. 29, 17. yedato. ?>\,\i<. avczak, 38, 14. aurvaran. 43, 12. Ataro. 
44,13. Chinuvat. 4?, 19. arjanikaii. 50, 16. rfJ^w/io-i. bX^ 

56. 22. kard. 73, 20. asyav. 85,13. apuclaklishalnh. 87, 21. tstddak-i. 

87.23. has. 88,18. aigh. 90, is. rUt-dkhcz. 94, 13. kard. 95, 17. amur- 
zishn. 135,11. shndycm. 137,7. avadih. 148, 34. technical. 149, n. 
they. 158,28. Srosh. 175,i4. 178,5,13,23. 179,i5. 180,24. 181, 21. 182,i2. 
183,8. 186,3,21. 189,10. 191,3. Ataro. 193, i4. was. 197,23. re-estab- 
lishment. 199,21.202 21. Ataro. 236, is. man. 244, 12. yat-ahdk- 
veri/ok-]. 214, 15. avasrud. 244, ig. dastobar. 244,19. hamdk. 2(J0, 7. 
Garodmano. 278, 6. J^j^j^y^, 279, 19. shem. 288, 14. shnayinid. 
297,19. at. 300, 8. final. 3()3, 1,;. identified. 313, 1. beautiful. 

In Ard-Vir. ch. 62,6. drdst may be a better reading, imd the 
translntion will be: '6 and having adorned herself, etc. 


Arda-Vlraf Mmak. 

The Pahlavi text 

with Transliteration and 

the various readings of several MSS. 


The divisions into chapters, paragraphs and sentences, are innovationB, as tho 
MSS. are written continuously, and with little attention to stops. "Whenever a 
Huzv&resh word occurs in any of the MSS. consulted, it is used instead of its P&zand 
equivalent, although the latter may occur in the older MSS. The idhdfat J is joined 
to the preceding word, as in the MSS. ; but the conjunction \ is separated , for the 
convenience of the reader, although it is generally joined, in the MSS., either to 
the following, or the preceding, word. The extra final I is inserted only when it 
occurs in Hg; and the variations of K^o, with regard to this final, are the only 
ones noticed. The diacritical marks are those found in lie, which are given so 
far as the available type would admit. 

The transliteration is kept to a uniform system, which is explained in the 
Introduction. Roman letters are used to represent all Pahlavi numeral signs (less 
than 1000) to avoid confusion with the numbers of the sentences. Words italicized 
in the transliteration, are those referred to in the various readings, at the foot 
of each page. 

In the various readings: 

All variations that are evidently clerical blunders, are unnoticed. The num- 
bers refer to the sentence in the text, and to the number of the word in the sen- 
tence; two, or more, words connected by hyphens in the transliteration, being 
counted separately, unless they are joined together in the Palilavi text. 

B. — MS. corrected by Destur Bahmanji Jamshedji Jamasp Asi. 

D. — MS. prepared by Destur Hoshangji from B. P. N. etc. 

Dest. — Destur Hoshangji. 

Hg. - Dr. Haug's MS. No. 6, dated A. Y. 766. 

Hja. — A fragment from the same MS., extending from ch. 1, 1 to 1,38 aigh. 

Hi7. — Dr. Haug's MS. No. 17; extending from ch. 1,1 to 44,3 humdndk ; 
nndated and modern. 

Hig. — Dr. Haug's MS. No. 18, P&z. — Sans., dated Samvat 1466. 

K 20. — the Kopenhagen MS. No. 20, beginning with Atrdn, ch, 1, 9; dated 
A.Y. 690, 700 and 720, but written rather later. 

K 26. — tho Kopenhagen MS. No. 26, containing dfnrd, ch. 4, 6, to khadihdn, 
ch. 64,8; adinani, ch. 84, 1, to Madth, ch. 89,10; and minicl, ch. 100,4. to end. 

N. — two MSS, written respectively by Destur As^ji NushlrvAnji and by 
Destur Nushirvanji Jamaspji Asa; the latter dated A.Y. 1108. 

P. — MS. belonging to Destur Peshutanji Behramji Sanjana, and \vritten by 
Mobad Naurozji Sanjana. 

Bund. — Bundehesh. Chald. - Chaldeo. Hob. — Hebrew, om. — omits, 
or omit. Mkh. — Mainyo-i-khard. I'^z. — Pazand. Pers. — Persian. Sans. — 

Sanskrit. Syr. — Syriac. Vend. — Vendid&d. Z, — Zend. 

Chapter 1. 

-^^ )ni T^i* ))e) iw^»)^)^ -'M^j^ )>*>fr* ^)v^ j^iK ^^»? 

J^^J^exyj 1W)^ ^-0^^(21^ j^jy^^Pi* j35^^^)^ jTOy^ ^^ 4 

Chapter I. 

Pavan shem-i Yadadano. 
1 A§tfin6 yemalelund aigh: khadu-hdr yasliarilbo Zaratiihasht 
dino-i mekadliind yin gehan rubak bara kard; 2 va vad btindakih-i 
CCC6 shanat, dino yin avezakih va anshuta yin avtgiiminih yehevAnd 
homand. 3 Va akhar gajastako Ganrak-minavad-i darvand, gAmano 
kardano-i anshAtaano pavan denman dino rM, 4 zak gajastak Alak- 
sagdar-i ArAniayak-i Mujrayik-manishno niyaz^ninid-i pavan giian 
sazd va naparto va dahik , val Airan shatro yatund ; 5 afash valman 
Allan dahyupat zektelAnd, 6 va baba va khudaih vashuft va aviran kard. 

1. 1. 4. P. Jjjiawy. 1, 7. J only in He- 2,3. all omit the idhafat J, but per- 
haps jwj — /\j (a variant of j*» ) -|- j. 3,3. f. Ajlgj)^^. 3,5. J only 
in Hga. ii, 6. only in B. Hg, Hga. 4,3. B. j3^j^^ JJJ . 4,4. J only in Hg 

Arda-yirftf I. 7-1 

IVO)*^ ^-0^^(^T^ J^^Ai^Pil JS^i^^)si 3i»^j^ ^^^ J5|P5 J^T^o^y 

r Va denman dino, chigun hamak avistak va zand, madam tora 
p6stihd-i viiastak va pavan maya-i zahaba. nipishtak, yin Stakhar Pa- 
pakano pavan karita-nipist hankhetdnd yekavimAnad; 8 va valman 
patiyarak-i saxjk-hakht-i ijasharm6k-i darvand-i anak-kardar Alaksag- 
dar-i Ar<imayik-i Mujrayik-manishno madam yaityfind; va bara sukht. 
9 Va chand dastobaran va datobaran va aerpatan va magopatan va 
dino-bArdaran va afzar-homandan va danakan-i Atran shatro rai barS 
neksHnd. 10 Va masan va kadak-khAdaan-i Airan shatr6, khadAk 
levatman tanid, kin va anashtih val miydn ramitund; 11 va benafsh- 
man tebr<inast, val diishahil dubarast. 

12 Va akhar min zak, mardAman-i Atrdn shatro, khadiik levatman 
tanid, dsbiip 

I. 8, 5. J^m in all but H,r. 8, 6. D. J^ .^<»». S, 10, 11. all omit the idhd- 
fat J, 9,21. so in H,r; B. N. JJ^^XJ)^ : ''• ^)fi3^) i H,, kustan ; H,, 

H... K„ ))^)ji^^), 10, 13-14. K„ )yi)i^ T^p 

Arda-Vtr&f I. 13-20. 5 

V^ ^))>H3 K*? wo '>^)»^ m ) ^'^ ^)))*ii -^ -0^5^ )r6 

<:c^ ^5 5, 16 ^))^oo -x^^^^e) -^i -^ wo^ j^ -o^^'ro)^ 
))e) -ijs^e) ii^ jsJyei-^^K" •'^a)^^ j^P ^-0)>*' ^Pe)>*» ^))*»^ 

«?o ^-^^^ ^Mro >*>^)' !^ r^m^ )>H5er)-^ (jj iro i^)* i ^^ 
f 20 3^^ ^),;*o -*"^-5 )t6 J^^ro)^ ) ^^'iti^'K ■^-^c » ^^ 

va patkar ychevund. 13 Va chigunshdn khMa va dahyupat va sarddr 
va dastobar-i dino-akaa la yehevund ; 14 va pavan niandavam-i Ya- 
dadan gilman yehevund homand ; 15 va kabed khadAinak kesh, va 
varoishn javid rastakih, va gilmanih, va javid dddistdmh yin gehan 
bara val pedakih ydlund. 16 Vad zak amat zerkhAnd hu-f award 
anoshak-ruban Ataro-pad-i Mdrspenddn man padash, pavan sakht-i 
pavan Dino-karto, ra-i vadakhtak madam var rikht. IT Va cband 
dadistan va datobarih levatman javid keshan va javid varoishnano 
bara kard ; 18 va denman di?i6 yin Shaspigdno mard<iman yin giiman 
yehevund homand. 

19 Va akhar, magoi-mardan va dastobardn-i dino zakai yehev<ind 
hflmand ; 20 min 

I. 12,14. ^u in all but R,^. 13.2. Hg, Hea. K„ )>^ji^(^' 13,7. P. 

^-^)^6- '5/'3- ^- Hit AJ^J^^^^. 15, 17. KioTV)* la, 19. all MSB. 
sepamre ilus sentence from the next, mc.e decidedly rluni the sense requires. 
IC, 5. ^ygj)A) iu all but 11,7. 10,9. D. H „ ^jt^)^xi)diyo^. 10,10. Hir 
c^u/. 1'). 17. lie lieu ^y. 1'n3. J see:n8 wanting; De^t. suggests ^J^. 
18,5. His scvuihni. 20. Kj© omits this sentence. 

6 A.rd&-Vtraf I. 21—28, 

) -x^iT i^>')a3^ ^ ^' rtD^r' i^c^>*' :^va -»!)^ \c2y^e) 

zak mar kMda-homand va pur-pirn yeheviind homand. 21 Afshan pavan 
baba-i pimzkar Ataro-i Frobag, hanjaman khvast; 22 va kabed kha- 
duinako milai;d va hu-sikdl madam denman yelievfind, 23 aighman charak 
bavihunastdiio avayad, 24 vadmaii khadih-J vazliliied, va min mtna- 
vadano Tikasih yAitylined ; 25 atgh mardumdn-i yin demnan aub^m 
homand, bara khavitftnd 26 aigh denman yazis],n^ va dron, va dfrt- 
nagan, va nirang, va padyavtli, va yoshddsarth-i lanman pavan kardak 
ydttijuncm, val Yadadan yamtfined, ayAf val shedaan; 27 va val fiyid-i 
rAban-i lanman yimtdned, ayi!if la. 

28 Afshan akhar pavan ham-dddistanih-i mindino dastobardn hamak 

I. 20,5. all omit ). 20, 7. Hg ^^ . 21,3,5. Hg omits J. 22,3. H.a.Hi, 
^y)(J' 22,4. Hit yoM . 22,6. H., H,,, P. ^JJ4J0^ . 23,3. H, 
UTtDi^KJMJ* -^'2- ^•' ^''»' Kjo^-J^i^. 24,4. all omit ). 25,2. 
J^)^.^ in all but Kao- 26,3. K 20 )yi^^ . 26,6. all omit J. 26,13. K,, 
11 (I a. Kjio JJQJJiSJ^^J^U; 11,7 JJ^JaJ^I^J^^U. 26,17. so in H,r; D. 
^S^^' il«' ^1«» f-'^-K^ '"^ ^« >')^'-^ • -^'"- *^«o prefixes |. 

Anla-Tirif I. 29-38. 

VtP^Je) \ V^reD^j;*) i>H5))5 ) nyy* ) )*o^'-^ ,-^ej) motr ^^ V)*» 

mardum val baba-i Ataio-Frobag karitund hoinand. 29 Afshan min 
aimanden javidak kard VII gabra muu pavan Yadadan va dino avi- 
gAmantar yehevund homand; 30 afshan nafshman minishn va gAbishn 
va kunishn virdstaktar va fraruntar; 31 va guft aigh: LekAm khvesh- 
ytsh bara yetibuned, 3'2 va min lekum khaduk-I mAn pavan denman 
kar shapir va avandstar va M-srobtar bard vajined, 

33 Va akhar, valmanshan haft gabra bara yettbunast homand; 
34 va min haft III, va min telatak khaduk-I, Virdf shem, bari vajid ; 
3.J va alt niAn Nishdpur shem yemalekmd. 36 Va akhar, valmaii 
Viraf, chtgunash zak sakhun ashnud, madam val ragelman yekavt- 
munad, 37 va yadman pavan kash kard, va gAft 38 aigh: Hattan 

I. 28,14. ^))C^J4 in aU but H ,t. 30,3. Hg, Hga.Hi, prefix ^. 30,8. H» 

VrO)-"^)' ^2,9. Kje om. 32,11. Hg. Hja, K,,, 3^^)(Jil))^ . 33,7. 

He, Hga, Kjo ^^rCDMVCO* ^^'^- ^^^ always Virdja, or Virdzh, in PAr.; 
and Virdya, Virdja, or Virdjya, in Sans. 35,4, so in Hja. H^, Kjo; the 
initial ) has nearly disappeared in Hg; D. ^i')^}00) ' ^i» '^ asdvx\r. 36,3 
K50 cm. 

8 ArdA-VIrftf I. 39. — IL 3. 

Chapter II. 

)f6 woo» ^ V)*» ^Mvo p^-i* )rt)(^ o»J5) )*'Aeo»_r 

rnedammuned , adinani akdmalc-hdmand mang al yehabuned , 39 vad 
lekum Mdzdayasndn va li nahichak ramltunfed, 40 va hat nahichak 
val li yamtAn^d, kdmak-homandylsh vazlAnam val zak jinak-i yasha- 
riiban va darvandan, 41 va denman pStkham drUstytsh yedrAnara va 
r&stylsh yaityunam. 

42 Va akhar, valmanshan Mazdayasnan va li nahichak yaityftad ; 
43 fratArn bdr pavan hAmat, va dadigar bar pavan hAkht, va sadigar 
bar pavan hAvarsht; kola teJafdk nahichak val Viraf yatAnd. 

Chapter II. 

1 Va valman Viraf rat VII akhtman yehevund, 2 va valmanshdn 
kold yj/afc/jf7nan<7w Viraf chigunneshmanyehevAnd hSmand; 3 afshan dino 

I. 38,5. D. H,„a;A^' 39,:?. so always in Hg. 39,4—5. H17 i>) . 41,4. K,, 

-H^St^S^' 42,5—6. 11,7 3), 43,16. H. ,7 -U(^^ ; D. H,s, Kjo add Jj*j. 

II. 1,4. K20 om. 1,5. K,o ^^. 1,6. H,8 sana. 1,7. Kjo adda ^j^)A». 

1,5.-2,4. D. om., though it occurs in P., also in Hg, H17, H,8, Kjj. 2,3. 

Hi7 om. 2,4. Kjo ^O*' 2, 5. Hj, zam. 

ArM-Vlraf II. 4-14. 9 

t)Tt2) "^-^ iiT 12 ^)^pM s^))^r^ w ^^ _J>^^^ ^ ^^^^ 
^<^iy ^w» M^ Yj^ 13 ^)y^^yi -uy >A*eJ^Jej wo^\ ^)y^)» -^ 
wo iT o»te) 14 )-o)rc-io i )^)'-^ K")i^ i^^ ^Wf i^y* -^ -^^ 

narm va yesht kard yekavimunad. 4 Va amatshdn ashnud, adinshan 
angun girantum mad homand, 5 va drayid homaud, va kala kard ho- 
mand, 6 va yin hanjaman-z Mcizdayasndnd levin vazlund homandj 
7 bara yekavimunad homand, va namaz yedrund homand, 8 va ye- 
malelund aigh: Al vadun^d lekum Mazdayasnan denman mandavam; 

9 maman lanman haft akhtman homanem, va valman khaduk hrdd] 

10 va kola haft akhtman valman akh neshmanili homanem. 11 Chi- 
gun khanak-I bahd mun VII frasp va stun-I azir yin hankhetundd 
yekavimmidd , 12 m,u)i zak stun bara yansegund, valmanshdn fraspan 
bara auftinand; 13 angun lanman haft akhtma?i rai akh denman khaduk 
aUd, munman zivishn va yakhsenunishn ; 14 fraz min Yadadan 

II, 4,2. Hig adds a saJchun. 5,1. K20 J. 6,3. He omits J. 6,4. K,o omits 
final). 6, 6— 7. D. 5)p3). 9,3. H,7,K2o y*^ y^ . 9,7. Kjo)^. 
9,9.-10,5. Hie om. 10,4. K20 om. 10,6. so in K,o; Hig suhar, Sans. 
hharttri; all others ^O^X* 11,2. K20 AWy for \. 11, 3—4. Hj, om. 
11,5. K,o ^^. 11,7. H,8 esha frespa. 11,11. D. ^))^)A». 11,12. Kjo 
^)4j).A). 12, 1. Hi7^p. 12, 6. H18 adds ;m/i{. 13, 4. Hjs 2am. 13, 6. so 
in Kjo; Hig sfii, Sans, hharttri; all others ^^3i, 13,9. ^li in all tut He. 

10 Ard&-Viraf II. 15-22. 

0% V)** ^))Y^ 
) ^))i:t) -o^ lie) ,^0 )*'rc^^-^^-f ■')'P ^^) ^) ^-^ ) -^ 

kola nadukih min valmari aito. 15 Lekum levin min zaman, min den- 
man shatro-i zivandakano bara val zak-i murdakdm sheduned, IG madam 
lanman staliambo avi-chim kard yehevunM. 

17 Va akhar, valmanshan Mazdayasnan , chigunshan %ah sakhun 
ashnud, yalmanshan haft khvaharan rdi khursandili yehabund, 18 va 
giift aigh: Lanman Viraf vad VII yom tanu-drust bara lekum avasp- 
drcm; 19 va denman shem farukhuih madam denman gabra bara 
keti'Aned. 20 Ya akhar, valmanshan ham-dadistan yehevund homand. 

21 Va akhar, valman Viraf, levin-i Mazdayasnan, yadman pavan 
kash vadund, va val valmanshan guft 22 aigh: Dastobarih att vad 
rubdntkgdn yezbekhunam, va 

II. 14,7. D. W)Or^)* 15,12. K,o omits final ). 17,6. K,o ora. 17,7. K20 
yo^, 17,12. His, Kjo om. 18,4. K^o om. 18,7. K20 ^0*' 1^'^^' ^^^ 
•^Jj^idjj^; K20 -^JJ^ifli*. 20,3. Kj7 adds ^)A*|^C^O' ' '^^'^- ^- ^' 
21,3. K20 om. 22,3. K20 )^-« • -2,5. H17 )^^^jj. 

Ard4-Vlr4f II. 23-30. H 

» ^021^ ^ V ) -0^ ^-Hy ^))0) ^^r ) -^iiT^oo^ )*oV 

khurishn vashtamunam, va andarz vadunam ; akhar, as va mang bara 
yehabuned. 23 Dastobaran farraud aigh: Ham-gunak vadun. 

24 Ya akhar, valmanshan dino dastobarano, yin man-i minavad, 
jinak-i-i XXX gam pavan zak-i khup vajid. 25 Va valman Yiraf 
ro^shman va tanu bara khalelund, va padmujano-i navak padmiikht, 
26 pavan boi kMsh bara boyinid, pavan tdkht-gdh-i pasijako vastarg 
navak dakya vastard. 27 Yal gas vastar-i dakya bara yetibilnast, 
28 va dron yezbekhund, va rubdnikgdn aiyyadinid, va khurishn vash- 
tamund. 29 Ya akhar, valmanshan dino dastobaran as va mang-i 
Yishtaspano III jam-i zahabin malman kard ; 30 afshan khaduk jam 
pavan humat, va dadigar jam pavan hukht, va sadigar jam pavan 
huvarsht^ fraz val Yiraf 

XL 22,8. K20 ^>*0^^' 24,9. D. H^ omit \. 26,7. so in all. 26,10. Kj, 
adds J. 28,5. Hj7 )A»^J^j3 . 29, 12. H,r )0^i»S . 30, 15. K,o adds 
final ). 30,17. K20 t^). 

\2 Arda-ViiAf II. 31-36. 

yehahimd; 31 afash zak as va mang bara vashtamund^ va hushydrytsh 
vaj bara gufto, va pavan vastarg khelmund. 

32 Yalraanshan dino dastobaran va haft akhtmandn, VII yom- 
shapano, pavan atash hamishak - soj , va hoi-vajardk, va nirang-i 
dinoik avistdk va zand bara yemalelund; 33 va nask yezhehhund^ va 
gasan srud, va pavan tarik pas dasht homand. 34 Va valmansban 
haft akhtmandn pavan ptramm-i vastarg-i valman Viraf yetibuuast 
homand, 35 va haft yom-shapan, avistak yezbekhutid. 36 Valmanshan 
haft akhtmandn, levatman hamak Mazdayasnan dino dastobaran, va 
aSrpatan, va magopatan, pavan hich khadumaJc panakih bara la shedkund. 

II. 30,19. K20 COO- ^^'"^' ^"'y ^" ^"- ^^'^- ^" ^^^^ "^3' ^^'^* ^^° 


K20 omit J. 35,1. only in H17, and inserted by Dest. 35,6, C^O^ '° ^^^ 

but K20. 36,3. H18 0am. 36,15. B. His, K20, N. add y^. 

19. ^20 COO* ^^'^' ^"'y ^" ^"* "^ ' " 3' ' ^° 

^^^y). 32, 6. His Sana. 32,16. D. H17 y^^)' 32,20-22. H^ 
1. 33, 3. K20 ^00« • ^'^' ^' *^'8 Sana. 34, 6.D. H17 J) p)^^ • 34, 7. lis, 

ArdA-VirAf III. 1-6. 13 

Chapter III. 

>i>)^ ^^))»a ^^-^ ■'?Cy^(^ ^) M^ ^ 0»J^) T^l -M)^V ) 1 

-^Ci^)*' ^D^OO Y'^hY.^ •'))^O0 lO* -^^ ^^'^^J^ -^D^oo 1^3 

Chapter III. 

1 Ya rubdno-i valman Yiraf min tanu val Chakat-i Daitik Chinu- 
vat puhal vazlund; 2 va haftum jom-shapd7id lakhvdr yatuud, va yiii 
tanu vazlund. 3 Yiraf madam khast, chigun amat min zak khelmu-i 
basim akliezid, 4 Yohuman-minishn va khuram. 

5 Ya valmanshan akhtmandn, levatman dino dastobaran va Maz- 
dayasnan, chigunshano Yiraf kliaditund, shad va khuram yehevund 
homand; 6 afshan guft aigh : Drust yatund hdmawjih^ lak Yiraf-i Ian- 
man Mazdayasnan petkhambar, min shatro-i murdakan val denman 
shatro-i zivandakan, yatund homanyih. 

m. 1,2. Kao J)*»iy« "1,8- •> only in He, iKjq. 2,4-5. K^o ^0» y^^^K) * 
2,10. His adds gumehhta. 3,8. Hig qdva, Pers. *-j|^ia. ; all others J|A->» 
which it would be hazardous to trace to Heb. MCH; Dest. suggests ^^ 
wMch occurs in the Kar-namak-i Artakhshir-i Papakan, and is here adopted. 
5,3. D. rf^o>; Hi, zana. 6,6. D. aupf^ ; H,, ^i^^yt, 6,12. Kjo 
prefixes). 6, 19— 20. H17 om. 6, 20. D. K,o -U,^)A>. 

14 Ardft-Virif HI. 7-13. 

) 8 ^)p5:^ ^^) ^yh) j)^p r^)rt3^ )fv ) ^^6)^^ WO^) ' 

^ey s<>)y^^ o»-fi ) ^ii^oo ^^^e) ^))rQ)^ -jotrcc^ ^^^) ^) ^-ny 

7 ValmansMn acrpatdn va dino dastobaran, levtno-i Yiraf, namaz 
yedrund. 8 Va akhar, val Viraf, chigunash khaditund, padirak yatund, 
va namaz yedrund, gitft aigh: Lekum rdi drud min Aiiharmazd khudaf 
va amahraspenddn ', 9 va drud min yasharuho Zaratiihasht-i Spitaman; 
10 va dr<id min Srosh-yasharubd , va Ataro yedato, va gadman dino-i 
Mazdayasnan; 11 va drud min avarik yasharAban; va drud min nadukih 
va dsdnth avdrik minavadan-i vahislit. 

12 Va akhar, dino dastdhardno guft 13 aigh: DrAst lipamman 
lak, Viraf-i 

m. 7,2. D. K20 ^^J3JJ. 7,6. D. ^y^,; Kjo JJ*,3. 8,3. bo in aU but K,o, 
which omits it. 8,12. K20 ^^^W* 8,15. K20 om. 8,20. so in Hn, Kjo ; 
inserted by Dest. ; Hg J. 8,21. in all other places, He has y^ for the 
medial U) ; and so also in K26. 9» 4. K20 om. 9, 5. Koq always omits the 
medial i). 10,4—8. in this frequent phrase, Hj has uJaiyVjiJi^ 72 times, 
Hi^-^ -W^ 20 times, U,3a(y J-J(^,3J0 9 times, andji}3a(^0(3,3ii 
thrice ; it also omits the conjunction t 82 times. 10, 10. D, adds J ; Hi, 
aja = y^. 11, il. Hit adds J. 11,12. Hjg adds asua. 12,4. K20 omits 
final). 13,3. His diZ = ,.^.3. 

Ard&-Vtraf III. 14-21. 15 

lanman Mtizdayasnan pStkhambar; afat dried yehevundd lakich. 14 
Kola mamanat khadituud, rastyish val lanman yemalclAti. 

Jo Akhar, valman Viraf guft aigli: Fratum guhishn denman, 
16 aigh gursakan va tishnakan nakhust khiirislm yehabuntano, 17 va 
akhar pursishn minash kardano, kar farmudano. 

18 Akhar, dino dastobaran farmud aigh: KImsh va basim. 19 Ta 
khfuishno-i hu-p6kht va hu-boi, va khurdik, va sard maya, va as avorto. 
20 Afshan drono yezbekliund] va Yiraf vaj vakhduud , va khurishn 
vashtamund, va myazd rayinid, vaj bara guft. 21 Va stayishn-i 
A^harmazd va amcshospenddfi, va sipas-i Horvadad va Amercidad 
nmeshospenddn angaid, va dfrhiagdfio guft. 

in. 13,9. D. om. 13, 10. iC,o om. 13, 11. Pgyi in all but H17. 15,2. K20 L) , 
15, 6—7. K20 )}HZiy ^yo . 17, 4. ^^ in all but Kjo. 18, 6. '•\)))*» 
in all but B. H17. 19, 11. H,8 adds qtish. 20, 2-3. K.o ^005 1r^* ^^' ^• 
K20 adds final ) . 20, 11. only in H17. 20, 12. K,o 5-S^^^. 21, 4. H,, 
K20 om. 21,0. K20 has U) lur M^ ^ here and elsewhere; and so also ge- 
nerally in modern MSS. 21,(5. only in H17, Kjo- 21,11. plural only in D. 
21,14. K20 omits final j; D. )W)^> 

16 Arda-Vtrif III. 22. -IV. 7. 

0*0 ^ooe)) J^(^)» ) >*ov rewiy ^e))* vi^t 

Chapter IV. 

-^h^ -fi^e) ■'■^-^ m ^ 2 M^ooe)) ^f^e) im^^ -<^«y ^ 

22 At'asli farmud aigh: Yaityuned dapiro-i danak va farzanako. 

23 Afshan yaityund dapir-i frasakht-i farzanak, va levin yettbunast; 

24 va kola maman Viraf guft, dmst, roshan va gu-vajar nipisht. 

Chapter IV. 

1 Afash aetuno farmud nipishtano 2 aigh: Pavan zak-i fratum 
lelya, li val padirak bara mad Srosh-yashariibo, va Ataro yedato; 3 afasli 
val li nasadman yedrund homaud , va guft 4 aigh: Dmst yatund ho- 
manih lak, Arda Viraf, amatat liavandich yatund daman la yehevund. 
5 Li guft : Petkliambar bomanam. 6 Va akhar, piruzkar Srosb-yasharubo, 
va Ataro yedato, zak-i 11 yadman fraz vakbdund. 7 Fratum gam pavan 
humat, va dadigar gam pavan liukbt, va sadigar 

III. 22,7. K,o J. 24, 1. all om. 24, 3. K,o om. 

IV. 2,4. K,o^^. 3, 4. K.,0 0»-f? • 3, 7. only in H.j. 4, 4. D. U0,^jA>. 
4,10. U. H,7 ^)^))^00' 

Arda-Vinif IV. 8-14. 17 

-o«>* ^)))^ -"rei) )ie) ^) ti^ )jM)» )rO(^ ^^ ^nro)^ ^rei) 

giim pavan huvarslit, fraz val CMiiiivat puhal mad hymauam-i kabed- 
panak-i amdvand Auharmazd-</«fo. 

8 Amat val tamman fiaz mad liomanam , afam kliaditund zak 
vadardakdn riiban, amatshan yin zak III lelya-i 7iakhust, rubano pavan 
balino-i tanii yetibunast, 10 va zak-i gasanik gubishn fjuft: U 'Ushta 
ahmai yahmai ushta kahmrdchid'; aigh: Naduk valman mun min zak-i 
valman nadukih, kadarchai nadiikih. 12 Afash yin zak 111 shap, zak 
and nadukih va asanih va khubth mad yokavimuned, 13 chand hamak 
nadukih zyash pavan stih khaditund; 14 chigim gabra-l miin vad pavau 
Hih yehevund, azash asantar va basimtar va khiiramfav yehevund. 

lY. 7,20. Koj has ^ for j. 7,22. J onlv in Koq. 7,23. so in all, but oft*.'!i 
written ijunw; the Idlidfat J ought to be added. 7,25. Koo omits final ^. 
9,4. K,o U}^^^). 9, 11. Koo adds final ), 10,2. K.:„, K-.g omit j. 10,5. 
Keo adds final ). U. quoted from Yasna XLTIl. 1. 12, 11. all omit, but Deiri. 
inserts. 12,12. may be read aahash. to him', if ) he omitted; Hu hhush. 
r-ans. Siikhiau. H, G. 11,7 -WfQ) . 14,12. only in D. Hjy. 


18 Arda-VIrAf IV. 15—22. 

6*0 ^))^oo -^ rvo ->5^) T^ ))P Vi'eji^sj^ 

15 Pavan atishbam-i sadigar, valman riibano-i yasharubano yin 
aurvar boi-i basim bara gasht] 10 afash basimtar inedammunast zak 
hot chigiin harvist bo-i basim, zyash pavan zivandakan pavan vtnik 
madam vazlunto; 1 < va zak boi vad min rapituvintar runo, min nemak-i 
Yadadan, bara ydtuned. 

18 Afash zak-i nafshman dino va zak-i nafsliman hunislmo kanik 
kerp-i naduk, pavan khadttuntano-i hu-rust, aigh pavan frarimih rust, 
yekavimlinad ; 19 fraz-pestan, aigliash pestan lakhvar yetibunast, - i 
dil va jdn dost ; 20 munash kerp aetCind roshan chigun did hu-dosh- 
aktar, nikirishn avayishniktar. 

21 Va purstd zak-i yasharubano ruhdno min ?.ak kanik 22 aigh : 
Lak mun 

IV. 15, 8. K20 om. 15, 12. Hi7 C^X^) • 16, 4-5. Koo 5)i J^S ). 16, 14. su 
in K20, K26; ^)Y) i" D. Hs, 11,7. 16,16. linal j ouly in ll^. 17, 12. Kjo, 

K26 ^))COO* ^^' ^' -^-O' '''■-'' °""*^ ^"'^^ 1* 18,13. K.,(, , K;6 "J))?^-^' 

18,14. f^pii in all but H,7. 19,7—10. fQ)W^ Y^Yxl,^ '" •^''' ^^i» dlnmy 
dost. Sans, dirghamitrah ; Dest. suggests fQ))V ))^ ) JAi . 20, 3. K-..,, 
omits final J. 20,8. Kjo ^}^a) ; K.e ^J^A) . 21,5. K.^o, K^e omit final ). 

Arda-Viraf TV. 23-28. 19 

t>*o)i5 ,^e)) J^-^ 1 )fv ,^ej) J^-^ w3 ^-^^ej -k^^ 23 
•^1^^y ^)j ^^^^M ^o» -fiT)** ^M)^3 -x^a^a W^ 28 © j^55^ 

homanyih ? va miin nafshman homanyth ? mimam akaraz, pavan zi- 
vandakdn stih., hich kaiitk nadukuktar va hu-chthartar kej'p min zak-i 
lak la khaditund. 

23 Afash pasukho dad zak-i nafshman dino va zak-i nafshman 
kunishno, 24 aigh: Li kunisJin-i lak homanam^ yiiddn-i khup mwMw-i 
khup gubishn-i khup kitnishn-i khup dino. 25 Kamak va kunishno-i 
lak rai, amat li aetuno mas va shapir va hii-boi va piruzkar va avi- 
besh homanam , chigun lak medammuned. 26 Maman lak, pavan stih, 
gdsdn srud, afat maya-i vch yezbekhund, afat atash pahrikht; 27 afat 
gabra-i yasharubo shinayinid, mun min arik fraz mad, mim min nazdik. 
28 Amat li farpih yehevund homanam , afat farpahitar kard homanam ; 

IV. 22,8. K20, K26 -W^^- -2,9. Hi7 ^^p. 22,11—19. only in H,8, K;o, 
K,,6 ; but Koo has yo^)%)^ before ~iif^ ))^ . 23, 8. J only in H17. 

24, 3. J only in K20, K26 ; K20 prefixes f^C^^JJ and adds final ), 24,5. K.o 
^^yo, 24, 6. He -iy^y ; H,8 Pa/, om., Sans, he stmdara. 24,8, 12. 
K20 adds final ^. 26,4. II, 7 ^f^ . 26,5—6. His (liMshni dad. 28,7. 

20 ArHA-Tiraf IV. 20. -V. 1. 

iiej <:€^ t '^^ -^^y^ ^)5 V-^y*'^-" ^o» -f,^^ ^i^ns -^^^y-" 
Chapter V. 

29 va amat li naduk yehevund homanam, afat naduktar kard homanam ; 

30 va amat arjanik yehevund homanam, afat arjaniktar kard homanam; 

31 va amat pavan gas-i chashmakan yetihunast homanam, afat chash- 
makishtar yetibunast homanam; 32 va amat burzishnik yehevund ho- 
manam, afat burzishniktar kard homanam; 33 pavan denman hftmat 
va hukht va hAvarsht-i lak varzid. 34 Lak gabra-i yasharubo akhar 
min lak yezbekhund, 35 pavan zak-i xiuharmazd d^r yazishnih va ham- 
piirsakih, amat dcr daman Auharmazd rdi yezbckhunishn va ham- 
pursakih-i frarAno vadunih. 36 Asanih azash. 

Chapter V. 

1 Akhar, zak Chtnuvat puhal IX nizak pahnai lakhvar yehevund. 

IV. 29,2—3. 80 in H17; ^^Ai CP»« in D., which words are struck out of Hg ; 
K,8 only in Suns, i/at aham ; all others cm. 29,10. Ho ♦*» . 30,2. only 
in H17. 31, 4. J only in K,,6. 32, 4. ^u in all but D. Koq. 34, 7. so in 
all; also in Hadokht Nask, for 7u yazente ; compare XVn.26. 35,6—13. only 
in Hi9, Kpj, and in Hadokht Nask. 35, 15. K.o J)*O^Md^* 

KrM-\uM V. 2-7. 21 

2 Li pavan avakih-i Srosli-yashambu va Ataro yedato, pavan Chinuvat 
puhal, khvaryish va farakhuyisli va tag-diliryish va piruzkaryish bara 
vadard homanam. 3 Kabed panakih-i Mitro yedato, va Rashnu-i rajis- 
tak, va Vai veh, va Vahram yedato amavand, va Ashtad yedato freh- 
dadar-e g^han, va gadman-j dino-t shapir-t Mazdayasnan ; 4 va frav- 
yashar-i yashariibano, va avartk minavaddno val li, Arda Viraf, nakhust 
nasadman yedrwul homand. 5 Afam did, li Ardd Vtrdf, Kashn-i 
last, mim tarazuk-i zard-i zartn pavan yadman dasht, va yasharubano 
va darvandan andazid. 

6 Va akhar, Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, yadman-i li frdz 
vakliduud, 7 va guft aigh: Bara yatun, vad val lak numayem vahisht 
va dushahu, va roshanih, 

V. 3,5. only in K20. 3, 18,22. J only in H17. 3,21. J only in H17, K20 • 3,23. 
all omit J. 4,6 Koq, K^e omit final' ^. 4,11.-5,5. only in Hj,, K20, K26 ; 
Hi7 has only ^^. 4.12. K.g ^^) > 5,6,11. Kjo adds final ^. 5,8. 
6,9. K20 om. 7,6. Hi„ ihs om. 7,7. Kjo )WW . 

22 Arda-V!r&f V. 8- II. 

) wo j-x^^^ ) 11 wo>^ ))a j-K)^^)*' ) ^00^) ))e) ■^->0^K) 

va khvarih, va asanih, va f'arakhuih, va basimih, va kliuramih, va 
ramishn, va shadih, va hii-boiih-i vahisht pddadahinhn-'i yasharuhdno. 
8 Afat numayem tarikih, va tangih, va dush-khvarih , va saryaih , va 
besh, va anakih, va dard, va viraarih, va sahmgiinih, va htmgunth,, 
va reshgAnih, va gondakih pavan dushahu padafias-i gunak gunak mun 
shcdddno va yatiikan va varMk-hardn vadund. Afat numayem gas-< 
rdstdnoy va zak-i drojoan. iO Afat numayem padadahishn-i khiip-varoish- 
nan pavan Auharmazd va amesbospendan; va nadukib-i pavan visbisht, 
va anakih-i pavan dushahu; 11 va aitih-i Yadadan va amesbospendan, 
va 16itib-i Akharman va sh^daan, va yehevuntano-i rist-akhiz va 

V. 7,21. K,,„ adds -H^^y)' "^^ 32. K20 adds final ). 7,33. the final | is read 
as the coiij. ) va in D. !!«, Hjj, K^o, and omitted in K26. 8,20—21. only in 
His, Kjo, K.e; K,o omitting ) va. 8,31. K,o ora.: id! othern ^. 8,32. 
K20, K2, omit final ). 8, 36. K,.o yoYS^^. 9,3. J only in H, 7. 9,4. 
K20, Kj, omit final ). 10, 2. He ^^^^) • 10, 11. J only in D. Hg. 10, 15. 
J only in D. 10,17. D. Hj, H17 add final ), 11,2. J only in I). 11,7. J 
only in He, K^e- 11, 8. written upside down in He, here and in most other 
places; Kjo a i>jbjiQ». 

ArdA-Vtrilf V. 12. — VI. 5. 23 

Chapter VI. 

^)o^ ^m^ -^i^P ^tiro)^ -fw* ^ ^^Y^ ^^ o»)ej )5^rO ^ 

tanii-i pasino. 12 Afat immdyem pddadahishn-i yasharubano, min 
Auharmazd va amesliospendan, pavan yin vahisht. lii Afat numdijcm 
zdkJiam va padafras-i giinak gunak-i val darvatiddnd, pavan yin dusli- 
ahu, mill Akharman va shedaaiio patiydrakdn. 

Chapter VI. 

1 Jinak-I fvaz mad homanam, 2 afani khaditund ruban-i mardAtn 
a^chand man pavan ham-yekavtmunad homand. H Afam pursid iiiiu 
piruzkar Srosh-yashariibo, va Ataro yedato, aigh: ValmanshSn nifm 
liumand '? va nianian rat latamman yekavimiind Y 

4 Yenialeluned Srosh-yashavAbo, va Ataro yedato, o aigh: Den- 
man jlndk hamista- 

V. 12, 2. He 4tAi^) . 12, 3. Hg, H,^, K,6 Jj^Hj-^^d • 1^' 2. Ho ^iJ*-f) • 

13,:?. Ky3 ill all but K-.q here; but ^^y^ occurs five times elsewhere in 
D. Tie, i'^.'Oi i'lid thrice in Kjg ; and »A»3 occurs once in D, K^s. 13,4. 
ii,7 J; all others omit | here, but D. lie, K.o insert it five times, in the 
same phr.ise, plsewliero. 13.8. D. Kjy om. 13.9. K^o omits final j, 

13,14. K,u 5)^1 jjiiji^. 13, 17. K ))*05^-*0'^e) ♦ 
VI. 5,2. only in Hig, Kju, K..u. 5,3. D. Iii7 add J. 

24 Ania-VtrAf \\. 6 —VII. 1. 

» ^))>*o ro)^^ -0^)1 1 50)^ wo)t^ K)*^)*!)^ nx^w) -^y^y ) ^ 

_y ■^)j )^ 'J wor ^) -K^^) -o^n -i?)t^ ^*^ W5^) -^J -0^)) 
-»^ro» n}o<^ -^-^'^ 6J0 -^^^ ^p^)^ j>H3^) 1^ -o^^a^e) 

Chapter VII. 

kano kaiitiind; 6 va deiiman rubanoau, vad tanu-i pushi, dennian 
jtnak yekaviinuud; 7 va rabdn-i valmanshan anshCdudn miinslian kirfak 
va vanas rast yeheviind. 8 Va val stihan bara yeinalelun aigli: Zak-i 
khvartar kirfak pavaii az va besh al yakliHeminrd, D inaman kola mAiiasli 
1!T srosho-cliaranam kirfak vesli aigh vanas, val valusbt; 10 miinash 
vanas vesh, val dushahu ; 11 iiulii kola II rast, vad tanu-i pa sin, pavan 
dcnman hamistakano yekavimuud. 12 Afshdn pddafrds min vardishn-i 
andarvat sardih, -ayuf garmih; afshan avarik patiyarak loit. 

Chapter VII. 

1 Va akhar, nakMst gam fraz hankhetunam val star pdyak, pavan 

YI. 6,5—0. K, 

9, 6, K^o adda fiiu 
K20 oin. 
VII. 1,6. H., ^^^ ^))^^' 

H,, H17. 9,6, K^o adda final j, 11,6—7. K,o ^W-^fij ))^ ' l^^* D. om. 
12, 1—2. K20 oin. 

Ardft-Vtrflf VII. 2—9. 25 

zak jinak aigh humat pavan mahmdnth. 2 Va khaditunam zak 
yashariihdti rubano mimshan, chigim star rochanak, roshan-i azash 
hamdi vakhshtd; 3 afslian gas va yetibunast azir roshan, va burzak 
va pur-gadman yehevund. 

4 Afam pursid min Srosh-yasharlibo, va Ataro yedato, aigh: 
Denman jmak kaddm? va denman anshuta kadam homand? 

r» Afshan guft Siosh-yasliarubo, va Ataro yedato, 6 aigli: Denman 
jinak star payak; va valmanshan ruhdnodn homand 7 munslian, pavan 
stih, yesht la kard, va gasan la srud, va khvetuk-das lakarto; 8 afshan 
khuddyih va dahyupatih va sardarih la kard yekavimuncd. 9 Pavan 
avarik ku'fak yasharubo yehevund yekavimund. 

VII. 1, 16. H,t om. 1, 17. D. j^^_^^.^. 2,2. E,, ^^yo ^))f^M , 2,3. 
K,o adds J. 2,4. Koo adds final ). 2,8. Kjo adds J. 2,12. K20 5-*J»*' • 
2, 13. D. His Cf)(^il) • 3,5. should be read avtr, if roshan be taken as an 
ndj. 4,11. D. >>(J^. K, 8. Hw ^^Ip • 7,14. K,o omits final ), 8,2, 
D. 11,7, K,o J^iJ^^. 8, 8. K20 adds final ). 8,0. H,, liiis c^ lor rC^. 


26 Arda-VIraf VIII. 1-7. 

Chapter VIII. 

) ^)^ -«i ^005 -ujtD m >*ooii^ >*>|>^P )*oo?^i T0» ) ^-o^e) 

Chapter VIII. 

1 ^mai dadigar gam fraz hankhetunam mah payak vol Hukht, 
zak jinak aigli hukht mahmanili ; 2 va khaditunam zak-i raba hanja- 
mano-i yasharubdn. 

3 Afam pursid min Srosh-yasliarubo, va Ataro yedato, aigh : Den- 
man jinak kadam ? va valmanshan rubanoan mim homand ? 

4 Yemaleluncd Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man jinak mah payak; va denman valmanshan ruhdnodn munshan, 
pavan stih^ yesht la kard, va gasan la srud, va khvetuk-das la varzid; 
G va pavan avarik kirfak val latamman mad yekavimund; 7 afshdn 
roshanih val roshamh-i mah humanak. 

VIII. 1, 1. Hi^adds ))^, 1,5.1117 1) ^\^Yi ^))^^. 1,8. H,7 ))^ . 
1,13. Hi7 adds ))^ . 2,2. H,t ^,^)A> ^MfO)-"' '^>^- ^- ^"^^^ )Y^^ ' 
2,6. KoQ )l|^^^« ■*) !• Hi8, Kog oinit nine sentences, from this to IX. 5, 16. 
6, 7. D. om. 5, 9. K20 om. 5, 12. H17 ^fQ) . 6, 1. Hn, Kao om, 7, 1. 
D, prefixes ); Hj prefixes J* 

Ard4-Viraf IX. 1~7. 27 

Chapter IX. 

Chapter IX. 

1 Amat sadigar gam fraz hankhetunam pavan Huvarsht, tamman 
aigh huvarsht pavan mahmanih, val tamman rasidom, 2 R6shan-i 
balistan balist karitund; 3 va khadttimam zak-i yasharuhdno pavan 
gas va vastarg-i sarm-kard; 4 va anshutd yehevund homand, munshan 
roshani val roshanih khurshcd Mmanak yehevund. 

5 Afam pursid min Srosh-yasliarubo, va Ataro yedato, aigh: 
Denman kadam jinak? va valmanshan rubanoan mun homand? 

6 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 7 aigh: Denman 

IX. 1, 5. Hfi, K20 7J))^)A»; Hi7 ^^ya ^M^>*>« 1, 7. K20 adds final ). 
3, 1, D. om. 3, 2. Hn ^j^yi) ^^^fQ)-** • 3, 4. K20 omits final ) , and adds 
jAJiy . 3,8. J only in D. H17. 3,9. K20 )yX> . 4,2. so in all, but Dest, 
suggests ^)^U). 4,6,8. so in all, but the text would be better if these 
two words changed places. 4, 9. He Cf^-V)'*'^)^} . 7, 2. i). adds 4il)^ • 
7,3. Hs, K,, ^^ii)yo. 

28 Ard&.Viraf IX, 8.-X. 5. 

Chapter X. 

) y^y 1^5^^) )*oo^) ^M^oo ^^^6 % K"o» ' -«o^^^ 

payak ait; va valmanshan rubanoan homand 8 munshdn^ pavan stib, 
/iM-pSdakhshahih va dahyupatih va sardarih hard. 

Chapter X. 

1 CJiahdrum gam fraz hankhetunam val zak-i roshan-i Garodman 
haniak khvarib ; 2 afman val padirak ydtund valmanshan vadardakdm 
rubdn^ va driid pursend, va afrino vaduiid, 3 va denman yemalelund 
afgh: Cbigun lak yasharubo bara mad homanih ? 4 min zak-i sej- 
homand va kabed-awa/??;/^ ahvan, madam val denman-i asej ahvan-i 
apatiyarak yatund homanih. 5 Va anosh vashtamun, maman der-zu- 
manyish latamman rdmishn khadttuned. 

IX. 8, 1. K20 adds final ), 8, 4. D. K.o have ^y^) for yi» , 8, 9. K20 adds final ) . 

X, 1, 1. K20 prefixes ) . 1,4. Rij ^^yo ^))^^ . 2, 4-6. the original MS. 
must have been almost illegible here; Hjg, K26 read as in the text; D. has 

omits I^^T^) and leaves a blank space for words 7—9; K20 has only 
)yA)A^^^3^ . 2, 7—9. Hi7 cm. 3, 10. K^o -^fiyi • ^- 6- K.o adds J . 
4, 15. K,o -iU^yt . 5, 7. K20 adds final ). 5, 8. H,7y))Jt2)-»* • 

Ardd-Vir&f X, 6 — 12. 29 

M^ -"-^rr j-'o^^tv ^))^oo 5^^a -^-^ ^ -^-v f <i 
,ffe)J tin i^ -fr^)^ ^e)!* t -^tT^^ ^)P^^ ,^-»i ^ -^-^ ) « 

0*0 ^))9e>j»*' ^ •!») 

6 Va akhar min zak, padirak ydtund atash-i Auharmazd Ataro 
yedato; val li namaz-/ yedrund, 7 afash guft aigli: Drust lipamman 
lak Arda Yiraf-i khavid chiba-i Mazdayasnan petkhambar. 

8 Va akhar, li nasadman yedrund homanam, va guft homanam 
9 aigh: Lipamman lak, Ataro yedato, mlin pavan stih^ hamak chihd 
va boi-i haft salak madam val lak hankhetunad, 10 afam khavid chiba 

11 Va akhar, yemaleluned atash-i Auharmazd Ataro yedato 13 
aigh: Bara yatun, vad val lak frdz numdyam zak var-i av-i chiba-i 
khavid mun madam val li hankhetund. 

X. 6, 6, K20 ^i^. 6, 13. D. He, K.g have J , and K20 has | , for \ 5 H,7 
omits it. 7,5. H,8 del = ^t}' 8,4. K,o 0»-f ) • 8- 6. D. lie, K^o, Kjp 
^,^^. 8,9. IIe,K,o^,^^. 9,2.H,8 0m-^^. 9,8.H,, ^y^; 

K20 -Myfti)' ^' ^^- -^^^0 ^^'^^ rff^^* ^^'^" ^^^ ^"* ^" ^^'^ ^' ^^> '^- ^-° 
om. 12,8. D. K,o, K,6 K5^-f). 12, 9-10. D. K J) Ji-S^. 

30 Ard^-VtrafX. 13.^X1. 3. 

) 14 ^)e35 j-o-^ ^\(^ •'^ ^1^1 ) ^)r^ <i>»ie)_j3^rc 1 13 

Chapter Xr. 

^^>^3)^ ) ^^ 1 ^-f)^ Me) ^))a) o»)e) ,40 J -^-^-^ -^^ 2 ^)5 

13 Va jinak-I fraz yedrund, va numud var-i vazurg mayd-i 
kapud, 14 va guft: Denman zak av ait mun zak chiba bara tajid-i 
lak madam val li hankhetimad. 

Chapter XI. 

1 Ya akhar, laid yekavimunad Vohuman ameshospend min gas-i 
zarino-kard; 2 afash zak-i li yadman fraz vakhdund; pavan humat va 
hiikht va huvarshtj val miyan yedrund-i A.uharmazd, va ameshospendan, 
va avarik yashamban, 3 va fravyashar-i Zaratuhasht-i Spitaman, va 
Kai-Yishtasp , va Jamasp, va Isadvdstar-i Zaratuhashtdn, va avdrik 
dino burdarano va dino peshupdydn 

X. 13, 7, 9. Hs, K20, K26 have \ for J . 13, 8. He, H17, K-e ^J(0) . 13, 9. all 

but K20 have Q)» for ^^^ 
XI. 1, 3. K20 om. 1, 6. K20 y>0)eJ-^)*OJ*' • 2, 12, Koq adds final ), 3, 3, K20 
■'l^OOlit)-^- 3,10. D. j3yQ)i*))rQ)^ 7 He, K20, K.o. '^f^^)^^)) ' 

3,11. final M) only in K^o- 3, 13. Hig, K26 om. 3, 16. Hig omits from this 
to 7, 6. 3, 18. K ><0^'**ej^^d • 

Arda-Vtraf XI. 4 — 11. 31 

* * * * * _fy ^y'^ > ^ 

[A lacuna exists here, in all the old MSS., owing probably to the loss of 
a folio in the original copy, whence they were all derived. He leaves a blank 
space of 21 lines = 17 lines of this printed text; Kjo leaves no space between 
Jit and a.Ui ; K26 leaves a space of 35 lines = 25 lines of this printed text ; 
Hi7 supplies the words 3 i>l C^^P to connect this sentence with the next; 
and Destur Hoshangji suggests that ^^W is enough for that purpose.] 

TO))y o»i^) -"^^ y ^) o»-f) ^ ^^y ^ ^) -K)^ ^ 
j<^^rtJ 50o» ^y i) -"re3) Vh^o^ ^^ ^ -' -^fy^ ^))^oo 

) -o-O ttD^-T) •:j^ o»J^) -w^ti^ ^)V^-* -IJtiil ^^ 'W5 

4 inunam akaraz miu zak roshantar va naduktar la khaditund homanani. 

5 Va Vohuman hard [c/uft] 6 aigh: Denman ait Auharmazd. 
7 Afam yezbemunast pavan peshih namaz yedruntano. 

8 Afash val li giift aigh: Namaz val lak, Arda VirAf , drust yd- 
tund homajiili ; 9 min zak sej-homand stih, val denman avejak jinak-i 
roshan yatund homanih. 10 Afash farmud val Srush-yasharubo , va 
Ataro yedato, li aicjhash yedruned Arda Yiraf, bara numayed gas va 

XI. 4,2. K.o, K,6 Sj^-W. 5,3. D. -juu; lU J)l5 Hi7 om.; K20 -AlU 

altered to out Kjg S)l. 5,4. supplied by Dest. to fill tiio blank space 
existing in most MSS. ; Un adds J i) . 8, 4. K,o adds final ) . 8, 12. D. 
^))yii] Ko^^. S, 13. D. K,o -W^^ . 9,2. ir,v adds J. 9, 11. K,o 
~W^Ui» 11,1. K,o omits J^ . 

32 Arda-Viraf XI. 12. -XII. 2. 

^JWf) «y)e) ,^ J ■'^-^ t^oo ))vt>^ nyt^-ny -h^v^ ^-ny ) ^^ 
^^)^ ^Mro)^ -^o* 15 o^,r>*> ^)y^^ o»)a 5^ro 5^ro ^o^ i^ 

Chapter XII. 

pddadahishn-i yasharuban, 12 zak-ntz-i pddafrds-i darvanddn. 

13 Va akhar, Srosh-yasharubo va Ataro yedato zak-i li yadman 
fraz vakhdund; 14 afshan jinak jinak fraz yedrund homanam. 15 Afam 
khaditund homanam ameshospendan, afam khaditund avaiik yadaddno] 
IG afam dtd fravyashar-i Gdyomard^ va ZaratAhasht, va Kai-Vislitasp, 
va Frashoshtar, va Jamasp, va avarik [naduk] kardaran va diiio 

Chapter XII. 

1 Afam jinak -I fraz mad homanam, va khaditund 2 zak-i rdddn 

XI. 11,9. He, H,7 J)4(53J(j^^, 12, 1-2. D. )^^)] 11,7^0^^)) ^^»s 
mja, Sans, nimnasthdne ; K,o, ^i& oinil; j . 12, 3—4. K^o ij^(y y^OIr ^ 
-0""^d^dJ • ^*' ^' ^^^^ '" ^^17' ^-«- ^^ 1- ^^'7 ) 5 ^20 ^1^. 15, 2. K,o 
^.i. 15, 8. Koo omits final ). 16, 2. H,7 -^^fQ^Ji . 16, 4. IIu, Hit, Koq, 
Kas ^-^JKO j H,8 a5//d ward. 16, 11. only in 11^. IC, 15. inserted by Dest. 

XII. 1,1. Hi8, Kjo add ^))Jt2)'^ \\(irQ^ and omit 1,6—7. 1,6. inserted by Dest. 
2, 2, K21, adds final I . 

Arda-Vtrftf XU. 3-9. 33 

^j^ t )H5V •'j^y >*'V^^ j^-^ ^o^ -^^ -"■^^)*» ) i -^r^P 
«?o rcDi^-f -^^Hj^y -^o* 6 ^)^y ^^o» j3e)o» 

mban mun barazishak sdtund, 3 va azvar-^ avarik rubdndno^ pavan 
hamak roshanik; 4 va Auliarmazd hamdt burzed zak-i rdddn ruban-i 
roshan va buland va aniavand. 5 Afam guft aigh : Naduk lak mun 
radan mbano homanih-i detuno azvar-i avarik riibanoan! 6 Afam 
burzishntk medammunast. 

7 Afam khaditund mk-i valmanshan ruban mimsban, pavan stilt, 
gasan srud, va yesht karcl, 8 va astobano yehevund pavan shapir 
dino-i Mazdayasnan, miin Auliarmazd val Zaratuhasht chasht; 9 amatam 
frdz mad homaiiam, pavan zak-i padmujan-i ^«rm -pesid-i asimin- 
pestd-i bardzishaklum 

XII. 2,6. Hig dmad = ^M^OO J ^'^ others ^))fQ) ? ^est. suggests ^))fQ)-M • 
3,2. J inserted by Dest. 3, 4. Koq ujjwoi^ . 4, 3. K.q ^Ji»A/ . 4,6. Kjo 
adds final J . 4, 7. J only in H17. 5, 6. D, ^ u* . 5, 9. D. H17 y^yo . 
5,10. D. H«, Hi7 C^JJ) K26 )tC^-"« 5,11- •> only in H17. 6,2. H17 has 
J^ for J), 7,3. Hi7 )^. 7,8. K20 •*(yfQ) • 7,12,13. K20 adds final j 
to both, 8, 5, II17 ^) , 8, 6. J only in H17, Kjo. 9, i—'i- omitted in H17, 
and seem either misplaced, or superfluous; His Sans, tasniin utlcrisMatare 
bhuvane prclpto 'ham. 9, 1. Kjo^iw. 9, 8. K20 adds final j , 9,10—11. 
K20 om. 9, 12. K20 has | for » . 

34 Arda-Vtr&f Xn. 10—18. 

0% ro))^^ V-»*;h53 -fey lo o ^M(^^<j*ej rwy** f 
3ij5o» J35 jo )^p ^^5^^^^ J33 ^^)ytj)^ -fey 11 

io rej))^-f -^^Hj^ -fo* 13 
t)'iti) i)**^ )y^ ^^^ m ^r^y (o h)^^ yw^ le so-^^t 

min harvist padmujanoan. 10 Afam biirzishniktar medammimast. 

11 Afam khaditund zak-i khvetiikdasan rubano yin zak-i afzar- 
harcMntd roshamh] 12 amatash dar balai roshanih azash hamdi vakh- 
shid. 13 Afam burzishnik medammunast. 

14 Afam khaditund zak-i khup khudayan va padakhshayan rubano, 
15 munshan masih va vehih va amavandih va piruzkarih azash hamdi 
vakhshid; 16 amatshan sdtund yin rdshantk pavan zak-i zarino rdno- 
vardino, 17 Afam burzishnik medammunast. 

18 Afam khaditund zak-i vazurgan ruban va msi-giibishnaD, 

XII. 10, 1. Kaoi^^. 10,2. He has ) for j; Hit has ^ for 3^J). 11,1— 

13,3. H„, P. cm. 11,9. D. ^^^JO^' ^2, 6. D. K,o ^i»p. 14,3. 

K,o om. 14,6. all om. 15,10. K^o ^^V^' l^i 2. Hn, Hu have ^ for 5. 

16,3-4. H,7 om. 16,8—9. H17, P. )y>^ )yj\y'l ^'^ ^^ *" *®^*' ^*°^- 
sthdne paribhramanU ; compare rdnapdno, Vend. XIV. 9. See ch. XIV. 9. 
17,2. Hii has <J(s for J). 18,7. K„ wdds final )* 18,9. K,o omits final )« 

Ardi-Yiraf Xn. 19.-Xm. 5. 35 

Chapter XIII. 

->9ey)«0'^e) ''^•^)»(Pej Jt^j^i^^) mor^i ^)ry ^nro)^ •fo» i 
tie) ^ ^iK^-o ^-^ro ne) ^>*o woiT -"^')^^ •>^oo\)»o*^e) 

-o^^cv ) ^rc^>*o -o-^ -"rei) m >*oo)t^ )a»^J3^) >»oo^) 

rubishn yin zak-i hulancl roshanik pavan zak-i mas gadman. 19 Afam 
hurzishnik medanmiunast. 

Chapter XIII. 

1 Afam khaditund rubano-i valmanshan nairikan-i fra-humat-i fra- 
• n 
huklit-i fra-huvarsht-i racj-khudd , miinshan shui pavan sardar yakhse- 

nwid , 2 pavan padmiijanu-i sarm-pesid va asimm-pesid va gohar- 

pSsid. 3 Afam piirsid aigli: Valmanshan kadam ruban homand? 

4 Afshan giift Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Denman 

riibdn-i valmanshan ndirikdn munshan, pavan stih, maya shnayinid, 

va atash shnayinid, va damik va aurvar va tora va gospend va avarik 

hamak shapir 

XII. 18, 13. D. He, Kjo, Kjj ^^^I'u. 19,2. H,7 has j^ for ^; Kje has ) for l. 

XIII. 1,9. D. om.; Kjo has OU for -Jtf j compare ratukhshathra, Hadokht Nask 
II. 39. 1,14. D, has *^, and H17 ^, for 5. 2,3,6. K^t adds final ) to 
both. 5,3. Kjo adds final ^. 5,5. Kjo adds ^J^yo* 5,17. H17, K,8 add 

36 ArdS-Viraf XIII. 6. -XIV. I. 

1 ))y^ ) H50 )»000» 6 $^^ S^jO^JHi -"-fyw)*) J)*»)-0^-^ 

Chapter XIV. 


dahishnan-i Auharmazd shnayinid homand. 6 Afshdn yazishn va 
drono, va shndymishn va parastishn-i Yadadan kard; 7 va ausofrid 
va shndyinishn-i yadadan-i minavadan , va yadadaiiri stihan , karto ; 
8 va khushniidih, va khadukanakih , va tars-akasih, va farman-burd- 
arih-i nafshman shui va sardar varzid; 9 va pavan dino-i Mazdayasnan 
avt-gftman yehevund homand. 10 Pavan u^irfak kardano tukhshak 
yehevund; 11 va min vanas palirikhtar yehevund homand. 12 Afam 
hurzishntk medammunast. 

Chapter XIV. 
1 Afam khadttimd ruban-i yazishnkaran , va mdsrabardn rubdn, 
yin zak-i 

XIII. 6, 1. K.o yOC^' 6, 5. only in Hit, Koq. 6, 6. Kjo has! ^ for final ^ *, 
in Hj, KoB fiC^ is altered into ^. 6,8, Koq adds fiaal ). 7,2. so in Hg, 
Kze ; Hi8 husifrid, Sans, nishchalam punyancha kritam; D. C^^^JtJ))**? 
Hi7 C^^4))rQ))**5 ^^0 ^^dl^rtJ)**' ^®® usefriti, Vend. XVIII. 12. 
7,4. K.o lias ^ for final yi^j. 12,2. Hn has ^ for A) J Kjo has f fori. 

XIV. 1, 2. D. H, ^5; His omits 1, 1.-2, 3. 1, 6. K20 Y» for a». 1, 7. H,7, P. cm. 

Arda-Viraf XIV. 2-9. 37 

jD)*o^ j^o» ^o» 6 ^)^^^^ -i"^ )*»^>» ^e)^^ )*oo«» 5 
_^5 m r^) )r»^ ^ei^^-^ -^-^-^ gj 9 ^^^ej ea^^P^ j^V)** 

biiland roshanik, vapavan zak-i mas burzishnik. 2 Afam hurzishmk 

3 Afam khaditund ruban-i valmanshan munshdn hamak dino yez- 
bekliiind, va 2/a^«s/m-i Yadadan hard va farmiid, ^munshdn yetibimast 
madam avarik rubanoan; 5 afshan kirfak dsmdii hdldt yekavimunad. 
6 Afam avir hurzishntk medammunast. 

7 Afam khaditund zak-i arateshtaran ruban munshdno rubishn 
pavan zak-i azvartum ramishn va hu-ravakh-minishnih, va pavan zak-i 
dahyupatdno bar-hamak; 8 va zak-i gurdan zen-afzdr-i khup-kard-i 
zahabaan-A;ar<i-i gohav-afzud-i hu-afrank-i harvisp-pesid ; 9 yin zak-i 
shikuft rdno-vardm, pavan kabed 

XIV. 2,1. K20 ^^> 2,2. H,7 has ^ for A). 3,5. His, ^2, yOO^' 3' ^^■ 
K20 has 3.i for ^. 3, 12—13. H17 ))^)j. 4, 1. Hg, Koo, K-e ffJO^^ ' 
5, 2. Hi7 prefixes ))^ . 5, 3. H17, P. om. 5, 4. Koo has .JU for .Mi. 6,3, 
Hi7 has ^ for Ai . 7, 2. D. K,., ^^5 . 7, 6. K^o, K^g omit final ) . 7, 17. 
Kjo omits final f. 8,1. H17 adds^^^. 8, 2. K^o omits J. 8, 4. compare ^rama 
hachimno, Mihir Tasht 141. 8,8. K20 adds final |. 8,10. K20 JC^3^. 
9,4—5. K2», K2S add final J to 5 ; Hig gives no Sans. See ch. XII. 16. 

38 Ard4-Vlr&f XIV. ID- 18. 

-o-Hj '•'g^i •'^-^ m ))^y >H)orrej)^) ■'^-^ ^)iiti)^ -fo* 14 

shukuh va amavandih va piruzkarih. 10 Afam burzishnik medammunast. 

11 Afam khaditund zak-i valmanshauo ruban munshan , pavan 
stih, khrafstar-i kabed zektelund; 12 va gadman-i avan, va dtarodn, 
va atashan, va auvaran, va zakich-i damik gadman^ azash hamdi 
vakhsliid, va yin biilandih va barazishakih. 13 Afam avir bftrzishnik 

14 Afam khaditiiiid zak-i vastryoshan rubano pavan zak'i bamik 
gas, va gadman-horaand va stavar vakhshak padmujano ; 15 amatshdn 
minavad-i maya va zamik va aurvar va gospend levin yekavimunad, 
va afrino kard, 16 va stayishn va sipas va avadih yemalelund ; 17 afshan 
gas mas, va jinak shapir vakhdimd. 18 Afam burzishmk medam- 

XIV. 10, 2. Hit has J^j for Jti . 12, 4—5. H17, Hi, om. 12, 13. H17 om. 12, 15. 
K30 ^Jy*** 15)1- Ka« yX)0^' 15,10. Koo adds final |» 17,6. D. ^), 
17,7. ^P,o >)>^). 18,2.^H,T has ^ for ii. 

Arda-Vlraf XIV. 19. — XV. 6. 3§ 

W -fo* 21 o 5^wOj ) j^ ) ^ ^ ^^ ^re2» e))*» 

Chapter XV. 

- W« -"tti) Ma >»ooii^ r'\y r^)*»ti-K} ->^-^ ^»)re2)*» -fo* 1 

j-o-o )ie) w)» ) ii sooW«) ^^ •»5*»'^^ » 5^"^-*^ 1^ » ^ 

19 Afam khaditiind zak-i hu-tukhshakan ruban mAnshan, pavan 
stih, khiiddydn va sardaran parastid; 20 amatshan yetibunast homand, 
pavan zak-i khAp-vastard gas va raba va bamik va bardzishak. 21 
Afam avir bUrzishntk medammAnast. 

Chapter XV. 

1 Afam khadttdnd zak-i shapandn lAban mftnshan, pavan stih, 
chah^r-pai va ktrd varzid va parvard, 2 va nikas dasht min gfirg va 
duzd va stahambak mardum. 3 Va pavan hangam-i mad, maya va 
giydh va khftrishn dad ; 4 va min sarmak va garraak-i sakht pahrikht ; 
5 va gushan pavan gas-i nafshman madam shedkiind, va dadyish pahr- 
Ikhto; 6 afash kabed mas 

XIV. 19, 9. K20, K2, )*0>^^ • 20, U. all but H17 add j^ . 21, 3. H17 hai 

J^ for ii. 

XV, 1,2. K20 ^5, 1,11. ^)^f in all but Kjo. 2, 7. D. ^y] H17 J(0^. 

3, 4. Hi7 om. 3, 6—7. K20 om. 5, 2. can also be read yuddn ; His gives 
no Sans. 

40 Arda-Vlrftf XV. 7—13, 

) o) i) ^ny ) ^y ) -0^53^ yw^ ^2 ^^^ ^^v >A»J^o» 

sudih va bar va nadukih va khurislin va jamak-i marduman-/ anbam 
yehahund. 7 Miinshan sdtund yin zak-i roshanik, va pavan zak-i bar- 
azisliak bar, va vaziirg rdmishn va shddth. 8 Afam avir hw'zisJmtk 

9 Afam khaditund zak-i kabed zahabain gas, vastarg-i kliup, va 
balislin levatman bup pasijak, 10 munshan padash yetibunast horaand 
kadak-khudayan va dadakan ruban-i mata dudak-man, va miyaii va 
dasto kard, 11 va jinak-i avirdn avadan kard; 12 afshan kabed katas, 
va rud, va khanik, val varz va avadaiiih bar, va sud-i daman yaityund. 
13 Amatshdn levin yckavirwund mAn maya, va miin ailrvar, va munich 
yashai'ubdnd fravyashar, pavan zak-i mas 

XV. 6,7. He om. 6,13. E^ has ))^ for J. 6,15. K.o ^OO • '^'2- Hn 
3|Aa» ^ffC^A^. 7, 10. D, om. ; H17 J^J Eis ^ans. phalam. 7,13—15. 
Hi7 ^^-X))*Cll*'^ 7 ^'- <*""'« 14-15. 8, 2. Hi7 has •^ for ij . 9, 4. all 
but Hi7 add JdS , 9,12-13. H,7, P. ^O^) )d)U ' ^^'^- "" *^'"'^ •*' 
10,12. Hi7 J. 10,15. K20 omits final )] H17 )fti)^* ^^>^- ^- ^« "^W** 
11,5. Kio adds final J. 12, 3. K.q om. 13, 1. H17 )«00)j^* 13, 3. Hit 
5j^j*> ^) A>)A). 13, 10. Kj, omits (O. 13,11. Kjo omits final ). 

Arda-VIraf XV. 14—21. 41 

^^y^ -i^^^ e25^pA» ^^ j-^ejj ^^ » 'O)*0*^eJ jj(jiJU)A) 

amavaiidili, va zak-i mas pimzkarih; 14 afash afnno va stayishn vadund, 
va sipas angarend. 15 Afam avir burzishnik medammunast. 

16 Afam khaditimd zak-i Mstovaran va chashidaran va vajustaran 
rubAn, yin zak-i bamik gas vnzurgtiim shadih. 17 Afam burzishnik 

18 Afam khaditiind zak-i datoguban va ashtih-bavihunan veh-dost 
ruhcin., 10 miinslian roshanik-i star va mah va kliurshed humanak, azash 
hamdi vakhshUl] 20 va vCnms\m-Jwma7idyish hamai raft homand, yin 
andarvai rushamk. 

21 Afam khaditiind zak-i pahlum ahvan-i yasharuban,-i roshan-i 
liamak-khvarih-d farakhiiih va kabed siparam-i hu-bu-i harvisp-^QsX^-i 

XY. 16,3. K,o om. 16,11. IC-o omits J. 17,2. H^ has JQ for JJ. 18,8—10. 

Hi«, K20, K.6 yist^y '^\ yiyt^' i9iio. d- k,o ^^^' 19,11. d- His, 

J only inKjo, K26. 21,13. D. Ho, H17 J"^^ J Hi^ spaharam, Sans. A;MS«ma; 
see iJkh. YII. 15. 21,15. He e^Jpu . 

42 Arda-VMf XV, 22.— XVI. 4. 

\ \ 

Chapter XVI. 

^))0f) «»)e) ,^ ^ -'^-^ i^oo 1)^ » jjP-*oocv^ i-^ 1 
■^i^)*> <f*-^ ^)^_)')^ro 2 o .f^^ ^,^i, Vw»)e) rff^ T^ 1 

shikuftak va bdmik va pur-gadman va visp-shadih va yisi^-rdmislm, 
22 miin khadih azash sirih la khavituned. 

Chapter XVI. 

1 Akhar, Srosh-yasharubo , va Ataro yedato, z-ak-i U yadman frdz 
vakhdund, va min tamman fraztar vazlund homanam. 2 Jinak-i fraz 
mad homanam, afam khaditund rud-I-i vazurg-i sazdgun dushahu tar, 

3 mun kabed ruhdno va fravyashardn ym zak rlid yelievund liomand ; 

4 va alt zyashdn vadardano la tiiban, va att-i pavan giran ranj 
hamai vadard, va ait-i khvaryish vadard liomand. 

XV. 21,20. Ko6 Aiw^. 21,29. D. Hj; add J^ . 

XVI. 1,6—8. D. 3 K3« 1, 11-13. He, Hjs ^ ^fi). 2,1. D. H„ have J 
for Yj He, Kjo omit it. 2,10—11. Hig doshokh tar, Sans. naraMndha- 
kdrasr/a; all otliera have JM^fO^y. 3,3. K20 omits final ). 3, 4. lUo 
om.; all others J. 3,5. K20 omits M) . 3,6. only in H17. 4,2,8,15. Hit 

ArdA-Viraf XVI. 5-11. 43 

^^ ^y ^Y '^ ' )^00 M^ ^ jv-^c -or^ ^M)^ 6 
))^^» ^ WO),^ WOT^J '» '^ ^^^<iy ^y ^) ) ^yo^ -^ 

) -^^ ) )HX^ ')^'^) i-'C ^ )VO)f ^^y> WOT^) Yi^)^ -^ 

j 11 o ^)^ .f^ >»oo)t^ ^-^ ^^^^ ^-J » 10 ^)5 Jj^ ))rQ)^j^* 

5 Afam pursid aigh: Denman kaddm rud? va denman anshutd 
mini homand, mun aetun ranjak yekavimund ? 

6 Yemalelun^d Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato^ 7 aigh : Denman 
rud zak kabed ars ait-i marduman min akhar-i vadardakdn min ain- 
man chashm bara shedkiind, va shivan muyak va giristano vadund. 
8 Zak ars adadyish bara I'cjcnd, va val denman rud afzdyad. 9 Val- 
manshan munshan hard vadardano Id tubdno^ valmanshdn homand 
mdnshdn min akhar vadardak shivan va muyak va giristano kabed 
kard ; 10 va zak khvdrtar^ zak munshdn kem kard. ii Va val stiMn 
bara yemalelun aigh: Lekum, amat pavan stih, shivan mwjak va 

XVI. 5,1-11. K20 om. 5,15. K20 has ^ ior i . 6,6. K20 omits final ), here 
and elsewhere, 53 times out of 112 occurrences of this word. 7,7. K20 has 
) for J. 7,11. K20, K26 add final j. 7,16. D. has U5 for .i , 8,5. K20, 

omits final j. 9, 12, Koq A^^. 9,19, H17, P. add 3^^i) ^3. 
10,1-7. H,„ P, have 3^i))A) ^S ^)^ ^^ );^0)l^ J^Jj^^)- 10,2. 
K2« adds J. 11,1. K26 adds _4ju. 11,8. D. )^. 11,12. Kjo prefixes ). 

44 Ardfi-Vtr&f XVI. 12. — XVII. 5. 

Chapter XVII. 

•»-K)P^ T^ ^-^^ne) -fey 3 ^)^^^^ ^))?o)^ -^ -Hj^^ ^^ ^1(2 
Y^)y^ ^y T^)* tiil • ^W5 ^^^ ijjv-HXJOv^ ^))),4' ^ 

giristano adadyish. al vaduned ; 12 maman denman and anakih va sakh- 
tih val ruban-i vadardakan-i lektim yamtuned. 

Chapter XVII. 

1 Afam tanidich lakhvdr val Chinuvat puhal yatund homanam. 
2 Afam khaditund zak-i darvandan ruban, amatshdn yin zak III shap-i 
nakhust, and anakih va saritarih val ruban numud, munshdn akaraz 
pavan stih, chand zak sakhtih, la khadMnd yekavimunad. 3 Afam 
pursid min Srosh-i yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, aigh: Denman ruban-i 

4 Yenialeluned Srosh-yashariibo , va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i darvandan 

XVI. 12, 5. only in Ha. 

XVII. 1, 3, 8. Hi7 om. 2, 3. Kjo omits; J . 2, 6. D. )<00)t^* ^' ^^' ^'^ ^) ' 
2, 19. Hi7 --V^ti^* 3, 1. Hi7 omits from this to 5, 1. 4, 1. the crude form 
of this verb varies in the old MSS.; u i) occurs 15 times in Hj, and 34 

'^ w 

times in Koo; ))) fj 84 times in Hg, and 4 times in Kno; and ))J^A> 60 times 
in K20. 5, 4. Hi7 has 3 for y^ , 

Arda-Vh-af XVII. 6-11. 45 

^^rtj ^-^ )r]^ ^^ ^ve) ^)y^ ^) -"^-^ tit ^^i^r r^^ 

tamman dubarast aigh zak-i valman darvand frod murd, hdlino zak 
jinak aigh j an bara vazlund ; 6 afash roesbman yekavimunad , va zak 
gasanik gubishn yemaleluned 7 aigh: Dadar Aubarmazd ! vol kadam 
zamik vazlunam ? va mun pavan panah vakhdunam ? 8 Ya val valman, 
zak lelya, and anakih va sakhtih ydmtuncd^ 9 chand ytn stih. gabrd-I 
mun ytn stih ztvast, yin sakhtih va anakih zivast. 

10 Akhar, vad-J-i sard-i gondak val padirak yatuned. 11 Valman 
rubdn dngun medammunast cbigun amat min apakbtar nemak, min 
nemak-i shedaan, bara yatund-i gondaktum vad min zak zyash pavan 
stih la khaditund. 

XYII. 5, 13. Hi8, K.o have ) fori . 6, 1. K,q omits from this to 7, 8. 7, 4—12. see 
Yasna XLVI. 1. 7, 10. D. om. 7, 12. K:o ^)My) • 8,10. H^ has ^ for 
^. 9,1-9. H,r has f)^ -uy^ jjj It^^)"!!!)* ^^^* ^' ^* ^'* 
adds J. 10,2. D. Hi7 omit \. 11, 1. H^ prefixes J)^. 11,2. Hn 
adds A-^ . 11,3. 80 39 times in He, but twice ))iy« ^ and 8 times UM). 
11 , 6, D. )^. 11, 10. D. K20 prefix j . 11, 21. Kjo J^^ • 

46 Arda-Vir&f XVn, 12-14. 

12 Afash yiii zak-i vad khadttund, zak-i nafshman dino va kunishn 
neshman-i jih, liitak-i pudak-i vashadak-i frdz-jdnuk-'i avaz-kim-i akan- 
kxok-darim, aigh dartm val dartm padvast yekavimvmad, chigim zak-i 
hazak-dyintum khrafstar-i rimantum va gondaktum. 

13 Va akhar, valman ruban-i darvand yeraaleluned aigh: Lak 
vii^n homanih? munam akaraz, mm dam-i Auharmazd va Akbarman, 
min lak zishttar va rimantar va gondaktar la khaditund. 

14 Val valman yemalelunM aigh: Li homanam zak-i lak kunishn-i 
sarya-i lak, 

XVII. 12, 3. D. K20 omit J . 12, 5. ^A in all but K«6- 12, 9. only in H17, K20. 
12, 11— 12. He, K20, Kog y(^5 J^^)> 12, 16— 17. compare Sans. ^)-a;«M. 
12,21. D. Hg, H,8, K,o, K.,8 •^5. See Vend. VII. 2. VIII. 71. 12,23. D. 
H,9, K,6 -^5. 12, 25. n,8 -^5 . 12, 30. D. ^)^^M^ ] His baja kash- 
otum, Sans, pdpishthd hiyanmdtrdh. 12, 31. J only in K20, Kjb. 13, 1. D. 
H,7, K20 om. 13,9. K20 ^. 18,10. D. ~m^y»» 13,13. H,9, Kjs om. 
13, 18. Hie om. 13, 19. H,8, K26 om. 

Arda-VirSf XVH. 15-19. 47 

->)>^))5 ) ^^ ^'^ ^ )f6'vr j>*oM^-ov -'ny^oor "^y^r^r -^yiiy 

5^ ^^ 16 ^)^^ ^3 ,;0C^ -^l^y^ -Ofi T^^P ) ^^*i^^5V 1 

) ro^-ij )i^ <^))5tD^ y ^^ ) i9 » s^d) ny^v ->)^))^ » 

yudan-i dush - mtnishn-i dush-gubishn-i dush-kunishn - i dush-dino. 15 
Kamak va kunishno-i lak rai, amat li zislit va vadak va bazak- 
ayino va dardak va pudak va dush-gond va apiiuzkar va levatman 
besh homanam, chigun lak niedammuned. 16 Amat lak khadih 
khaditund man yazishn va dron, va stayishno, va nasadman^ va 
parastisJm-i Yadadan kard; IT va maya, va atash, va gospend, va 
aurvar, va avdrtk veh dahishnan pahrikht va panakih kard; 18 lak 
kdmak-i Akharman va shedaan, va kunishn-i avaruno varzid. 19 Va 
amat lak khaditund mAn dahishn va yashartibo-dad-i sazakyish val 
shapiran va arzanikan sad, mun min aiik, mun min nazdik fraz mad, 
pavan aspanj padiraftarih kard, va mandavam 

XVII. 14, 12. J only in K ,o, Kas- 14, 13. K.o prefixes ^^Wj)* • 14, 14. Kjo pre- 
fixes ^W. 14,15. K20 prefixes C^X^^tVOO)^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^"^^ I* ^^' ^• 
D. ^J^. 15,19. only in H,7. 15,24. K^o om. 16.5. D. cm.; Hu -V))i^. 
16,7—8. D. cm. 16. 11—12. Hi, era. 16,14. D. H,7 J)^JtJ)^d* ^'^' 1^* 
His om. 17. 14. only in H,7. IB, 2. K,o only J. 18,3. K^o ^^My 
19,1 D. He, Hit om. 19,2. D. )f. 19,7. D. Hj om. 19,15. Hie, K,o, 
Kj4 ^)A , 19, 24. only in K^o. 

48 A.rdft-Vtiaf XVII. 20-27. 

3 ^ ^ 21 o ^)pA3ii -My ^ ^o» ^)^ -^ye y ~0 ^fl)))^ 

ViK^^ ^ey ^^r ^Mro ))'^->i <:tf' ) 22 ^^^ ^)^ 3^^o»vo» 

•*" m ) ^wcy -^ m ) ^^oy -^ m 25 ^^y** rtD-x^j 
%-f ^^li* ->^-^ nej ^MO ^ >*»^ \^ 20 ^^) ^3 j^oo^iwo)^^ 

m j^y my^ -»^-5 ^)y^^ o»)e) ^ -f^^e) -^-^ ) -- 

yehabund; 20 lak payush kard, afat baba bar a asrund. 21 Va amat 
H afravdft yehevuud homanam (aigh, sarya daslit yekavimunad ho- 
manam), afat afravaftiktar kard liomanam ; 22 va amat sahmgun yehe- 
viind homanam, afat salimquntar kard homanam; 23 amat drafshnih 
yehevund homanam, afat drafshniktar kard homanam; 24 amat pavmi 
zak-i apakhtar jinak yetibiinast liomanam , afat apaklitartar nishast 
homanam; 25 pavan ae ciush-humat, va pavan ae dush-hukht, va pa- 
van ae dash-huvaraht-'i lak varzid. 20 Dcr zamcin U gazavand pavan 
zak-i Ganrak-minavad der-gazishnih va dush-ham-pursakih. 

27 Va akhar, fratiim gam fraz yedriind, zak-i darvandmi riiban, pavan 

XVII. 20,7. K,ofQ)l. 21,1—3, 11,7 ),^3. 21,4. His aparavdjata, Sans, cprfl- 
sdrita. 21,13. Hi7 has ^ for p^. 22,3,7. He, H,7, K26 have ij^ for 

p. 23,2. His darjashnt, Sans, drohapara ; Dest, suggests garzishmli, but 
He and K20 have the circumflex. 24,2 — 3, Kjo om. 25,2. Z, aeta; or M, 
Syr. Srn\ Chald. ^n, Z. M, he. 25,3. D. Hjt ^^Y ' 25,11. Kjo addg 
final J. 23, 1—3. Hn, P. ^3 ^ ijIQi ^J compare IV. 34—35. 26,11. D. 
H,, H,7 om. 27,1. Bn ^^ . 27,8. K^o has .5 for ^, 

Arda-VIraf XVH. 28.-XVin. 7. 49 

Chapter XVIII. 

^ikJi o»)e) 1^ ^ ->^-5 )^^)^ ))^ )j^y'^ -^oy^ i-^y ) i 
) ^j^ ) '^^■^^ ^r)a ^^ Me) 3 ^^y*) ^)p5) 5)^^ <;^^ 2 

•^ci^ ■^)^)p^-»^ ■'^-^ )n^(x ^^f Ywr ^)r^ ^Dfei)^ -fo* g 

dush-humat , va dadigar ^^wm pavan dush-hukht, va sadtgar pavan 
dush-Mvarsht, 28 z;a chaharum gam val dushahu dtibarast. 

Chapter XVIII. 

1 Va akhar, Srosh-yasliarubo, va Ataro yedato, zak-i li yadman 
fraz vahhdimdy 2 amat agazand vazlund homanam. 3 Pavan zak 
khaduinak sarmak va damak va khushkih va gondakih khaditund, 4 
mwiam akaraz ym still, pavan zak khaduinak, la khaditund, va la 
vasliammimd. o Va ainat fraztar vazlund humanam, 6 afam khaditund 
argond dushahu zofar, chigun zak-i salimguntum chali pavan tangtar 
bimgimtar jiuak frod yedrund yekavimunad ; 7 pavan tarikih 

XVn. 27, 11. D. Hn, K^o ^^)» ) H17 also prefixes ^ 4^)^^ • 27, 14. Hie, 
K20, K26 om. 27, 18. Hi7 adds w*. 28, 1. only in H17. 

XYin. 1,12. He has ^ for ^ . 3, 6. H17 4iJ"^i . 3,8. Hig, Koe J^^i*^. 

4, 1. B. ^)^. 4, 3. Koo ))^ . 5, 1. only in He, Koe. 6, 2. j^ in all but 

H17. 6, 2. ^5 in all but D. C, 3. D. H^ K.» add J . 6, 3—5. His Sane. 
malinan narakan hlmopalam. 

50 Arda-Vfraf XVIII. 8-13. 

■^^)y m ) 8 ))^))a) ^-*oo «*)e) ,^ m )fi ^^^^ ))^^ 

^K ^'^^ -x^^^ -"15 1 10 ^-'oo -^ n^))>*o >*oreD^ -^o^^ 
5))^<x) -^ -»i^ -fey ^n)*o -^ ^H5 ii _)**_)** _)" ti!l 
o ^i*e35^ ^3^ ,;(5^ 5}e)>*o ) ^jTC)* ) ^)S^^ 1M^^ )*to)v^ •'ly^y 

a^tun tarik-i mun pavan yadman fraz shayad vakhduntano ; 8 va pavan 
gondakili aetun-i kola munash zak vad pavan ijC?ZiA; madam vazluned, 
bara tukhshed, va hard larzed, va bara nefluned; 9 va aetun tang 
tangth rat, kola kliadih hastishn yehcvuntano la shayad; 10 va kola 
khadili aetun mined, atcjh: TanutJid liomanam; 11 va amat III yom va 
shapdn yebevund, yemaleluned aigh 9000 slianat bundak yehevund, 
afam bara la shedkund. 12 Kola jinak aigli k^mtar khrafstar kof balai 
bara yekaviraunSd, 13 va val ruhdno-i darvandan aetuno sedkimd va 
yansegund va shupand, chigun kalba asazdk. 

XVIII. 7,4. K20 omits J. 7,10. He, K26 ^^JOT? ^^i^' ^'^ I^IKX'* ^' ^* °°^^ 
in Hfi, K26. 8, 6. K20 omits J^ . 8, 10. K30 ^)y ' 8, 12. ^))33) in all 
but H18, K26. 8, 14— IG. D. om. 9,4. D. oni. 9,8. P. has 3 for jj. 9,9. 
^^j^ in all but D. H17. 10, G. K20 om. 10,7. K20 Jl(y))^« H? 1- only 
in K20. 11, G. D. adds ^)U. 12,6. His haraf, Sans, sharlre. 13,3. Koo 
omits final ^. 13,10. compare Pers. t^i^>!^ y^ , 13,13. so in D. He, H17, 
K20; K26 ^ii^Jdij; H18 asajd, Sans, anurupitayd; it may be a miswriting 
for A^t))-**? see Midi. VII. 29. 

Arda-Viraf XVni. 14. — XIX. 5. 51 

Chapter XIX. 

lie) » ^)P-^< JO ^0) m ^^)^^ lo^j^) j)^^-^ irO(2 ]^v 

))^ ^r Vit ^ )W5 Msty 1 jjy-HXX3V^ T^ ^^))e) -^o* 4 
0% ^)v^^ -o^^d^e) y^jJ^* )r)^ i^v it^ ^1^ H3^n ;ff 

14 Va af«7?i khvdrytsh tamman yin vadard, va Srosh-yasharubo hu- 
rust-i ptruzkar, va Ataru yedato. 

Chapter XIX. 

1 Jinak-I fraz mad homanam; afam khaditund ruban-i gabra-I, 
2 mun riibdn cMgiin mar-I-i frasipo humanak, pavan nishim yin vaz- 
lund; va pavan piimman biriin bara yatuiid; 3 va av dr 1 k mavCm-i kabed 
hamak anddm liamdl yansegund. 

4 Afam pursid min Si'dsh-ijasharubd , va Ataro yedato , 5 atgJi: 
Denman tanu maman vanas kard, mun ruban angim giran padafras 
yedrun^d ? 

XVm. 14,2. should be asam, unless ^ be tbe final of 13,13. 14,3. so in lln; D. 

has ^ for JiO^ ; His, Kjo, Kos have -*OyJt^; He writes ^ over -»0(3 . 

U^9_10. K20 om.; D. puts them after 14,13.; J is wanted before 14,9. 
XIX. 2,2. K20 adds final )y H17 om. 2,3. Hj, om. 2,10. D. has ^ for ^, 

3. 2. ^^ in all but H17. 3,6. H17 adds ^) J. 3,7. K20 ^^p. 4,3-7. 

Hi, om. 5, 1. Hi7 ^j all others )^. 

52 Arda-Viraf XIX. 6.-XX. 5. 

,^e)) ^ -^)y -X50» 8 ^)^ ^^))^ -ujtD Me) -o^i^ -^ ^)v^ 
0% ^)P^^ -o^Jd^e) i)*»^^ M^^ ^y M^ 9 ^M^-oo n^ 

Chapter XX. 

)))^ j^v ^iT w -o^JJ /ff 1)^ T^^* tin ^^))e) -^o* 3 

6 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo , va Ataro yedato, 7 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand gabra raunash, pavan stih, kun-marz kard, 
8 afash gabra madam nafsliman tanu shedMtid; 9 kevan ruban aetun 
girdno padafras yedruned. 

Chapter XX. 

1 Jinak-I fras mad homanam; afam khaditund ruban-i neshman-I, 
2 munash rtni va palidih-i marduman taslit tasht val khurdano hamdt 
yehabund homand. 

3 Afam pursid aigh : Denman tanu maman vanas kard, mim ruban 
dngun padafras yedruned ? 

4 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man ruhdn-i valman 

XIX. 7, 3. J only in D. He. 7, 9. Hn ^fQ) . 8, 6. Kjo has ^ for ^ . 9, 4, 

His om.; Kjo jO^^* * A j| 

. D. Hig, K20, K26 ,^. 2,4, J only in D. Hn. 2, 10. * 

XX. 1, 2. D. om. 2, 2 

K20 ^-^J^* 3, 11. Hia adds gam — yi 

)J^, 5,3. K20 om. 

Arda-Viraf XXI. 1-5. 53 

Chapter XXL 

■^m'e) rQ))e) W^ ^)^ 2 ^"jM)> j)^v ^nm)^ ^«» i 

,y^ j^^ »i^ ^1^ -0^)1 ;ff M^ i^y* tiil ^^iiej -^o* 3 

darvand nesliman mimash, pavan dashtan, la pahnkht, va dadyish la 
dasht, val maya va atash vazlund. 

Chapter XXI. 

1 Afam khaditund ruban-i gabra-I 2 mimash kamar post pdhndt 
hamdi vadund, pavan giran margih hamdi zektelimd. 

3 Afam piirsid aigli : Denman tanu maman vanas kard, miin ruban 
angim padafras yedruned ? 

4 Yemaleluneci /Srosli-yasharubo , va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand gabra munash, pavan stih, gabra-I-i 
yasharubo zektelund. 

XX. 5, 8. Hit om. 

XXI. 2,4. perhaps Utt = i*JJ = Aii . 2, 5. D. -«PJ K20 ^^J^ » 2,10. D. 
_«u»j Hi7, K20 ^•WJ*'' 5,3. He, H17, Koq have ) for J J K26 omits it. 
5,9. Hit ^Jtl) • 

54 Arda-Viraf XXII. 1-7. 

Chapter XXII. 

)j>yi )^v 1,^ ^)^ -o^M ;^ n^ T^* tiii ^^))fi) ^^ 4 

Chapter XXII. 

1 Afam khaditund mban-2 gabra-I 2 munash rim va dashtan-i 
neshmandn pavan zafar hamdi rejend, 3 va farzand-e avayishnik-i 
nafshman hamdi affimd, va hamdi vashtamund. 

4 Afam pursid aigli: Denman tanu maman vanas kard, mun ruban 
angiin padafras yedruned ? 

5 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 6 aigli: Den- 
man riiban-i valman darvand gahi'd munash, pavan stihj dashtan-marz 
kard; 7 va ait-i kola khaclu-hdv vanas XV va pelag tanapuhar. 


XXn. 1,3. He has f for j*, K.q, K^g omit it. 2,2. D. Hjs, K-g ,^. 2,5. D. 
omits %*i* 2,8. K20 ^^_^' 3,2. all but D. H17 have \ for J . 3,5,8. 
K20 A'**J*' here, and also in many subsequent places which are unnoticed. 
3, 7. Hfi, K,>o, K26 om. 6, 3. K20 omits J. 6, 6. Koq )^^» 6, 9. R^ AJyiQ) . 
7,4. Ilig omits ^. 

Arda-Vtraf XXIII. 1 — 7. 55 

Chapter XXIII. 

-K^P ) ^iT ,^e3) ^^-^ -xjey 3 ^))^j^ -^ tin ^'^ -^-^ V) 
0*0 ^))^^ -^^ ;ff )a ne) 05 i ^ii^cooi -»"^ nr* ) ^)w -^^ 

0% ^)P^^ -o^^a^e) 

^ii}5 3p^ ) ^^ ^,^^ , ^ir^'^^rQ) m -^)^ -^ ^»v^ 

Chapter XXIII. 

1 Afam hhadttund ruban-i gabra-I 2 mun, min gursakih va tish- 
nakih, vang hamai hard aigh: Bara yemitunam. 3 Afash zak-i nafsh- 
man mui va resh hamai khefrund, va kMno hamai vasldamund^ va 
kef pavan piimman hamai ramitund. 

4 Afam pursid aigh: Denman tanu maman vanas kard, ?/? im rub an 
angun padafras yedmned? 

5 Yemalelimed Srush-yashariibo , va Ataro yedato, G aigh: Den- 
man rliban-^■ valman darvand gabra munash, pavan stih, Horvadad 
va Amerodad mayd va aurvar drayan jald, va adadyish vashtamund, 
va vaj ia dasht; 7 va pavan vanaskaiih 

XXIU. 1,2. K20 e^3. 2,2. Koo om. 2,8. Koq )^)j. 3,2. En om.; K20 omits 
J. 3, 12. Koo, K.6 ^)^ . 4, 9. D. ^. 6, 3. D. K,o omit J . 6,7—8. 
!>• jO '^^^' ^'9- Hit A)fQ). «, 10-15. H^ ^)^^ ) ^^ ^))A> 
jyyo] He, K20, K26 add ) to 6, 12. 6, 17. compare Pers. ^JujA^, ^jiX^dss^ 
'to gnaw'; H18 has jud 7 times, jud twice, ^wda twice, and zad, sad, Miurd, 
each once; and in Sans., khddanti 5 times, viddr ay anti t^icQ , vibhindanti 
twice, and vydpddayantl, nighnanti, khddati, vibhinna, vind each once. 

56 Araa-VMf xxm. s.— xxiv. 7. 

-^V t)^^ ^yr» ^\^ ) ->o^ ^)^ -o«* 8 ^)^ -«3 ^^5 
Chapter XXIV. 

i^r j^v )^ ^)^ ^11)) ^ ^)^ ^)* ^ ^^nej -fo* 4 

0% ^)y^^ HJ^^a^^ 

■^j 1)^ ) 7 ^))^-oo ,^ej) J^j-b -^rei) m '^)f ^^) hr^ 

yesht la kard; 8 afash Horvadad luaya, va Amerodad aurvar, aetun 

tarili yehevund. 9 Kevan denman rubdn aetun giran padafras avdyad 


Chapter XXIV. 

1 Afam khaditund ruban-i neshman-I 2 mun, pavaii pestdn, val 

dushaliu aUanliht yekavimimdd ; 3 afasli khrafstaran liamak tanii-i val- 

man yansegund. 

4 Afam piirsid aigli : Denman tanu maman vanas kard, mun ruban 
angun padafras yedrunetl ? 

5 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 6 aigh : Denman 
r^ban-'A valman darvand neshman munash, pavan stih, sMi-i nafshman 
sbedkund, 7 va tanu val gabra-i khadihan dad, afasli ruspikili kard. 

XXIII. 9,2—4. K20 yoiyi ))C^iJ« 9,7. K20 om. 9,8. II^, K20 have e^ for ^. 

XXIV. i,2. K20 ^i. 2,3. K20, KoG )*>ytDfiJ* 2,6. or aMiMit; compare Pers. 
^^f, ^^'^\^ f>-^ 'a liook'. 2, 7. D. He, Kae bave ^ for ^. 6, 3. 

K20 omits J. 0,6. K20 ^, 6,9. H17 ii>Jt!) * 

Arda-Viraf XXV. 1-6. 57 

Chapter XXV. 

j^p iT)* tin ^ 'W5 »»V0* tjjP-*oooP^ ^n),^ 4 
^00) ) ^ ^1^ ^ni)^y ^f)a -"rej> ))e) >»oo)ir )*b)y^ wot^i 

Chapter XXV. 

1 Afam khadUdnd ruban-i gabra ac chand, va neshman / chand, 
2 munshaii klirafstar ragelman va gardano va mtydn hamai jald^ va 
khaduk min tanid haniai vajard. 

3 Afam pursid aigli: Denman tanuan maman vanas kard, mim 
rubaii angun padafras yedruned ? 

4 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-« valmanshan darvandan mimshan, pavan stih , khadu-muk- 
dubarislmik kard, 6 va vashad-dubarishnik va min ragelman mezishnik, 
va avdrtk slicdayyd-yazakih kard. 

XXV. 1,2, ^5 in all but Hu, Koq. 1,5. K,o \. 1,9. K20 a«. 2,7. H17 
^^. 2, 9. His ;;<(?a, Sans, ^/^arfaw^i". 2, 13. Hi7^|j. 3, 4. II17 ^»00^) 5 
D. He, K06 add >*()0^) ♦ ^' ^' ^^-'o °™i'^ -* ♦ ^ ^- ^i^ -^rO) • ^' ^- *^"^J' 
in Hi7, Koc. 6, 8—9. K20 om. 6, 10. so in He, Koq, Koe ; H17 omits a j 
D. -\5^0000 5 ^^^ °^*^" written "JOAO^^OOO sJu'dd-i/amMk. 

58 Arda-Viraf XXVI. 1.— XXYII. 2. 

Chapter XXVI. 

0% iiT ->^-5 j^P ^r t!L ^^»^^ "^^ 3 

0*0 ^)^ -lo^wiiej ^ ) ^ ^H5r 1 ^)^ re)» 
Chapter XXVII. 

Chapter XXVI. 

1 Afam khaditund ruban-i neshman-I 2 munash hftzvan pavan 
gardano hamai kasliid, va min andarvai avikht yekavimunad. 

3 Afam pursid aigh: Denman ruban zak-i mim? 

4 Yemaleluned Srosli-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigli: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand nesbmau mun^ pavan stih^ shiii va sar- 
dar-i nafshman tar minid^ va nafrtn kard^ va dushndm dad, va 
c/ad-pasukhoih kard. 

Chapter XXVII. 
1 Afam khaditund ruban-i gabra-I 2 mun pavan kafiz va diilak, 
afrayd va khakistar hamai padmayind, val vashtamimtano bamai 

XXVI. 5,3, K20 omits J. 5,4. Koq adds J, 5,7. Hig, K.o, lUo '^)fi* 5, 9. Hu 
•^rO) ♦ ^> 14-28. Koo om. 5, 15. D. lie, K'c ^)y-^- 5, 23. D. om. 

XXVII. 2,G. or afrcik. 2,12. K20,. K.e omit final |). 

Arcia-Viraf XXYII. 3.-XXVm. 2. 59 

^rr* y^y )^ ^i^ -o^ii r^ d^ ^r va ^^»'^ -^^ 3 

Chapter XXVIII. 

JOW» 2 ^oo-xJ -^PV -Oti^ )-jM)> ->j;^y ^))r€D^ -fey i 


3 Afam pursid aigh : Denman tanii maman vanas kard, miin ruban 
angim padafnis yedrimed ? 

4 Yemalelimed Srusli-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man riiban-i valman darvand gahrd mimash, pavan stih^ kafiz va diilak 
va sang va anddzak la rast dasht ; 6 maya val as gumikht, va afrayd 
val jurdak kaid, va pavan vahak-i giran val marduman mazdimdj 
7 va min shapiran mandavam duzdid va shochrund. 

Chapter XXVIII. 

1 Afam khaditund ruban-i gabra-I munash andarvai dasht, 2 afash 
panjah sheda, pavan mar-i shapdk^ levtn va akhar, hamai makhitund. 

XXYII. 5, 3. Koo omits J . 5, 6. K,o )^^. 5,0. Hi, ^fCD • 5, 15— 16. Kjo 

om. 6, 6. or afrdh. 6, 16. D. has ^ for ^ . 1,1. D. has p^ for ^ . 
XXVIII. 2,6. Hi, Sans, sanckaranti ; see L. 3 and LII. 2. 2,7. K^o adds final ), 

60 ArM-Viraf XXVIII. 3. — XXIX. 2. 

)y)Ai j*jjP )^ ^^^ ^jt)) ^ ))^ fy ^ ^ii^^eJ ^^ 3 

nej 1 G ^)^ -Jo-HXX^^^a-o)^^ -"rei) nej -^iiT -^ ^\y^ 
Chapter XXIX. 

3 Afam piirsid aigh: Denman tanu maman vanas kard^ mun ru- 
hdn dngun pddafrds yedruncd? 

4 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasliarubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: denman 
ruban-i valman darvand gabra munash, pavan stilly dush-pddahhshdhth 
kard; 6 va pavan mardumdno andmurz va zadar, va zdkham va 
padafras-i dngun khaduinakiha kard. 

Chapter XXIX. 

1 Afam hhaditund iiiban-i gabra-I 2 mun shanayd pavan zafar 
bimn hisht^ va khrafstaran hamai jalcL 

XXVIII, 3,8. K20 adds final ), 3,9—13. only in K20, which adds ^ to ^-^. 
5, 9. Hit ^fQ) • 5, 10. Koq omits ii. 6, 2. H^ i) . 6, 3. K,o omits 
final ). 6,4. D. H^ 2)^^. C, 8. D. wS '^ Hit «y-5« 6,10. J only 
in Hfi. 0,11. HiB, K26 om,; K,o i)S , 

XXIX. 1,2. D. He ^5. 2,1. Hit -^i^)^' 2,2. or sJiaiidh; yifyi in all but 
K20. 2,6. Hg adds final f. 2,10. ^i^ jwda, Sans. Mddanti. 

Ard&-Viraf XXIX. 3. -XXX. 3. 61 

)r)^ r^y )f ^»^ -o^n r^ ))^ ^f tiil ^^<^^ ^^ ^ 

^S •'i^V i^r* till 5 )^00 MVtV 1JV-HXX3V-" ^))),.f ^ 

Chapter XXX. 

0*0 ^)^ -0^)1 rff M^ T^^* iiH ^^))a -fO* 3 

■ _ ^ - -__ 

3 Afam pursid aigh: Denman tanu maman vanas kard, mim ru- 
ban dngun padafras yedrunod ? 

4 Yemaleluned Srush-yasliarubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigli: Den- 
man luban-i valman gabra mimash, pavan stih^ spazgth kard, va mard- 
iiman khaduk levatman tanid patkaft; 6 a fash ruhdn pavan akhar 
val dushahu hamdt dubdrast. 

Chapter XXX. 

1 Afam khaditund ruban-i gabra-I 2 mun anddm, khaduk min 
tanid, hamai tebrimd va vajdrmd. 

3 Afam pursid aigh : Denman tanu maman vanas hard ? 

XXIX. 3,9. D. A4i». 3,11. Hg, Hi7, K,6 y>^. 5,4. K.o adds 5)y5. 5,8, H^ 
■^rO) • 5' 9- Hi^ -X5-^e25 ) K.o, K,6 -^fS^ , 6, 1—8. Hit om. 

XXX. 2,1. H,7 -i^JJi-f. 2,2. His andd = $)] all others but H,? y^yo . 2,4. 
His am ==- ^^y- 2,8. only in Hn, K.c 2,9. D. K.q' ^))j3jJ(0) . 3, 
K20 adds P^)^ 

7(^jj. 2,8. only in H,7, K.c 2,9. D. K.o" ^)yJAi(Oi 

)y^^ ^i*3e)^e) )y}^ \^' 

62 Arda-Yiraf XXX. 4. -XXXI. 6. 

Chapter XXXI. 

))4) ) ^e))^ «»)e) Je)o» -^oooo ti^ ) 3 vtv^^i-*^ ^n^)** ^ 
c?o ^)^ ~o^)) ^ ))^ ^f vt ^^m -fo* 4 

4 Yemalelimed Srosh-yashavubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Denman 
ruban-i valman darvand gabra mimash, pavan stih, kushishn-i toraaa 
va gospendan va avarik cliahar-payano adddyish kabed kard. 

Chapter XXXI. 

1 Afani kliaditund ruban-i gahru-I 2 mun rocshman vad ragel- 
man shikcnjak madam hankhetunud yekaYimunad; 3 va lOUO shcdayyd 
azvar fraz kiift, va pavan giran anakili va sakhtih liamai makhitund. 

4 Afam pursid aigh: Denman tanu maman vanas kard? 

5 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharvibo, va Ataro yedato, G aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman 

XXX. 5,7. D. -J^^p. 5, 0. Hi7 ^f^» 5, 14. only in Hi7. 5, 17. H^ has 
^ for OQy. 

XXXI. 1,4. K,o N^-f* 2,2. 3ii in all but H,7. 2, 4. K-o JUI^ . 2,5. Hit 
J^^UA.3^. 2,7. 1117 lias CO for final Cfy. 3,3. may be so read, as the 
Chaldee definite plural; but it is more probably a mere variant of <A^_)00 ' 
the extra loop being added to distinguish it from sJlcth. 6, 4. Koq ->) . 

Arda-Vlraf XXXI, 7. -XXXII. 5. 63 

,^e))3 ) 7 ^)^ ^H ^^ ->^rQ)^^ -"ro) ne) -^It^ -^ hy^ 
Chapter XXXII. 

c?o ^)5 -0^)) rff ))^ T^r* tiil ^-"iie) 4^ 3 

darvand gabra mtinash^ pavan stih^ khvdstak-\ kabed gird kard; 7 va 
benafshmcm la vaslitamimd; va val shapiran la dad, va bahar la kard; 
va pavan anbar dasht. 

Chapter XXXII. 
i Afam hhadtiand riiban-i ashgalian gabia-I, Davdnos karitund 
liomand, 2 mun hamdk tauii khrafstar hamixi jald , va ragelman-I-i 
dasldn-i valman Id hamdi jald. 

3 Afam purstd atgh: Dcnman tame maman vands kard? 

4 Yemalduned Srosh-yashardhd^ va Ataro ycdato, 5 atgh: Den- 
man ruhdn-i Davdnos-i 

XXXI. 6, 7. D. j^^^, 6, 9. Hi7 .DJlQ) . 6, 10. H17, Hig omit a . 7, 2. D. omits 1 . 

XXXII. 1,2. K.o C^^» 1,6. His only in Pahlavi; this name is altered to y^jO 
in the Persian prose Ard. Vir. H.g; in the Pahlavi Rivayat it is -(syo\) in 
He, Iv-o, and -Ji(_^)^^ (altered to -^JjOh'OO)^) ^" ^ '^^^*" ^^^- ^s- ^^ ■" 
=: a, kit, h, and ^ ~ n, v, {(, 6, r, I, it follows theoretically, that this name 
can be read 6X3X^X6 = 648 different ways. 2, 2. Koq -MiW . 2, 4. 
Hi7 adds ^Y», 2, G. His^ac?, Sans, vi/dpdda/janti. 2, 7. H17 |^ C^O. 
2,9.-6,4. only in Hig, K.q, K.g. 2, 13. His ^acl, Sans. viddrayantL 

64 Arda-Vh-af XXXII. 6.-XXXni. 6. 

Chapter XXXIII. 

0*0 ^)^ -o^M Tff »)^ i^i* ii^ s^^m W 3 
TV) Jryp ^y ^ 5 )^00 ))^ U3^"*0' -^v^ SO))),^ ^ 

io ^M)^ -X)^ ^^ ne) ^t^) 1 

ashgahdn mun, pavati stih yehevimd, akaraz Mch kdr-i naduk Id hard; 
6 hard pavan denman ragelman-I-i dasliin, dastak-I-i giyah val levtn-i 
tora-I-i varzak ramttfmd yekavimunad. 

Chapter XXXIII. 

1 Afam khaditund ruban-i gabra-I 2 mim liuzvan kirm liamai jald. 

3 Afam piirsid aigli : Deninan tanu mamaii vanas kard ? 

4 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasliambo , va Ataro yedatu, 5 aigli: Den- 
man ruban-i vabnan darvand gabra mimasli, pavan stih^ zilr va kadba 
kabed guft; G va kabed ztydno va vazand pavan daman azash yelievund. 

XXXII. G, 2. Kao om. G, 6. Ho, K.o, Kas omit J ] D. Hit omit V ; Hn pr 
^)^' 6, 9. K.o adds final ) , 6, 12, D. He have ^ for ^ . 

XXXIII. 1,2. K,o ^i, 2,1. D. ^. 2,5. li,s jud, Sans. kMdanti. 5,3. K,o 
omits J , and adds it to 5, 4. 5, 9. H17 Aip^ . 5, 14. K.o adds final ) . 
G, 1. II17 adds ^0> . G, 3. K20 omits final | . 6, 8. H17 ora. 

Arda-Vtraf XXXIV. 1-7. ^^ 

Chapter XXXIV. 

6*0 ^)^ -o^n rff ))^ i^t' tiil ^^m -fey 3 
t^) ■'i^v fir vt ^ '^^H5 Mvev MiP-^c ~x)v-*^ ^))),^ 4 
^^(o, ^i)^ ^ 5) ^ , -00 ,r -"ro) ))a -0)t^ ,^^) ^)^^ 

0*0 W^-lJ -<)^9CV m j^6) J))^ ) ^))^^ jO M^ J^o» 

Chapter XXXIV. 

1 Afam khaditund ruban-i neshman-I 2 mun khrafstardn hamak 
tanu haraai jald. 

3 Afam pursid aigh : Denman tanu maman vanas kard ? 

4 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand nesbman munash, pavan stih^ mu gcs va 
mu vad madam atash vajdrd^ 6 va mm va spush va rtshak madam 
dtdsh ramUund; 7 va atash azir tanu yin bankhetund, va taru-i 
nafshman pavan atash dasht. 


XXXIV. 2,2. D. omits yi , 2, 6. Hj, jud, Sans, viddrayanti. 3,8. Ks» adds 
final J. 5,9. H17 .Wf^J). 5,10. D. His, K.o ifi] H,7 oro. 5,11—14. 
^'> ^Sfi -KJ' ^" namand-, Sans, urndh; P. A) HJOJ ^^^ others -(_)0 
^)fi)i which might also be read gesumond, but this is a modern form for 
gesu-homand ^fiy^ KX) ' or ges-homand ^fi)*i -CO* 5, 17.-6, 8. only 
in H18, K;o, Kjg. 6,4. compare spish, Vend. XYII. 3.; K.g -J(^)^i3 ) Hi, 
sejash, Sans, yat mritdndm. 6, 9. His, Koq, K2« have A for ^ . 7, 7. D. 
Hb ora. 7,9. He, H17 ^^yi* 

66 Ard&-VlrM XXXV, 1. -XXXVI. 3. 

Chapter XXXV. 

-"^^ Md ,^e)) -'-^^) '^)fi 2^,^^» o)A»|P ^MTti)^ -fey i 

0*1 ^)^ -xj^i^oo -»rQ) ne) -oii^ ,-^-*) hy^ 
Chapter XXXVI. 
•>^>')a lie) >*oo)^^ (^ ''^^^"11)* j>^^ ^Mtei)^ -fey I 

Chapter XXXV. 

1 Afam khaditund ruhdn-i neshman-I 2 munash nasai-i nafshman 
pavan kaka hamai lisht va liamai vashtamund. 

3 Afam pursid aigb : Denman ruban-i miin ? 

4 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo , va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand neshman munasb, pavan stih., yatukih kard. 

Chapter XXXVI. 

1 Afam khaditiind ruban-i gahrd-I 2 mun^ yin dushahu, pavan 
khaduinak-i mar-I-i cliand stiin-ac bara yekavimunad ; 3 afash roesh- 
man val rocshman-i 

XXXV. 1, S. Kao om. 2,7. or liydd, compare Pars. ^J^^^^J 'to chew'. 5,9. Hn 

XXXVI, 1, 2. K26 ^5. 1,4. K,o m-^' 2, 1-2, Hi7 Ij -^)^. 2,5. J 
only in Kio, K26, 2, 8, D, >^))pQ) ] Hn -J(^))CO^ *' P^'^'Ws -**» stands 
for \. 3, 1-2, Hi7 JJfl^. 3,2. D. JJAi J He 3iD, 3, 3. D. ^). 
3,4. Kjo Jii. 

Arda-VIraf XXXVI. 4. — XXXVII. 4. 67 

0% ^)^ -O^M ;ff t)^ 1^)* tiL ^^)^^ ^^ ^ 

Chapter XXXVII. 

marduman, va avarik tanu val mar humd?idk yeheviind. 

4 Afam pursid aigh: Denman taPxii maman vanas kard? 

5 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 6 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand gabra munash, pavan still ^ yasbarmokih 
kard; 7 afash ym dushahu mar kerpih duhdrast. 

Chapter XXXVII. 

1 Afam kbaditund rtiban-i mardum-I chand va neshman-I chand^ 
2 munshan nikunsar ytn dushahu akankht yekavimundd ; 3 afshan ha- 
mak tanu mar va gazdum va avarik khrafstaran hamai jald. 

4 Afam pursid aigh: Denman ruban-i kadam marduman honianand? 

XXXVI. 3, 11. He, K20, K28 ^^Y»^- 6,5. Kso om. 6,9. Hn A)J1Q) . 7,2. H17 
J3 ; K20 om. 7, 6. Hi7 has ^ for ^^ . 

XXXVII. 1,6-8. Hi7, K50 om. 2,3. D. om.; H,7 J3. 2,5. see XXIV. 2,6. 
2,6. D, has S^ for ^^. 3,3. H17 om. 3,7. D. Hg om. 3,11. H,, jud-, 
Sans, vibhindanti. 4, 8. ^^Y» in all but H«, Kjg. 

68 Arda-Viraf XXXVII. 5.-XXXV1II. 3. 

Chapter XXXVIIL 

«?o ^)^ -o^n ;ff 1)^ T^r* ^ ^-"iia -f^ 3 

5 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo , va Ataro yedato, 6 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valmanshan marduman homanand munshan, pavan stih, 
maya va atash la pahrikht, 7 va rimanih val maya va atash yedrunto^ 
va pavan nikirishno dtdsh zektelund. 

Chapter XXXVIII. 

1 Afara khaditund ruban-i gabra-I 2 mim bisraya va nasai-i 
anshutddn, levatman khiino va rim, va avarik rimanih va gondakih, 
val vashtamuntano hamai yehahutid, 

3 Afam purstd aigh: Dcnman tanu maman vanas kai'd ? 

XXXVII. 6,6. Hi7, K26 ^fi)*i] K20 om. 7,7. K;o, K>6 omit final ). 7,8-9. 
K20 om. 7, 8^12. His Sans, yat nirilishya vilokya vaishvdnaro hatah. 

XXXVIII. 2, 1. D. Hb, Hi7 add ))^ , which may be correct if va (2, 3) be omitted, 
as it is in Koq. 2, 5. K.o adds Aim* . 2, 14. -J^^V» in Hb, H17, Koe, but 
the medial \ is inserted, elsewhere, 13 times out of 15 occurrences of the 
word. 2,18. Hi7 has ^ for 5. 3,2,8. K20 adds final ). 

Ard4-Vlraf XXXVIII. 4.^ XXXIX. 5. 69 

) -0^9ty ) -o-^ -^i ■^•*^) ) ^-15^ -^ro) Me) -^)t^ -;m)> hv'^ 
Chapter XXXIX. 

0*0 \ry ii^ -'^-^ 1^)* ViL ^^))ej -fo* 3 
^» -^v T^^* tin ^ 'W^ »)vey ) j)v-*oooP-»^ so))),^ 4 
^V-^ ^-^ ) Y^Y^^ •>^-^!^ -^ro) Me) ->o)!^ -jM)> ^)y^ 

4 Yemaleluned Srosh-yashartibo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand gahrd munash, pavan stih, hikhar va 
nasal val maya va atash va tanu-i nafshman va zakich-i anshutaan 
yedrund; 6 va hamvar khaduk-bar va riman yehevund; 7 afash pavan 
pishak la khalelunast. 

Chapter XXXIX. 

1 Afam khaditund ruban-i gabra-I 2 mun post va bisraya-i mar- 
dumdno hamai vashtamund. 

3 Afam pursid aigh: Denman zak-i mun rubdno? 

4 Yemaleluned 'Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand gabra munash, pavan stih, mozd-i mozdo- 
burdn^ va bahar-i baharvaran, 

XXXVIII. 5,6. Hi7 om.; K^o ^^. 5,18. He omits J. 7,2-3. His Sans. 7/at 
harasnuma; Dest. suggests A^id^ )J^, but no alteration seems necessary, 

XXXIX. 1,2. K20 ^^. 2,5. Kjo, K.. omit final ). 2,7. D. has ^ for ^. 
3,7. K20, K26 omit final ^. 5,3. K20 omits J. 5,11. K^q adds final ^. 

70 Arda-Viraf XXXIX. 6. — XL. 7. 

Chapter XL. 

a> ^oo-<3 ^oote) ^ e))5 -^-^ ^^"^^ i ^e)t (jj -x^^)* 3 ^j^^ uij^ 
0% ^)^ -o^n ;ff M^ ^)* tiHL ^^))^ ^^ ^ 

^ ^r05o» '>-i5i^ ) ttD^>*» ) V -"TtD ))e) -oiiT -^ ^)P^ 
-o^jej^e) 55^ )^^^ )y)^ j^y i)^ -X)o» 7 ^6)^35 )*0'^n>)*' 

0% ^)y^^ -*"^ 

lakhvar vakhdund ; 6 vci kevan riiban giran padafras avayad yedruntano. 

Chapter XL. 

1 Afam khaditund ruban-i gabra-I 2 munash kof-I pavan posht 
hamai kashid ; 3 afash yin vafar va sarmdk, zak kof madam posht dasht. 

4 Afam piirsid aigh : Denman tanu maman vanas kard ? 

5 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo , va Ataro yedato, 6 atgh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand gabra miinash, pavan stih, zur va anast 
va milaya-i avi-sdd madam aiishutddn kabed guft; 7 afash kevan ru- 
ban angun giran pazd padafras hamai yedruned. 

XXXIX. 6, 1. D. om. 

XL. 1, 2. Kjo ^^. 3, 5. Koo has Oil for AJi . 6, 16. H,7 i>) . 6, 17. D. 

ArdA-Vtraf XLI. 1-8. 71 

Chapter XLI. 

6% ^)6)^ -^^ ^^)^ ) ^rc tie) mooo ) 3 ^^ n^ji^^^ooi 
)y)A» l)^P )t^ ^)5 -o^n ;ff ))^ ^y tit ^^M^ -^^ ^ 

0% V^ ^n^oo iP^j ^)P^ 

Chapter XLI. 

1 Afam khaditilnd ruban-i gabra-I 2 mun guh va nasdi va 
rimanih vashtamuntano 2/e/<a6w«(Z; 3 va shedaan pavan sang va karddm 
hamdt kufand. 

4 Afam pursid aigli: Denman tanu maman vanas kard, mun rii- 
bano angun giran padafras yedrilned ? 

5 Yeraaleluned Srosh-yasharubo , va Ataro yedato, 6 aigh: Den- 
man rftban-i valman darvand mardum, mun val garmavak-i kabed 
vazlund homand, 7 afshdn hikhar va nasai val maya va atash va 
zamik yedrund; 8 va yasharubo yin vazlund, va darvand birun yatund 

XLI. 1, 1, B. Hi7 omit this chapter. 2, 3—4. D. He om. 2, 8. D. has •* for ^ , 
3,1. all om, 3,4. ijj^ in all here, but elsewhere SrfJ 8 times. 3,5—6' 
His om. ; K20 PH) altered to pl^A) J see LII. 2, and compare Heb. QTlp- 
3,7. K20 adds ^j^ , 6,7. Hib pa — ))^* 7,1. His vash = •JVjQy* 

7, 10. K20 AitJ here and twice elsewhere, out of 7 occurrences of the word. 

72 Arda-VtrM XLII. l.-XLIII. 2. 

Chapter XLII. 

o°o V)** ^m^ ^^^ ^r tat ^^))^ ^^ ^ 

Chapter XLIII. 

Chapter XLII. 

1 Afam khaditund ruban-i mardum aechand 2 mun girymand, va 
baramvand kdld lianiai vadund. 

3 Afam pursid aigh : Denman kadam mardum homand. 

4 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man rubdn-i valmanshan homand, munshdn abidar yin amidar kard; 
6 va amat bara zad homand, abidar madam la padtraft] 7 va kevan 
garzishn min abidar hamai vadund. 

Chapter XLIII. 

1 Afam khaditund ruban-i gabrd-I 2 mAn aperenayik aechand yin 

XLII. 1,1. B. omits this chapter. 1,4. H17, K20 add y 2,5. D. H,7 auJjJA. 

3, 6. K.,0 adds yo , 5, 3. K20 adds ^)p5 ■'t^J • 5, 6. H17, K20 om. 5,6. 

—6,9. His Sans, i/e jandkdt janinydh anayoh prasutd jdtdh santi, yaih 

pifurupari na pratyakarot. 6, 2. Hi 7 om. 
XLIII. 1,4. D. J^)^^. 

Ania-Viiaf Xl.III. 3. — XLIV. 3. 73 

)^^ £3^ )^ ^)^ -0^)1 /ff ))^ ^y v^ ^^m W 4 

o**© ^)y^^^ -^ ,^e)) j^-^cro* -"ro) ))e) -xjti^ -^ ^)v^ 
Chapter XLIV. 

aupast, va liamai kcVci kavCy, 3 va shedaan, cliigiiii kalba liumanak, yiii 
liamai neflund va hamdt sedkund. 

4 Afam piirsid aigli: Denman tanii mamaii vanas hard ^ muii 
riiban anguu girdn p^dafras yedrCnied ? 

5 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 6 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i vahnan darvand gabra munash, pavcm stih ^ aperenayik-i 
nafshman la niekadlund. 

Chapter XLIV. 

i Afam khaditund ruban-i neshman-I 2 mun, pavan pcstdn-i nafsh- 
man, kof-i hamai khcfrund; 3 afash madam sar sang-l-i asyav, rasat 
liumanak, liamai ddsht. 

XLIII. 2, 9. Koo ^yO) . 3, 10. K:,^ )j^ ^jio, . 4, 8. K,o adds final | . 4, 12. Kos 

adds final 1. 6,8—9. only in K^q. 
XLIV. 2,3. K20 omits medial i, 2,5. Koq omits \. 2,7. D. Ho, K17 ^)p.5^ ; 

K,o lias 5 for ^ . 3, 9. 4, 2. K,o adds fijial ) . 


74 Arda-Viraf XLTV. 4.— XLV. 6, 

)yyi n^y )^ ^)^ *o^)) rff ))^ ^r ^ ^^m w 4 

■^^ ) ^)3 -^^^ ^ ^^) ,-^6)) J^^i^ -"ttD ne) -^iiT ,^^1 
Chapter XLV. 

6% ^)5 -o^n ;ff M^ i^)* tiil ^^))^ ^^ 3 

4 Afam piirstd aigh: Denman tanu maman vanas kard, mun ru- 
bdno angun giran padafras yedruned ? 

5 Yemalelimed Srosli-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, G aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i yalman darvaud nesliinan mlinash, pavan stih, kudak-i 
nafshman nasai va tapah kard va bara ramttCmd. 

Chapter XLV. 

1 Afam khaditund riiban-i gabra-I 2 munash kirra hamak andam 
liamai jald. 

3 Afam pilrskl aigh: Denman tanii maman vanas kard^ 

4 Yemalelimed Srush-yasbarubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand gabra munash^ pavan stih, zilr-rjukasth 
kard; G va khvastak min shapiran dvord^ va val saritaran ychabund. 

XLIV. 4, 10. K20 omits final ) . 6, 16. Koq om. 6, 18. D, has ^ for ^ . 
XLV. 2, 6. H18 jiid^ Sans. vihhindanU. 3, 2, 8, Koq adds final ) . 5, 7. D. -Vj^ h**. 
5, 10, D. j^^iipfS". 6, 5. H« adds final ^ . 6, 9. K20 adds final ) . 

Arda-Yiraf XLVI. 1. — XLVII. 2. 75 

Chapter XLVI. 

0% ^)5 H3^)) /ff ))^ 1^)* t^ ^^m .■fo» 3 

) ' ^))^-oo h«,^)^^ ^)ej ,^6)} -^^ 6 (^o^c^)* mo^^ -^-fy^^ 
6*0 ^)))^ ^^e)» wo)^^ m ^^^Ky ,-^ej)^ 
Chapter XLVII. 

Chapter XLVI. 

1 Afam khadUimcl ruban-i gabrd-I 2 miin mast6rg-^■ aiisliutaan 
pavan yadman dared, va mazg hamai vashtamuned. 

3 Afam piirsid aigli: Denman tanii maman vanas kard? 

4 Yemalelimed Srosh-yasliarubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand gabra munash, pavau stih, khvastak la 
min fruranth^ bara min mandavam-2 khadihan duzdid; (1 afash hcnaf- 
shman pavan dushmanan shedkund, 7 va henafshman khadii-tak pa- 
van dushahu avayad ychevund. 

Chapter XLVII. 
1 Afam khaditimd kabed mardum 2 mimslian rocshnum va resh 

XLVI. 1,2. D. ^5. 1,4. K20 N^-f. 2,2. all omit J. 5,7. D. -J^J^p*. 

5,13. K.o J(^)))Ji>3^. 5,16. J only in D. 6,2. 7,2. D. omits i. 7,1. 

Koo puts this ) after 7,2. 7,7. D. He have c^ for ^. 
XLVII. 1,4. H18 adds yo. 2,2. 3ii in all but D. 2,5. Iuq 5^)f^^. 

76 Ar(la-Vinif XLVII. 3. — Xf.VIII. 2. 

Chapter XL VIII. 

va giinak zard, va bamak tanii pudak, va khrafstar hamdt sdtiind. 

3 Afam pursid aigli : Dcnman mini kadam homand ? 

4 Yemaleluned Srosh-yaslianibo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigli: Den- 
man rnban-i valmausban marddmCm miinsban, pavan stib, yasbarmok-i 
friftar yebevund homand; G va anshutddn bamai marencbinid, va mill 
dad-i shaptrth bara val dad-i saritarib yaityund; 7 va kabed kesb va 
giravishn-i ardrund yin gtdian rtlbak kavd. 

Chapter XL VIII. 

1 Afam kbaditiind ruban-i gabra-I 2 mtmash shcdddn ^ chigiin 

XI; VII. 2,14. He, K,6 JjJtJ)^^-" 5 ^^-o ^^ds yo , 2,15. K.q ))^ ^"^ • -' ^*^' 
r>. lias ^ tor ^, 3,4, D. om. ; Hg adds ^)^ '-O-'')) rf^ M^» ''^"*' 
strikes out tliis addition. 5,5. D. H,,, Kog omit wo. tJ, 2. W-^)C|y-^ i" all 
but K,o. <!, 5-6. 11, R, K,6 ^W. U, 8. B. has ^ for ^. 7,1. Koo om. 
7, 6. K20 omits final | . 7,9. Hg adds I . 

XLVIII. 2,1. Ko )f. 2,2. I). OQOO- 

Ai'fU-Yiraf XLYIII. 3.-XLIX. 3. 77 

^^j^jAyP ^^ ^)^ ^i>)l ^ t)^ i^K tit ^^>)^ -^^ ^ 

Chapter XLIX. 

huinanak, hamdt sedkund. 3 Yalman gabra laklima val haTbddn yelia- 
buued, va la vaslitamiiud ; 4 va var, ragelman, asJikdmbo va ran-i zak 
gabra haraM vashtamuud. 

5 Afam pursid aigh: Denmaii tanu maman vanas kard, man riibau 
angun giran padafras yedrimed? 

G Yemaleliine.d Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 7 aigb: Dcn- 
man ruban-i valman darvand mardum miinasb, pavan still, kalba-if sba- 
panan va manpanan kburishii lakbvar dasbt, khaduf zad va zektelund. 

Chapter XLIX. 

1 Afam khaditund ruban-i gabra-I chand 2 niunshan guh va hik- 
bar va nasai va rimanib-i mardiiman hamai jald ; 3 va shedaan sang 
kbefrund, va 


XL VIII. 2,6. D. Ho om. 2, 7. B. .3))a.(^ . 8, 5. K,o ^^^ . 4, 4. K20 has J^ , 
and K26 3, for final ^. 5,9. D. t^m. 7, 9. D. J(^ytD* "' '''■ ''^^ ^'"'^ "^ • 
7, 17. Tchad substituted for ay, 

XLIX. 2,8. all omit j. 2,11. l\i% JHcl, Sans, vilhlnua. 

78 Arda-Viraf XLIX. 4.— L. 2. 

^y)^ >^^ )^ ^)5 ^>*)i ;ff n^ ^Y va so^))^ -^^ ^ 
Chapter L. 

min akhar hamai andakht^ 4 tjad azslian kof-I pavan posht hamai 
kashid, va kashidano la tubdnast. 

5 Afam piirsid aigh: Denman tanii maman vaiias kard, muu riiban 
angiin giran padafras yedruned ? 

6 Yemaleluned Srosh-yashambo , va Ataro yedato, 7 aigh: Don- 
man ruban-i valmanshun darvandan mimshan, pavan stih, zamik tard- 
zmid, va kad^ja tarazinid; 8 va kabed mardura avi-bun va avi-bar 
hard, va val nhjdz va daregushili mad homand; 9 va kharaj-i giran 
hamai avayast yehabuntano. 

Chapter L. 
1 Afam hhaditurul ruban-i gabrii-I 2 man kof-I, pavan angust va 

XIJX. 3,9.-4,1. -ijrOO^** ^° ^^^' which is a rare form for ^lA^J COO)**' ^^*' 
may possibly be correct. 4,8. Koq om. 4,11. D. He, K^e add ^j. 7, 4. K20 
omits ^•(_)0* '^A^- K20 has 3ji for ^j llig Sans. j;<^i/«. 8, 7. K^o adds 
final y 8,10. perhaps mslvp, Pars. v..>^Xm.j, ^.-yA J ; He adds the gloss 
is,.^jL.g.j ; 11)8 transliterates it, in Sans., by ncih'icha. 8, 11. K20 om. 
L. 1,2. K,o, K06 ^5. -2,1. D. ^. 

Ar(1a-VIraf L. 3 —LI. 3. 79 

0°o ^)5 -0^)' rff ^^^ 1^)* tin ^-^^^^ -^^i* ^ 

Md) ) ^)e)^ i>«oo^^ j^),^) ■>h«^^ -"ro) ))e) -^)t^ -jMy ^)P^ 
Chapter LI. 

,^^ ^P )fi ^)) -0^)) ;ff ))^ ff '^ ^^m -To* 3 

nakhiin, liamai khefrund ; 3 va shedaan, min akhar, pavan mar-i shapdk 
liamai makJiUund nthip hamai kard. 

4 Afam pursid aigh : Denman tanu maman vanas kard ? 

Yemaleliined Srosli-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato , G aigli: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand gabra munash, pavan stih, saman-i vi- 
mund-i kliadiliano spokht, va pavan zak-i nafshman vakhdimd. 
Chapter LI. 

J Afam hhadUund ruhdno-i gabra-I 2 muu, pavan shanak-i asmt?i, 
giislit-i min tanu hamai kashid, val khiirdano hamai yehabund. 

3 Afam pursid aigh: Denman tanu maman vanas kai'd , man ru- 
ban angun 

L. 3,7. His Sans. Tcflslmavarndh ; see XXVIIl. 2. and LH. 2. f5, 9. D. has ^ 
for ^. 3, 10. His 5e^/<, Sans. ?«)%?««. 6, 13. His ^)5^i5 5 I^'-'g ^)^i5 ', 
His translates 6, 10—18 by Sans, anyasya slmdgrihUd pashchdt asau mr'dah 
tatastena svaktyd shndgriMtd. 

LI. 1,2. K,o ^5. 1,3. K20 •i>*»lV« 2,4, KiG )y^Ai . 2,5. Koq omits J. 
3, 8. K.>o om. 3, 9. D. adds ^\) . 

go AnU-Vtraf IX 4.-LII. 7. 

Chapter Lll. 

J ii^ ) ^ij^j^ j^^^ )^ 3 ^-^ j^P ^j^ro)^ -fey i 

6% ^1^ -0^)) Tff ))^ ^r tit ^^Ma -fo* 3 

padafras yedruned ? 

4 Yemaleluned Srosli-yasliarubu , va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man rfiban-i valman darvand gahrd muniish, pavan stih, zlnhdr-i kadba 
levatman ansliiitaan kard. 

Chapter Lll. 

1 Afam kliaditiind ruban-i gabra-J 2 mun fakbiz-i sJiapdk va tir 
va sang va kardam hamai spurdand. 

3 Afam pursid aigli: Denman tanu maman vanas kard? 

4 Yemaleluned Srosli-yasharubo, va Ataru yedato, 5 aigli: Denman 
ruban-i valman darvand gabra mun, pavan stih, mitro-diuj-i kabed kard; 
G va mitro druklit levatman yasharuban, va levatman darvandan; 7 maman 
kola-II mitro ait, liam madam yasbaruban, va ham madam darvandan. 

LI. 5,6, D. om. 5,10. )juyuj3 in all but His; J only in IC>6. 
LII. 1,4. D. omits \. 2,3. His gives no Sans, for this sentence; see XXVIII. 2 
and L. 3. 5, 3. K^-o lias } for J , 5, 4. K^o i) , 

Arda-Vhaf Lin. 1-7. 81 

Chapter LIII. 

0*0 ^!^) ywy ^^ (g ^^)e) ^ait'c^ -'^ey ^e>o») ^-^ -'^^•^ ) 3 
W5-x3 -"^ ))e) ^-^ -^ ^ ^))^oo ^-^ -^^^ ) i^wi* 5^rt) -^-^ 

Chapter LIII. 

1 Va akliar, Srosh-yasliarubo , va Ataro yedato, yadman-i li fraz 
vakhdiind; 2 va li pavan Chakat-i-Daitih, azir-i Chinuvat puhal, yin 
viydvdn-I yedruml; 3 va miydn-i %ah imjdvdn, aztr-i Chinuvat puhal, 
yin zamik, dushahu numiid. 

4 Akharman va shedaau va drujan va avarik kabed ruban-» dar- 
vandan, min zak jinak, garzishn va kala zak yatund, 5 i zyam pavan 
and dasht aigh, liaft keshvar zamik jundinand mun zak vang va gar- 
zishn ashnud, dekhlund homanam. 6 Afara val Srosh-yasliarubo , va 
Ataro yedato, khvahishn kard, 7 aigham 

LIII. 1,8— 9. Kio K) ^ -^3 . 2, 1-3. altered from J^ f^^ in Hg, K.q; D. 
O) )^^ 5 ^-'6 J) j Hi8 u man, Sans, ahanclia. 2, 7. K.q omits medial ^ , 
2, 10. — 3,8. only in Hg. 4, 9. He, Koe have ) for J. 4, 11. K,o om. 5,4. 
Z» ana, and; or hand, Syr, \2(t\. 5,10. so in K20, Kog; D. He ^)f(j)(^'i 
H18 chandanid, Sang, akampitd; compare Pers. (jcXajLaas* and Z, ytiz. 
6, 6. Kj, adds ^^u . 7, 1. D. K20 omit ^, 

82 Arda-VIrAf LIII. 8.— J.IV. 4. 

e% -^1^^ ^1V-^1 ViP V >*00)^ ^-f)^ ■'^-^ "^f o»ie) o*^) -*"^^ ^ 
Chapter LTV. 

latamman al yedruned, va laklivar varded. 

8 Ya akhar, Srosli-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, val li guft 9 aigh: 
Al dekhliin ! maman lak rai akaraz min latamman bim la yehevuned. 
10 Va min levtno vazlund Srosh-yasharubo va Ataro yedato; 11 ?;a 
min akhar, avi-bimyish li, Arddt Viraf, fraz val zak-i tomik dushaM 
andaruntar vazlund homanam. 

Chapter LIV. 

1 Afam khadttund zak-i sej-homand-i bimgun-i sabmgun-i kabed- 
dard-^■ pur-anakih-i gondak tartum dushahu. 2 Va akhar andeshid ho- 
manam aetun medammunast, 3 chigtin chah-I mun hazar vaz val bun 
la yamttined; 4 va 

LIII. 7,7. His vardan, Sans, vydvarttasva ; all others ^j. 9,1. D. om. 9,3. 
K,o hits y for p). 10,1—2. Kjo om. 11,1. K26 om. 11,6. perhaps au 
for 3il ^ ^M. 11, 10. K.o omits J. 11, 11. K,o -fj^-f)^ • 

LIV. 1, 2. K,o ^5 J H18 adds rva = ^Ip . 1, 5. Hg, K.o have 5 for J . 
1,8. K20 omits J. 2,5. K20 adds final f. 4,1. K20 om. 

Arda-Viraf LIV. 5 — 11. 83 

I ^nro)^ -»*^ -^i^ f^i ^) W ^ ^ ^^x^^ ^ ^'^^ ""-^^ 
tLj**^ y, i5 ^ -J O)^ ^ li ^)n>ri V) ^)i)H5 

flmat hamak chiba-i yin gehan ait, hamdk yin gondaktum-i toniik 
dushahii madam val atasli hankhetund, akaraz hoi Id yehahuncd; 5 va 
tanidich min gosh vad chashm, va chand bush-i asp-1 madam mui 
yakhsenmied, 6 angiin kabcd 7n«r«fc riiban-i darvandan yin ?/e/ca^;^m^mfZ, 

7 va khaduk val valman tanid la khaditimd, va kala la ashnuvand; 

8 kola khadih pavan ana yakbsenuned aigh: Taninha homanam. 9 
Afshan tomik-/ tarikih va qondakth-i bimgunih-e zdkham va padafras-i 
giinak gAnak-i dushabu, 10 aigb mun and yom pavan dusbabu yehe- 
vuncd, vang vaduned 11 aigh: Hdvandich la bundak safe 9000 

LIV. 4, 4. Hb has A for J", all others omit it. 4, 8. K20 •Mi)^. 4, 10. Koq omits J. 
4, 16. D. H18 have ^ for 5, 4, 18.-5,2. His hi na diked tandizha, Sans. 
kimapi na hibhartti tejomayam ujvalam. 4,19. K20 adds ^^j^. 5,1. 
K.o J. 5, 2. K20, K26 O^)^* 5, 9— 10. HiR -J^^U asezhc, Sans, shud- 
dhaye amrifi/mnafdm. 5, 9. Hg has \ for j . 5, 10. D. A^idiJ . 6, 3. 
H18 margh, Sans, mrityumatdm. «, 7. D. has ci^ for t. 7,4. Hjs om. 
9,2. D. has ) for J. 9,4—5. K,o J. 9,6. K.,6 omits J. 9,7. Hjg, K.s 
p3 . 9, 8. K26 om. 10, 2. K20 om. 10, 3. His ai, Sans, sadaiva tishthanti 
for 10,3—7; perhaps -Ai^ is miswritten for AWV? as both are represented 
by Paz. e. 10,7. D. has ^ for r^ . 11,2. compare Pers. \%XSb . ll,b. 
Hi,, Hos om. 

84 Arda-Yiraf LY. 1-2. 

<?o ^n^-oo -^ ^ n)c^ fir fi r^^}^ ^)*o 
Chapter LV. 
51? vf -'-o^^eiitvej rw)fi )^)y^ -^j^y ^nrei)^ -00^ i 

-vtve) » ^o»-^ ^1^ ^Pej 5^K> ■^'W »)^ ^-^ ))6 -05^y*» 

shanat, amatmdn min denman dushahu madam la shedkund ? 
Chapter LV. 

1 Adinam khaditund ruban-i darvandan 7niinshdn padafras-i gunak 
gunak, clugun vafar-i sneshar, va sarmak-i sakht, va garmtk-i atasli-i 
tiz-sojak, va dush-gondakih va sang va kliakistar, tcikarg va varan, va 
avarik kabed anakih, pavan zak himgun tarik jinak frod murd^ zakham 
va padafras hamai yedrund, 

2 Afam pursid aigh: Denman tanu maman vanas kard, mun ru- 
ban angun giran padafras yedruned? 

LIV. 11,7. He ^^))«0» wl"*^^' ^^- ^^^^- ^''^- ^- Y^)fi' 

LV. 1,5. llifi pa jaha. 1,9. His om. 1,10. D. has ) for J J all others omit j, 
but see LXIV. 3. 1,11. compare Z. snaczhdd, Yend. II. 22; Dest. reads 
sohdr ; His omits the Paz. from this word to the end of the sentence. 1, 16. 
K20 has ftit for O . 1,26. D. prefixes ^. 1,35. D. K26 have | for 4, 
and He can be read the same , as the bottom stroke of the i is hardly visible. 
1,39. K,o ^•^' 1,41- only i" ^- ^"20. 2,9. D. ^. 

Arda.Y!r&f LV, 3-9. 85 

0% )i^»y^^ 

3 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 4 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-'i valman darvand mardum munslian, pavan stih, vanas-i 
marg-arjan kabed kard, 5 va atash-i Vdhrdmdn afsurd, va piihal-i 
riid-i hu-tdk khcfrimd ; <j va zur va andst gMt \a zur-gitkdsth-i kabed 
dad. 7 Afshau kdmak apdcjakhshdih ; va azurih, va payiish va varenoih 
va kbcshm \a araslikoih rai, avt-vands anshiita-i yasharubo zektelimd; 
8 va kabed frlftdinfish satimd homand. 9 Kevan ruban dngun giran 
zakham va padafras avayad yedruntano. 

LV. 4, 3. K26 omits j . 4, 6. D. .juj y , but it should be the collective noun 
.JUMU^M) . . 4, 10. J only in K.e. 5, 2. K20, K.-g omit J . 5. 3. Koo 

t*/)itJ). 5,6. K,,o omits J. 5^8, compare Pers, wiikb". 5,9. K^o om. 
6,4. K,o adds ). 6,7. D. Hg, Kog have ^ for ^J Hg has 3 for ^] 
K20 has O^ for ^. 7,2. K,o pA . 7,3. K.^o omits 0). 7,11. or 

aeshm. 7,13. jf»| a^jtjjj in all but D. ; perhaps arashkiotih. 7,15. 
-(Jiij^U^ in all but K,o. 8, 3 D. has ^ for ^i . 8, 5. D. has ^ for .i . 
9,3. D. om.; K.q Uyo . 9, G. K26 om. 

86 Ard&-Viraf LVI. 1. — LVII. 2. 

Chapter LVI. 

0*0 ^r -^^ 1 ^o r"^^^ wc)f w<i^) jj^v ^nrei)^ -^rc^ i 
0% r')ry )^ -"^-^ wo^) tin ^^m w 2 

Chapter LVII. 

M^ iT ) ^M^^e) ,^^P ?M30)i^ )^r^^> •'iSV SO^ -fO* 1 

0% )*»n^V )f J-i-^ )^0T^^ i^r* tiil ^^'^^ -^^ - 

Chapter LVI. 

1 Adinam khaditimd ruban-i valmanshan munshdn maran gazid 
va hamai jald. 

2 Afam pursid aigh: Valmanshan zak-i miin ruhdnodn? 

3 YemalelunM Srosh-yasharfibo, va Ataro yedato, 4 aigh : Denmail 
ruhdn-i valmanshan darvandan mimshan , pavan stih, pavan Yadadan 
va dino niktrdi yehevund homand. 

Chapter LVII. 

1 Afam did ruban-i neshmanan munshan roeshman peskund, va 
min tanu javidak yehevund; va zuban vang hamai dasht. 

2 Afam pursid aigh : Denman valmatishdn zak-i mun ruhdnodn ? 



LVI. 1,1. His amm. 1,5. D. YiMV^ ' 1)10- '^is jucj, Sans. nigJinanti. 2,5. 
D. omits J. 2,7. K20, K.e omit ^, but K26 adds it at the end. 4,3. Ko© 
adds Ml* 4, 13. H,8 nigerdi, Sans, avaloptdrah ; see Mkli. XXXVI. 13. 

LVII. I. 8. K,o om. 2, 5. D. adds )yoiy . 2. S. ^ only in Hg. 

Arda-VIraf LVII. 3.-LVII1. 5. 37 

Chapter LVIIT. 

0*0 ^)5 -O^M ;ff «^ ^Y tiil so^Me) -fo* 3 
^) Jj^P T^)* tin ^ 'W5 ''^ ijv-^c -oP^ ^'J^^* ^ 

^ny ) '^\(^ ■>^^jti)-» •'-o-^ Me) ,^e)) -i^^^ "''^i-f ""^^ 

3 Yemaleluned Srosh-yashambo, va Ataro yedato, 4 aigh : Denraan 
rubSn-i valmanslian neshmanan munshaii, pavan stih, shivan va muyak 
kabed kard, va madam sar va rod makhitund. 

Chapter LVIII. 

1 Adtaam khaditund ruban-i gabra-I 2 mini kashan val dAshahu 
yezderund, va hamai makhitund. 

3 Afam pursid aigh: Demnan tanu maman vanas kard? 

4 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo , va Ataro yedato, o aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand gabrd man, pavan stih, roeshman va 
rod-i nafshman va yadman-i shafik, va avarik rimanih-i audam-i nafsh- 
man, pavan maya-i tstddak-i vazurg, va khanik, 

LVll. 4, 10. D. K,o om. 

Lvni. 2,5. D. has P^ for 5, 2,8. D. hws ^ tor 5) Hig inirad. 5,6. K,o 

^^. 5, 7. His, K,o, K,6 -X3)t^* ^' ^°- ^^ ^" "^' ^""^ ^- '"' ^^' ^^- ^" 
om. 5, 24. E20 has JA for A^ and omits J . 

38 Arda-Viraf LVIII, 6. - LX. 2. 

Chapter LIX. 

)^^ r^^ »i^ ^)^ -o^n /ff ))^ ^r 'ttL so^''^ -^^ ^ 

io ^n^-oo ;hP^* -^^ -X55^V ex:^) ,^a) -^^^i^ 1t^ r^^^ ^)y^ 
Chapter LX. 


t;a satunan, kabed khalelund; 6 y« liorvadad ameshospeud azard. ■ 

Chapter LIX. 
1 Afam khaditund ruban-i neshman-I 2 mun hamai girist, va post 
va bisraya min zak-i pestdn-i nafshman hamal khefrund va hamai 

3 Afam pursid aigh : Denman tanA maman vanas kard, niAn ruban 
angun giran padafras yedruned ? 

4 Yemaleluned Sr6sh-yashar<ib6 , va Ataro yedato, a aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i vabiian darvand neshman mun kudak-i nafshman niyaz 
gursakih rai giryan shedkund. 

Chapter LX. 
1 Afam did rubftn-i gabra-I 2 mun tanii yln dig-l-i ruyin kard 

^)4. 6, 1- K.o oin. 

LIX. 1,2. ^5 in all but Kae- 2,5. D. ^fQ))^ . 2,9. D. omits J, 2,10. 
K^e omits medial ^» 5, 14. D. has ofk for m. 

ArdA-Yiraf lA'. R-S. 89 

6*0 ^)') -0^)) rff M^ T^>' tin ;e^Me) "^o» 4 


yekavimuned; afash hamai affimd. B Kagelman-J-i dashmo valma/i 
biruno-i zak Jig yelxavimundd. 

4 Afam pursid aigh: Deiinian tanu inaman vanas kard? 

5 Yemaleluned Srosh-yashariibo, va Ataro yedato, (> aigh: Den- 
man riiban-i valman darvand gahrd mun pavan zivandakan vareuo- 
kdmakih va avarunyish bara val neshnian-i H\\m-m6)id kabed vazlAnd, 
T afash liamak tanu bazak-kar yeheviind. S Va pavan zak ragelman-i 
dashin. vak va mor, mar va gaxdum. va avaiik kJirafstarihd Icahed 
makhHund va zekfelimd va neksund. 

LX. 2.10. D. ha-i ^ for 3. :^. 1. I), omits \. 3,2. K.o, K,.6 omit final j, 
3.3. D. adds J. 3,4. final | only in Hg. 3,7. D. has p^ for ^l^, G. 3. 
K.o omits J. 6.6. D. oni. 6,8. K^o adds _JL»pQ). 6,11. so in all. but 
perhaps MSI^')^^ i"^) ^^ meant. 6.18. H^ aja tn ; P. ^W . 8.1. D. 
K,o om. 8.11. K,o -^j^y^' 8, 14. He, K,6 a^))yiQ)^3ji. 8, 15. Koq 
om. 8,16. D. has fC^ for ^. 8,20. K^o adds final ). 8.19—20. H,8 om., 
but adds: pdi bande vdstr 6 gdvu chndr dud, i^ans. pddaikenacha pCda- 
kaihan trinadJxdntfasya gave kleshamate dudau ; compare XXXII. 6. 


90 Arda-Vfraf LXI. 1-7. 

Chapter LXI. 

■>)f6 ) 6 rei))^^ -^ %-^ Me) -^tq) Me) wo)i^ >H3)v^ wot^i 
) w^^) ne) •^-^5)'< ' ° V)** ^n>^ -o^e25)*» -"■f^)*' ^^^ 

0% V)** ^M)^ 

Chapter LXI. 

1 Afam khaiUtund rftban-i valmanshdno darvandan 2 munslidn 
baiS aup^rd va rid, t;a tanidtch aiipdrd va rid. 

3 Afam purstd aigh: Denman valmanslian miln ruhdnodn homand? 

4 Yemaleluned Sr6sh-yasharub6, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man rtiban-i valmanshm darvandan muoshau, pavan stih, pavan mina- 
vad h\ hcmminastj 6 va dino-i dadar Auliarmazd cmsipds yehevtlnd 
homand. 7 Isadiik*ih-i pavan vahisht, va anakih-/ pavan dCishahil, va 
pavan yehevilDtano-? rht-akhiz va tanu-< pasino gAman yehovuiid homand. 

LXI. 1,2. Kau P^.5. 1,4. Kgo omits final ), 2, G— 7. Hig dadicha ; all others 
y^^^» . 2,8—11), P. om,; H,s renders the whole seutenco by Sans.: ha- 
danti punargilanH, dvitlijan hadanti punargilanti. 3,2. K>o adds firal ^. 
3,7. D. omits y)] K^o, K„6 omit ^. 5,9. Hj, ha. 5,12. Kjo JtJ))) HJ* 
6,2. so in all; Dest. suggests UJ . 0,5. Hig /»( sipas. 7,1. D. Kof, omit 
J. 7,5. D. K omit j. 7,10. Iv,o omits J. 7,11. Kog omits t, 7,13, 
K.;o omits J . 7, 17. D. has po for 5 . 

Arda-Vtraf LXIl. l.-LXTII. 2. 91 

Chapter LXIL 

)y)*> n^jy tiT ^)^ -o^)) ;ff ))^ ^r ti^ ^■"))e) -fo* ^ 

-«o^-" ) ^r^ V ^-x3rC I ^ro -"rei) Me) -ijIt^ ,^^) ^)y^ 
wo^^ j-Aij^ ^,^0^ fo)^^^ ))^ ,^e)) -^0^ 'j ^oo-^ ) ^n)-o 

Chapter LXIIL 

J'^ ^^^ ^'^ ^^ ' ) '"^'^' ^^ ^Mrei)^ ^o» 1 

Chapter LXll. 

1 Afam kliaditund ruhun-i neshman-I 2 mun, pavan shanak-i ast- 
nino, var va pestan-i nafshman hamai peskund. 

3 Afam pursid aigli: Denman tanii maman vanas kard, mun rli- 
bano angun giran padafras yedruued ? 

4 Yemalelimed Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valmcin darvand neshman munash, pavan stih, shtii va 
sardar tar minid, va sarya yeheviind va dasht; G afash nafshmnn tanfi 
arast, levatman gabra-i khadihan avarun kard. 

Chapter LXIII. 
1 Afam khaditund ruban-i neshman-I 2 mun pavan huzvan hart- 
jan-I-i garm 

LXII. 1,3. Iv,o om. 2, 10. K-o, K^e ^^UJOfi . 5.4. D. adds J. b, 11. K,o om. 

LXIII. 1,2. K.o ^5. 2,1. K.o -^)^. 2,4—5. -^'S) 5)oX '" ^11; His Sans. 
chhidyate sutaptd 

92 ird&-Vfraf LXIII. 3-S. 

)^^ jAyP ^^ ^)^ ^^)) ^ ))^ ^yi ^ ^^m W i 

^1 ^v 1^)* till '' )W5 ))Sty )_yK-^oooP-»^ ^n)^ ij 
s^)') -o^ve) m*» -^o» ^ ^)))*o j*3t^ ^^^ ) ^)^ -Oh^^e) 

hamai list; 3 v:i yadman-i nafshman aztr-i zak banjan ham^i sAkht. 

4 Alam puisid aigh: Denman tnnu niaman vanas fcart/, mun n\- 
ban angxm giran padafras yediuned ? 

Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro ycdato, 6 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valraan darvand ncshmon niunash, pavan stib, yin shui va 
sardar-i nafshman dad-pasukhoih hard., va kalba-zuban ychevund] 7 
afash aburd-farmanih kaiio ; of ash kamak-i valman saiituntano 14 ye- 
habdnd\ 8 afash khvdstak niin sliui diV/did , va nibanytsh andokht-i 
nafshman kard. 

LXIIT, 2,7. H,s rasad, Sans, kriyate. 3,6. Ko )0^) * *• ^- '^o "'^'^^ ^""' 1* 
4,9. P. O^. 6.6. K,o oin. 6, 13. all omit J. 6, 17. H,8 om.; K g adds 
final ). 6,21. Hie adds hend . Sans, vidyate. ",1,5. H,8 om. 7,4. Ko 
omits final ). 7,9-10. H,s om. 8,2. K.^o omits a. 8,8. K^o omits J. 

ArdA-Vtraf LXIV. 1-8. 93 

Chapter LXIV. 

Chapter LXIV. 

1 Afam khcuUtimd luban-i neshman-I 2 iiiun girydn va haramdno 
Jiamai yatund vazlimd ; 3 afasli madam sar takarg-i snc.^har hamdl 
\jdtO,nd', 4 va azir-i ragelman rud-i garm-i vaddkhtak hamai satund; 
ft va sar va rod-/ nafshman pa van kard hamai sedMmcd. 

6 Afain pursid aigli: Denman tanii maman vanas kard, amat rii- 
bdfio dngun giran padafras hamai yedruned ? 

? Yemaleluned Srosh-yashaiiibo, va Ataro yedato, 8 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand n^shman mun min gabra-i khadihan akh- 
vcshkdrytsh apAstano yehevund, 

F^XIV. 1,2. P^.a in all but K.e- 'i, '-'• l>. %i{^^d \ H,« omits it in Paz., but gives 
Sans, rudanti. 2,4. Hi,, P. have f for t. 3,5. Hjs vafar ; see LV. 1. li. 
3, 6—7. Hi8 ora. 4, 1. D. om. 4, 4. or rm-i. 4. 6. K30 ^COO^^I * '' ^• 
D. omits J. 5,9. D. ^))AJd^; H^ C^)H4-^^ with the gloss J. J : H,, 
hrtnid. 6,9. D. &AU . 6.10. K.o omits finiil ). 6,11. Hg omits final |. 
8,11. D. He have J^ for J»00 . 8,13. D. H^ ^)i. 

94 Arda-Viraf LXIV. 9.-LXV. 2. 

ne) r^ai ->^h i ^-^^ ) ^d)ro^ 5^)5 ^-^ ■'Vi -^.^ ^ ^- 
^) ^))K})^ -^ -x:w» 13 ^))m^ ^^)3 ) ^^^ -^^ ^^^ 

Chapter LXV. 

y rtfc/y/i kiidak tapah kard. U) 3i/« dard va padafras pavan ana yakh- 
senuned, atgh kala-i zak kudak ashnuved, va rehatuned; 11 va reha- 
timastano dncjun gar-homandih medammunast, chtgOn man madam 
rud-i rjarm satuned; 12 va hamui vang-i zak kudak ashnuved, va 
ear va r6d-^ nafshman pavan karad hamai dared, va kudak bavihuticd. 
13 afash la khaditimed vad frashakard ; denman pdtlafrds avayad ye- 

Chapter LXV. 
1 Afam khaditund ruban ac-chand 2 munshdn var ' pavan lajan 
va gondakih 

LXIV. 9,1. His ke. 9,4. K^o adds final ). 10,1. H,, preiixes nun = ^U . 

10, 8. Hjg adds a men JcodaJc germ estad = c^) k>)M )*0^^ ^^)^ J ^-^ • 

11,3—10. H,8 oi asher ixU rfd vaddkhta hame. 11,6. He omits final ). 

11,7. K.o C^H'' 11)9- 1^20 omits J. 12,2. H,8 om. 12,10. K20 omits J . 

12,15. H18 brined. 12,18. D, has 51Q) , and He ^J>, for ^. 13,7. D. 

He om. 13, 9. D. He ^)y^^ ] Hig om. 
LXV. 1,4. K,o has \ for -AU. 2,1. some Paz. MSS. add andd = d) . 

Arda-Viraf LXV. 3. - LXVI. 2. ' 95 

0% ^)v^^ -o^^d^e) ^^J^ i>')*' r^y )^ 
Chapter LXVI. 

-ramitund yckavimundd ; 3 afash das-i tiz yin ragelman va avdrik 
andam liamai vazlund ; 4 va abu va am liamai karUund. 

5 Afam piirsid aigb: Denman riihundn mun? 6 afshdn maman 
vanCis hard, man ruhdn dnguri girdn padafras yedrAued ? 

7 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasliarubo, va Ataro yedato, 8 aigh: Denman 
ruban-i valmanshdn daivandan mimsban, pavan stih, abu va am hcshtd; 
9 va pavan stih , min abu va am pctitikih va amurzishn la havihunast. 

Chapter LXVI. 

1 Afam khaditund vuban-i gabra-I va neshman-I 2 mun zubdn 
nihdd yekavimunad, va marano zafar hamai jald. 

1 XY. 2. S^. His om- 3, 1. so in all, but WH^^ seems better. 4,6. D. has ^ for 

5. 5,5.-6.7. K,o ^Ol^^_^^ )T^^t5 -0^') /ff '^^* ^'^•- 
6,1. D. ^^)^. 6,5. I), tnxt, 6. S. I), om. 8.4. K,o adds J. 8,12. Kju 

LXVI. 1,5. K.o 0111. 2,3. 80 in all; Dest. suggests- C^X?^ > compare CpHJ/V 
XXIX. 2. 2, 9. His ji(d, Sans. Tchddanti. 

96 • ArdA-Vfrfif I.XVI. 3.-LXVTI. 4. 

roo^) ) 4 ^15 H^^)) ^ \)K? ff ^ ^^m 4^ ^ 
■!>i5r fi)* tin ^ '^oo nvev i^yv-Hy -ov-»^ ^))i,4' ■'• 

Chapter LXVII. 

3 Afam pursid aigh: Denman tanu maiiian vanas hard? 4 va 
valmanshan rubdndn mun homand Y 

Yemalelimed Srosh-yashartibo, va Ataro yedato, 6 aigh : Denman 
rlibdn-i valmanshan munshan, pavan stih, spazgik hamdi karct, va 
mardflm pavan akvin patkuft. 

Chapter LXVII. 

1 Afam khaditund rftban-i gabra-T 2 mfin pavan ragelman-I pa- 
van tartkih dushahu avikht yekavimuntid ; 3 afash pavan yadman, 
dds-I-i astnin ddsht, va var va kash-/ nafshman haniAi peskdnd ; 4 
afash mikh-i asinin pavan chaslim ytn zad yckavtmimdd. 

LXVI. 3,5, K,o ) )^ Y^))^' ^' ^- *^-'» ^^'^^^ *'"^ ^^ ^^^ ^""' ) ^*' ^'^- '*'^- 
D. ^^jj. 6, 8— 11. K,o uua* ^j^ SiS^i^. 

LXVII. 1,2. K,o C^^. 2,2. K,o ora. 3,1, D. Ho prefix ^ 3,1—7. Hig vas 
padakhesh tesh dhini, Sans, bahubhth kanfalcaist'ikshnairloJxadMtoh. 3, 5. 
K:o adds final f. 3,10. K,o omits J. 4,1. K^o om. 4,4. H,8 andar = 

UJ. 4,6. Hi8 om. 4,8. D. has c^ for Ci^ . 

Anla-Viraf lAVK. 5. -LXVIII. ?. 97 

Oa^ i'rt) ) •' ^T^a -»3 ^ ^)^ -u3 ,,^^^ , ,,^,^ ^^25 j^-^ ) 8 

Chapter LXVIII. 

5 Afani pArskl aigh: Denman rCihdn zak-i mun ? afash maman 
vanas kard ? 

6 Yemalelimed Sr6sli-i yasharubu, va Ataro yedato, 7 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand gabra mun shalro pavan rntydnjikih 
aiibash dasht yekavimunad ; 8 va zak-i sazid kardano va farmudano, 
Id hard va Id farmud? 9 va sang, kafiz va padmanak-i kas daslif, 
10 afash min daregiishdn va mm kdruvdmkdii garzishn Id nyoklishtiL 

Chapter LXVIII. 

1 Afam khadituud ifiban-i gahrd-I va neshman-I 2 munshan zak 
gabra val vahislit, va zak neshman val dushahu, Jtamdi kashinand* 
3 Va neshman yadman 

LXVII. 5,5. K,o ))^. 7,3. K,o omits J. 7,4. D. adds J. 7,7—11. H,8 sihir 
pa mya pdk JcJmsh, Sans, yasmai vaf/araf/ja madJt/jc sthitd. 8,1 Hm 
kasha. 8,4—5. Hj, om. 8,7—11. He, K.-o prefix ^ j Hi, u m farmud m 
karda. 10, 1—9. Hi, om. 10, 3. D. has ^ for u . 10, C. D. haa ^3 , and 
K.u y, for ^p. 10,7-8. D. >^)A(5^ H . 

LXVIII. 1,4. K,o \Oy«f« 2, 4. K,o5^). 2, 11. His om. 5, 1. H,8 adds « ^- 3->. 


Arcia-VirAf LXYTII. 4 — 11. 

'i/in band va kustik-i zak gabia, ramUund yekavimiinad, 4 at'ash giift 
iiigli: Chigun amatmdn pavan zivandakan kola nadukih pavan akviiio ye- 
ll evuiul, 5 kevan lak val vahisbt, va li val dushahu, hamdt yczderimd? 
C) Va zak gabia guft aigh : Ana rai ; maman li shapiran va or- 
jdnikdn va daiegiishan mandavam padiraft, afam ychahunto ; 7 afam 
liiiniat va huklit va liuvarsht varzid; 8 afam Yadadan mlnui^ va she- 
(lAAno nikmnid ; 9 va pavan shapir diiuVi Mdzdayasndn astoban ye- 
bovund hoinanani, 10 Vn lak sliapiran va darcgushdn va arjanikan 
vii kdruvdnUcdn tar kard; 11 afat Yadadan nikidnid, 

I.XVm. 3,4-7. Ill, dknshti hand; D. has j for y^ K,„ omits ). 3,10. D. has 
^ for ^. 4,5. D. ))A>^j^. 5,9. His chird 5,10. D. omits medial t. 
c, 9. D. au3. 6,12. II]H adds hdravdnia — yihiy^^^^ V "; ^5. H,, 
om. B, 16. H,8 adds sindishni kard = ^)^ )*0TC"")*0 1* ''' ^^- ^^ *^""^'^ 
final ^ *, lie, K^o take it as va. 8, 1. K,.o '^^' ^Z^- ^hft adds u sifdtd ^ 
CO""VtD )• 8, G. compare Pcrs. |^tXA5>5.Xi . 9, 2, K^o om. 9, 5. K,,o has 
) for yo. 10,4—5. after 10,9. in 11,,. 10, !•. D. has 3 for yH , 10, 10. H,s 
adds n andzarm — VO'V*' 1* ^^' ^' ^"^-'o '^**^ W ^°'' HI* 

Arda-VMf LXVIII. 12 — 19. 99 

«/"«< aiizdistdr parastid; 12 ya dush-humat va diish-hukht va dusli- 
hAvarsht varzid; 13 va pavan dlIl6-^ Akharman va sliedaan astoban 
yehevund homanih. 

14 Ya akhar, zak nC'shmaii veil zak f/ahrd guft 15 aigh : Fuvau 
zivaiidakan, }ia?ndk lanu-i lak madam U sarddr va pddakhshah ye- 
hevund; 16 va tanu va jan va riihdnO-'i li zak-i lak yehevund; 17 va 
khuiishu va yditCmisIm va padmujisJtnu-i li vai, min lak yehevund; 

18 admat zakhani va padafras manian rai padash la kard honianani ? 

19 Afat shapirih va frdrCmHi chim, amat la amukht homanih^ 

J.XVIIl. 11,4. H,^ 0111.; K,o ^^. 11,5. H,8 tizd'ezdr. 12,1. W,^ vat -= ^^. 
12,2. I), ^^y- 13, ^. K,o omits J. l;{, 4. lv,o iulds ^ . 13, 5. Hn om. 
18,!). Ho, K,o ^)^Yi' 14,5-8. K,„ _^ .i3 ^) ^ ^)>^^ 5 
H]8 omits 14, .3-7. 15,2. D. adds ^^ . 15,4—10. His near Iiamd tan 
men tho = a) 3 J))^ ^im/ j^^. 15,7. D. adds J. 15,11. K,o adds jq. 
16,6. K,o omits final ^. 16,8. i). K,o omit J. 17,4. D. )*0)l^"?00) 5 

Hfi, K,o ynj ) ^-x35 His dlhishni; P- )*0)^^^ • 1^' ^'- '''^o ^'"^ )) *^^" 
)J4(3. IS, 1. His omits ^. 19,4. K.,u -J^JJpJjJ^ . 19,6. D. ^^, 19,9. 

100 ' Arda-VirAf I.XVIII, 20-24 

0*0 rQ)-o^ 

20 immam akhar shapirili va frarunih kard homanih^ 2i va vad kevan 
denman undhih la avdyccl yedrund. 

22 Va akhar, zak gabra val vahislit, va zak neshman val dusliahu, 
vazlund. 23 Va zak n^sliman, min zah pashinuhuh, ym dusJiahu hard 
tarikih va gdndakth, hand patiyarak la yelievund. 24 Ya zak gabra, 
yin vahislit mtydn-i yashai'uhdn, min Id varddnidano va la dmuzdn- 
tdam-i zak neshman, mun yin ddrishn auhash mad yehcvund val 
frdrdnih, pavan sharni nishast. 

LXVIII. 20,4. K,o om. 20,7. His om.; K.o has a« for _u . 21,1-2. H,r oin. 
21, 5. His adds pddafrdh ; K.o prefixes ) Hi^-^ ' 21, 7. D. C^ii^ • 

21, 8. D. has ^ for ^ *, ITir biulaih ^""s. karftnm. 22,1. D. K,,o om. 
23,5—9. Hi« om. 23, G. D. -\^^j^O0SJ* 2^' ^-- ^'^ ^^^^ ^''''^^ = ^)' 
23,13. or perhaps akharan, Chald. jirikS*- -4,6. K.,o adds final ^. 24,6— 
7. His om. 24,8. He prefixes ). 24,9—11, His om. 24,13. His dmokh- 
tan-i. 24, 14. D. Hjg om. 24,16-23. Hjg om.; D. omits UJ . 24,26. His 
prefixes he — ^^U* 

ArdA-Viraf LXIX. 1-9. 101 

Chapter LXIX. 

6*0 ^)v^"* -o^^e)^e) ^^^ i>'^« )^v tif ^1^ 
-"ry fr tat ^ '^00 m^ 'j)^-^ -^y^ ^"',^ ^ 
i^^P ) 9 ^00-^ 5>*o -»re2) Me) roo)^ r,^^) ro^v^ )-oot^i 

Chapter LX[X. 

1 Afam khadUund ruban-i neshmanan 2 mimshan mikli-i ddrin 
yiii kola II chashm zad yekavimunad, o pavan ragelman-I nikun dkust. 
1 Afshan kabed vak va gazdum va mar va mor va makas va kirni 
va avaiik khrafstaran, pavan zai'ar va vinik va gosh va shatma?i va 
jtndk-i sarltund yin vazluncl ydtund. 

5 Afam pursid aigh: Denman ruhdndn zak-i man? 6 afshan 
maman vanas kard, mun ruban dngun girdn padafras yedruned ? 

7 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo , va Ataro yedato, 8 aigh: Den- 
man rubaa-i valmanshan darvandan neshmanan munshdn^ pavan stih^ 
shui dasht, 9 va hvatmau 

LXIX. 1,2. K,.o CP)^» 2,3. Kjo adds final ^. 3,1—4. Hjp vasha u nigonaa 
papdi dknsht ishtdd. 3,2. D. omits \. 4,3—4. Hig and otlier Vkz. MSS. 
om. 4, 8. H8,K2o om. 4, 10, 12, 21. Kjo om. 4, 23-27. His and 
Paz. MSS. om. 4,27. D. adds )) . 4,29—30. H,, Jiamc shiuj. 5,5.-6,1. 
K,o ))^ . 6, 7. He, Ko„ yyo . 6, 8. D. om. 8, 7—9. H„ ke = )fi. 9, 1. only 
in He. 9, 2. D. adds J . 

102 ArdA-Vtrfif LXIX. in.-LXX. 3. 

Chapter I.XX. 

Vi^)-^ ^n^v j*»^M5) rooi^ y*',-^^^' ■'J^^ ^iirei)^ -^o* i 
ne) ^j,^)-** rei)^ -ow* W i^*?*v y*)*^^ ->3^>*^^ ^-^^ ) '^ 

0*0 ^)y^) -^^ 

hand gdbrd khelmimd va saritunto yehahiind homand, 10 va gas-i 
vastarg-i shui tapah ddsht, va tanu-i shiii dzard. 

Chapter LXX. 

1 Afam khaditund ruhdn-i neshmanan munshan nikunsdr rami- 
tiind yekavtmundnd ; 2 va zuzak humanak-i asinin levatman khar azash 
rost yekavimunad, pavati tanu ym yedrund, lakhvdr htsht yekavt- 
mundto; 3 afash angust zcihdk shusar-i shedaan va drujan-/ gondakih 
va rimanih, pavan zafar va vinik yin hamai vazlimd. 

LXIX. 9, 2—5. some Paz. MSS. om. 9, 6. only in D. Hg. 9, 7—9. Hig and other 
Paz. MSS. om. 9,7. D. has )f^ , and K..,, ^, for )^. 10,1. D. om. 
10,2. D. has f for J^ Kjo omits J. 10,6—8. K,.o ««H • It^N •'•• His ndds 
fiend = ^^y*' 

FXX. l,a. D. adds ^^t^Ot^t * ^' ^- ^'« khasMa, Sans, nttdnd. 1,7. J), has 
P^ for ^ . 1, 8. D. has ^fiy for ^U) ) Hjg om. 2, 2. Hj^ Sans, s'lhu- 
laka ; Pars. j. v , or iW\\ st^e Bund. 48,1.; Z. dnzhakem.. Vend. XIll. 2, 
3, 4. 2,4. Kao VfO"** * 2,10—16. Hjg om. 2,15. D. COO*" • •^. •*• ^i* 
Sans, sthnlam- 3, 7. J only in Hg. 3, 9, K.n om. 

ArdA-Viraf LXX. 4. — LXXI. 4. 103 

Chapter LXXI. 

) ^O ^lO-f r'W )^ -^ )-^ ->>^V ^))T0)^ W 1 

4 Afam pursid aigh : Valmcmshdn miiii rubdiidn , mun dngiin 
paclafras yedrund? 

5 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 6 aigh: Dennian 
lAban-i valnianshan darvaiidan neshmanan munshan, pavan still, mitro- 
dvitjili-i yin shiii kard ; 7 va min shut lakhvar ychavhnundd, va akaraz 
khushnud la yehcvund, va sarUund Id yehabund homand. 

Chapter LXXI. 

1 Afam khadUiind ruban-i gabia-I 2 mun maran mtvuk gaztd va 
hamai jaW; o va pavaii kola II chashm mdr va kirm hamai rid; 4 va 
mikli-i asinin madam zuban rost yekavimunad. 

1 XX. 4,4. K,„ ^)^ ^^,^ ^ ,)^ ^y. 4,6. K.,o adds tf^i. 4, S. H, 
omits final ^. 8,8—9, Hjs om.; Koo has juy for _AI . G, 11. D. omit,* J,^ . 
7,5, His adds hend = ^^Y»» 7,10—13, 15. H,8 and other P&z. JtfSS. oni. 

I. XXI. 1,2. Kjo ^3. 2,3. compare Pers, {jS».a "a sting'; D. prefixes )] H,, 
hami. 2, 7. Wi<,ji(d, Sans, khudantl. 3, G— 7, H,s ora. • 4, 4. H,8 awdar — UJ . 

104 ArdA-Vtraf LXXI. 5, — LXXII. 1. 

)^^ ^P )^ ^15 -o^n ;ff n^ fr Vt s^^M ^^ 5 
TV) -r^y ^^j tiil ^^ »W^ ))^ )j)y-MX)oy"»^ ^))),4' <^ 

-^J ->0^^ »V) IV^V ) 8 ^)5 Jj^ 5-^))^ ^)^ -^ 5,p5 

Chapter LXXII. 

^0 ^)^^^yo) 

Afam piirsid aigh: Denman tanu maman vanas kard, miin ruban 
angun gircm padafras yedrimed ? 

6 Yemaleluned Srosh-yashariibo, va Ataro yedato, 7 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand gabra munash kmi-marz kabed kavd ; 8 
va avaiun v ar eno-kAmakih rat, neshman-i khadihan sarUund. 9 Va 
charp-zuvdmh-i nafshman neshmanan-i khadihan frit't, va fitijdzdnmid, 
va min shui javidak kard. 

Chapter LXXII. 

1 Afcnn khaditimd ruban-i neshmanan nuuishan dashtan-i nafsh- 
man hamai vashtamund. 

LXXI. 4,6. perhaps rand'id. 5,12. D. om, 7,8.-9, 4. some Paz. MSS. oiu. 
8,3. Hg, K20 omit final ). 8,8. His vasddan, Sans. viJiitam. 9,1—4. Hi« 

om. 9,9. so in Hg, K^o, P.; H. (^W)'0O') ' ^*'' vUivdni , 8ans. vyd- 
LXXII. 1, 1. H18 aiginnn = 4f(^^» 1,2. K,o ^5. 1,9. K,o ^yo. 

AnlA-Vhaf LXXII. 2.-LXX]n. 2. 105 

, -10^^ ) -^-f 1 5 ^ooWe) -^ ^«w^^ )*oo<!^ ^^.^-^^ 
Chapter LXXlll. 

2 Afam pursid aigli: JJenman tanii maman vanaa kard, munvixhkn 
angiiii giran padafras yediuued ? 

3 Yemaleluned Srosh-yashambo , va Ataro yedato, 4 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valmanshdn neshmandn mtinslian daslitan la pdhrtkht, 
5 va mayd va atash va Spendarmad zanuk va Horvadad va Amero- 
dad azard, 6 va madam asman va khih'shcd va mcih nikiiid; 7 va stor 
va guspend pavan dashtan dxard; 8 va zakfiv-yasltarubu riraanu dasht. 

Chapter LXXIII. 

1 Afam khaditiind ruban-i neshmanan 2 munslian X an^ilst khim 


LXXII. 2,9. J). ^. 4, 4-5. K,o .5)^^ ^) . 4,^. K^i jmJiareza kard. 5,1. 
HjR kesha. 5,2. Hig adds nrtar ^y^ )• -^j ^' His om. 5,7. D. Kjo 
JJk) . 5,8—11. Hi. om. 6,1. H;^ kasha; K-o om. 6,5—7. IT,8 star nidh 
qura<h?(} ^- ^-^(^j)^ ) Ji(y^ ) 3fQ) . 7, 3. Ho, K.o om, 7, 7. Hig 
dh'id ihisht. >,:'>. 11^ add>< ^j« dashta ~- yi^/^yi^^ ))^« 

LXXm. 2,4. K,n ))^. 


106 Arda-VMf LXXm. 3.-LXXIV. 1. 

0*0 ^)v^"* -o^^ej^e) ^J^ )^^« »i^ 

w^^j-^a m >*oo^-" ■>V 1 ^o») ^y yoo)^ r'^vCi^) mv^ 
0*0 ^)y^^ }^m^ ))HiC ->^(2 >*ooe)» « ^oo-o 

Chapter LXXIV. 

va rim hamai shedimd^ va mczid va khurd ; 3 va pavan kola II chashni 
kirm hamat ydtimd. 

4 Afam pursid aigh : Denman ruhdndn miin ? o afshdn inaman 
vanas kard, mun angun giran padafias yedriined ? 

Yemaleluned Srosli-yashariibo, va Ataro yedato, 7 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valmanshau darvandan neslimanan munshan rod vdkht, va 
mud-i khadihan pavan ph'dyishn dasht; 8 afshdn chashm-i Yadaddno 
maiduman asiund. 

Chapter LXXIV. 

1 Afam kliadituud rubau-i valmanshau munshan pavctn nikunsdr, 
pavan ragelman-I, 

I.XXIir. 2, 8. 1). hai ^ for ^ ) 11, « dmad. 2, 10. Pers. ^tXjyA>o; H^ hanu; nmsht. 
3,1. H]s vashu. 3,6. His adds rhnan. 3,8. D. has ^e* for co. 4,2. K.o 
adds final ^. 4,5. D. has J for final M) . Ti, 1, K^u ^'OOt^' '^'^- ^^"^' 
pare Pers. ^Lj , ^{.^ '^ Uis Huns. ufkshqMni. 7, 11. elsewliere /y/^?. 7, 14. Hj^ , 
adds qesh~ ^(A^) ■* • ^) 1- '^' h'OO)!^' "^'"^ Hi^jaha, Ham. pnthivydm. 

LXXIV. 1,6—9. Hi% pa pdi nigona sar. 

Arda-YirAf LXXIV. 2. - LXXV. 2. 107 

0*0 ^),^)^ ^))^^^ h^ m ^^^ WOO* i V>^ vtv)^)^ rQ)i5^ 

oQ^^o -u|j^ , -u))^ 3)^0) -»rei) Me) >*oo)i^ )^)P^ mo^^i 

0*0 ^iro^) I ^)P^^-^ 
Chapter LXXV. 

^))^"^ W)t^ -H^e) Aw» ^o)t^ r^v ^MTti)^ -^o* I 

0*0 ^^r> ^i)ro ^J^) ) rQ)5-o t!!!) ^rro)^ 

ffA-?lsf yekavimimarl hommul; '2 afshdu kdrd pavan dil makhUund ye- 

3 Afam pursid aigh: Denman ruhdndn inun homand ? 

4 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo , va Ataro yMato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valmanshdn darvandan niunshan, pavan stih^ stor, tord 
va kird adadyish zekteliind va neksimd. 

Chapter LXXV. 
I Afam khaditimd rubanaii miinshan azir-i pai-i toraan ramitund 
yekartmiindd homand; 2 pavan snibo makhitimd, va ashkombo sed- 
kimd, va astukhvdn hard shikast^ va ndJdn yehevund homand. 


r^XXIV. 1,10. p. 9tVt5""- ^ '-• ">8 oni. 2, 1. D. has )^, and K,o fi^ for 
^, 2,2—6. Hi8 i:)rt Mred dil andar haine jad. 2,5,6. D. lias ^ for 
^ and 9^. 3,2. D. adds )^^ ))^ M^V"*!)' ^^P^ 1^' "^' '• ^' 
J^ujiy . 5,4. His adds mardnma. 5,7—8, lU— 12. Hj^ om. 5,12. D. Hg 
.5)g350. 5,15—16. His om. 

LXXV. 1,9. D. lias p^ for ^. 2,1. His ^'ff. 2,7—14. His om. 2,12. Pers, 

108 Arda-Viraf LXXV. 3. — LXXYT. 3. 

0*0 ;oo-k3 
Chapter LXXVI. 

,^a» I ^^ ,^e)) m Yi^)^ h^,-^^» ^j^v ^iirei)^ -fo* i 
-^^jj-^)^-o^ ^^^ ' ' ^H^-^e) -^^ ,^e)} j^^reD^a w 

0% ^1,4')-" -^^ J^P ^ ^^ ^ -")^ 1 3 ^)^<;00) -^^ ) ^1)^^ 

3 Afam piirsid aigli: Dennian mardumdn mim homand ? 

4 Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigli: Den- 
man ruban-i valnianshan darvandan nmnshan, pavan stili^ stor va ioxk-i 
varzak pumman asrund ; 13 afshcin pavan garmih, maya la ychahund ; 
va giirsak va tishnak pavan kar daslii 

Chapter LXXVI. 

1 Afam khaditimd ruban-i neshmanan munshan, pavan nafshman 
yadmun va nafshman dandan , pestan-i nafshman hamai peskiind ; 2 
va kalbaan ashkomho hamai sedkimd , va hamai vaslitamiuid ; 3 va 
kola II ragdman madam rud-i gavm yekavimunad. 

LXXV. 3,5. K,o omits yo . 5, 8. K,o J^OTQ) • 5, 11. K,o omits J. 6, 1. H,8 

om. 6, 6. K,o ^^)(3 . 6, 8. all add ^ . 
LXXVI. 1,2. K,o ^S. 1,8— 9. D. uj ', Ho JUJ ; y^x%dasht; Kn -> K3 • 

2, 3. D. He liave J for final ) . 2, 5. ^))^-00 '" *^'^- ^' *'' ^' ^- ^ » °"^' 

3,4. K,.o -M^. 3,0. or rdi-i; D. omits J. 

Ar.Ja-Viraf LXXVI. 4. — lA^TIT. 3. 109 

) ' ^^iy^ >*oV ^w?^ Me) -"pQ) m yw)^ r'^^^^ y^^iv^ 
-XJ^iW^ woo» -^ ^T^eJ Moei^ ) ^)P^^ ijv-^ -'^ j^v 

Chapter LXXVll. 

^^ ^^ ) ^^ ) 900)e) wo)t^ )^^P ^Mrei)^ -fK)^ i 
,1^ ^33 Siji^ , 3 vey)^^)-!^ ^ooo» ^9 (^ 115 1 '^ <;oo-<5 

4 xVt'am puisul aiji;h: Deiiman zak-i miiti rahditd/t y afshcin ina- 
nitin vansls kard ? 

5 Yemaleluned Srosh-yashaiiibo , va Ataro yedato, 6 aigh: Dei:- 
nian iiibaii-i \alinaii«lian darvandaii nishmandti munshan, pavan stih, 
pa van dasbtau khurislin sakht, 7 va levin-/ gabia-i yashariibo yediund, 
va kbiirdano farmnd. " 8 Afslian yatukih haniai pursid ; 9 afshan Spend- 
armad zamik va gabia-i yashariibo a/ard. 

Chapter LXXVll. 

i xVdinam kliaditnnd rahdndn munshan posht va yadman va ra- 
gelman resh ddslit, 2 va kCui yin rod dviklit yekavimunad ; 3 va sang-« 
gh-an pavan 

LXXVT. 4^ 5—8. K.,0 ))^ . 6, G. D. om. 7, 2. K,o lias ^ tor J . 7, 3. K.o omits 
J. 9, 3. K,o MjU . 9, 5. K,o omits J. 

LXXyil. 1,3. K^o omits final yj . 1,10. His Sans, kdrchcliam. 1,11. K^o ora. 
2,1—2. Dest. suggests nikdn ; His nnn. 2,3—4. some Paz. MSS. om. 2. .o. 
B. Hiq, K.o, P. C^^O* 5 ^6 Cty^^O* 5 ^°'"® ^''*^- ^^^^- *i'«■?''^■ His i^iins. 
taptamayah sadaiva; Dest. suggests C^PW)^ ^ which is here adopted, but 
the phrase may also be read: va Jc/hi (or iiikun) yin rCi-i av'dakht. ">, 2. 
Kjo omits J, 

110 Arda-Virftf LXXVII. 4. — LXXVIII. 2. 

) ^r^e) ^-^^ ->J^5 ) ' ^n)*o \ra) -"ro) ))e) mo)^^ )*o)v^ 

0*0 n^)v^-^ so^ey -o^^^'itye) ^^^ i)'^ i)^ to © ^)P5i -J ^^5 
Chapter LXXVIII. 

posht haraai varid. 

4 Afam pursid aigh: Valinaiislian niun Jiomand? afshdn maman 
vanas kard? 

fj Yemaleluned Srosli-yasharubo, va Ataio yedato, 6 aigh: Den- 
man rviban-i valmanshdn darvandan munshan , pavan stih, stor yehe- 
vund; 7 va kar-i sakht farmud, va bar adddijtsh giran kard; 8 va 
khiirishn sirih Id yehahimd, va pavan nizdrth yedrund; 9 va resh 
vazlund^ min kar lakhvar la dasht, va darman la yedrund. iU Kevan 
angun giran padafras avayad ycdrimtano. 

Chapter LXXVIII. 

1 Adinam khadHCmd ruban-i nesliman-I 2 mun, pavan pestan, kof-i 

LXXVII. 4,5-7. K,o yo))^ fiy. G, 4. He adds final ). 1,1. II, h om. 8,2. 

Kjo adds final ). 8,3. I). a^jbi3 ) Hjs had =^ ^J^' 8,4. His, K,o 
om. 8,5. oin. 8,6. Hg, K^o oin. 8,6—8. Hig vasha zdn, Sans, fesh- 
dncha durhalatayd. 8, 9. His, K,.o om. 9, 3. His budan. 9, 4. His om. ; 
K,o ) . 10, 6. ^)p^.d in all but K,o. 
LXXVm. 1,2. K,o ^i. 1,4. Hi8 zana. 2,4-5. K,o yji^^ ^)^. 

Anla-YtrM LXXVm. 3-9. HI 

^yr" i^P )i^ ^)^ -o^» /ff ^'^ 1^)* ^ ^^Me) -^o* 5 
^) ^r^y ^Y t^ ' )^oo ))^ 1 jP-^ ^-w^ so))),^' ti 

asinin hamai khefrund; 3 va kudak-I min zak suk-i kof bekhunast, 
va vang hamai ydtund; 4 va kudak val am, va amidar val kiidak, la 

5 Afam pursid aigh : Denman tand maman vanas kard, mun riibaii 
Sngun giran padafras yedruned ? 

G Yemaleluned Srosh-i yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 7 aigh: DcU" 
man ruban-i vcdman darvand ncshmun mimash, pavan stih, la miit 
shui-^■ nafshman, bara min ban khadih ^ dpustano yehevund; 8 a fash 
guft aigh: Apustaiio la ychcvumi homanam. 9 Afash kudak tapdh 

LXXYIII. 3,8. K.o om. 3, 11. or perhaps shedund. 5,9. D. aou . C, 2. K,o 
oinits J. 7,2. K.o om. 7,4. D. adds j^ Hi.^ adds sha — )*00 * "j5~"- ^is 
adds (7 =- ^ to each. 7,11. K.-o om. 7,12. D. Koo oniir j. 7,17. H,s 
warda --- -u ) y . 7, IS. D. omits medial ). 7,19. Hi, adds heud. 8,1. 
Hm u kasha kodak be avagandan , Sans, yu-ihcha apatydni nipdtya. 8,4. 
D. oinits medial ^. 8,6. K^u om. 8, 7. H,<, heud- 9.1—4. Hj, om. 

\\2 ArdA-ViiAf LXXIX. 1-9. 

Chapter LXXIX. 

0*0 ^)^ -0^)) rff -^^ -1!^ '^ '^^^ ^ ^^''^ "^^ ^ 
^) -"jy^ ^r v^^ )^oo n^ ij^v-mxxjP-" sO)m,^ - 

Chapter LXXIX. 

1 Adinam kliadituiul ruLan-i gabra-I 2 munash hold II chashm 
hlicfrund, va huzvan peskimd; 3 va pavan ragelman-/ yin diishahu 
dvikht yekavimiinad; 4 afash pavan slianak II srubo-i ruyui tana 
hamai randid] 5 afash mikh-i asinin yin sar maliliHund. 

6 Afam piirsid aigh: Donman mun gahrd ? afash maman vanas 
kard ? 

7 Yeinaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataio yedato , 8 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-/ valman darvand gabra munash , pavan stih , ddtobartli-i 
drogh-zandn yelievund; 9 afash 

LXXIX. 2,1-5. His he chashm zad. 3,1. only in Koq. 3, B. D. omits x', 
Hb substitutes ou. 3,6. II, « dhushta. 4,1. Hig ?/ = | . 4,4—7. Hi« 
«^iM? sar U tan qesh; K.o omits ^^ j, 4,9. Hjc, raodid ; He adds ^. 
5, 1. His 0"i. 5, 2. K20 omits J . b, 5 so in II, s , hut it may also be read 
dil. 5, 6. D. has p^ for ^^ Ilig adds ishtdd =^ ^) A))^. (i, 5— 7, K,,, 
))^ > 8,3. K,o removes J to ^i, 4. 8,7-11. drdjan 'iiKtrd he pa SOidir/a 
dnvar drojana. B, 10. K.o omits j. 8,11. P. omits a; I'ers. ^^\^^)^ 
'Hliar'; or perhaps droijlijudlt- 9, 1. 11^ m — ^. 

S rda-VIraf LXXX, 1-4. 113 


m Chapter LXXX. 

parak yansegimd, va dadistdn-e" kadba kard. 

Chapter LXXX. 

I Adinam khaditiind ruban-i aechand ^ muiishund nikunsar yin 
dushahu dvikht yekavimunad; 2 va khim va rim va mazg-i anshutddv 
pavan pumman yin vddund, va pava?i vimk guh aityund; 3 va ha- 
mai vang vddund aigh: Padmanak rast yakhsenunem. 

4 Afam pursid aigh: Denman tanuan raiin ? afshdn maman vanas 
kard ? 

LXXIX. 9, 5. K,o omits J . 

I. XXX. 1,3. K:o omits J. 1,4—5. His mardwna he. 1,5, Kjo omits final ^. 
1,9. His clTcHSht. 2,6. Hjs om.; Hg omits J. 2,7. )*>^^^.^ in D. He; 
His ora. 2, 8. HiR e4r/« ^ ^. 2, 10— 11, 13. H,8 om. 2, 14— 16. uncertain : 
^ may be &5^ or 50 'annoyance', or ^j 'ice', or a miswriting for -JH)li 
or the words may be ijOc^o^ ^U) J He, K.o ^j)*^-" '^■^J'l 5 ^'• 
.d^uc^ii ^.Dfu', Hi8 vhil be dcd, Sans. ndshikchJii/ashcha sadoioa sa- 
mdydii. 3, 4. H^ rfr«,s7<?'. Z,^. U■^^ ddsht hum ; K..o lias .^ for jy , 4,7. 


114 Arda-Vfraf LXXX. 5.-LXXXI. 4. 

j^KVe) -"^ey 1 oe)5 1 ^*K) -"rei) ne) woit^ )*b)y^ rw^s 
Chapter LXXX I. 

^-^ ^0^^ ) ^))0f) W Me) ,^e)) -^i)^ ^^5 ^w 1 ^ ^)i^ 
0% ^^5 -0^)1 ;ff M^ T^)* ii!i ^^))e) -f^ 4 

o Yemaleluned Srosli-i yasharvibu, va Ataro yedato, 6 aigh: Den- 
man niban-i valmanslian darvandan munshan, pavan stih^ sang va ka- 
fiz va avarik padmanak-i kas, Mstak dasht, 7 va val anshiitaan man- 
davam mazdimd. 

Chapter LXXXI. 

i AcUnam khadttund ruban-i neshman-I mfm hiizvan bimd, va 
chashm hand, 2 va mar va gazdum va kirm va avdnk khrafstaran 
mazg-i sar hamdt vashtamund\ 3 va ddnar danar tanii-i nafshman 
pavan dandan vakhdiind, va bisraya hamai jald. 

4 Afam pui'sid aigh: Denman tanu maman vanas kard? 

LXXX. 0,7-8. Hi. 0111. 0,11. D. adds ^. G, 10. D. omits final a. 
LXXXI. 1,1. D. 11,, ^^. 1,2. K,o^5. 1, 5. His /.es/i = J^)^. 1, 7. D. 
ci^jji . 1, 10. Hi8 dajtd esJtlcd, it also adds mihe dhini andar daha sad 

- ^n^^-f rffia jo yy^^^jo^' )- ^,8. His om. 2,12. Hib 

n ri'il -- ip ), 2,13. D. lu.h ^ for ^. 3,1. D. om. 3,2. Z. danare, 
bce Vend. XYI. 7. 3,9. K^n om. 3,12. llja hliurd, Sans. Tchddati. 

ArJa-Yiraf LXXXI. 5.-LXXXII. 5. 

^) ''ry ^Y tUL ^ »W5 1)^ t jv-^ ^-w^ ^))),^ 5 
Chapter LXXXII. 

) 5)*o -o«>* ■* ^))n5 o^ i^t^ -"rei) Me) -^o)]^ ,^^) ^)P^ 

5 Yemaleliined Srosh-i yitsharybo, va Ataro yedato, 6 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand neshman munash^ pavan zivandakih, 
rusptk yehevicnd. 7 Afash kabed yatukih- kartj^ va kabed ha-i-ankanli 
azash raft. 

Chapter LXXXII, 

1 Adinam khaditiind rubau-i neslinian-I chand mun zuban chind. 

2 Afam pursid aigh: Denmau nesbman maman vanas kard ? 

3 Yemalelun^d Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 4 aigh: Denman 
luban-i valman darvand nCshman munash, pavan stih., zuban tiz yehe- 
vund; 5 afash shAi va 

LXXXI. G,4. K.o om. 6,7. Hi, U = )^ . G, 8. K,o adds -Uf^D ♦ ^^ 10.-7,2. 
His oiii- ",^—6, '^. His oni. 7,5. Koq om. 7,7. compare Pers. ^^yj = 
Aj. 5' — ^}S\ 5 it must not be confounded with Jtyj, which is written A/o i. 

LXXXII. 1,8. so in I). II„, K20; His hemic khail , Sans, sadaioa samidhluuiijate; 
P. adds C^/y^ ^^■^'l perhaps it should be ^^x or ^)Wfi J Dest. suggests 
.S0(0 -um> JM^ Y^\r ))e) ' ^^ '"''^^' "'^" ^^ compared with Z. scJdnd. 4, 3. 
K transfers J to 4, 4. 4, 7. Hig ke ~ )J^. 4, 9. Hjg souliga - W0^|u3 5 

116 ArJa-Vlraf LXXXITI. 1 — 5. 

Chapter LXXX[II. 

sardai-i nafshmnn hahcd dzard, pavan zubaii. 

Chapter LXXXIII. 

1 Adinam kbaditund ruban-i nesbman-I man nasai-i nafsbman ba- 
mai vasbtamund. 

2 Afam pursid aigb : Denman ncshman maman vanas kard ? 

3 Yemalel lined Srusb-yasbarubo, va Ataro yedato, 4 aigb: Den- 
man ruban-i valman darvand nesbman mdnash, pavan siih, mhdn min 
shut, hisrayd-i kahed vashtamwid] 5 afash bano kbadib yebabiind. 

LXXXII. 5,6. K:o ^U. .",:. K.o adds final ^. 

LXXXIII. 2, r,. K.o om. 4,7. Hjs ke = )^, 4,9. Ili« geudipu ^^)o3 . 
4, 10.— 5, 1. II, R qdst hana ditzclU], v a siti IcltarU qaraslini u ~ JfQ)'**)*' 

Ania-VtrAf LXXXIY. 1-6. 117 

Chapter LXXXIV. 

TV) JJ^P ^)' tiil "* J'iOO M^ 1 jy-^ ->-«Cjp-»^ ^))i{' 4 

soo-o ^)^ )K)o» j-xj-x^-^ ) ^-^ly-^ -"rei) m -<j)t^' ,^^) ^)y^ 

Chapter LXXXTV. 

1 Adinam l-JtadUund ruban-i neshman-7 2 imui pcstdn cjaxand, 
va ashkombu sedkrmd yekavimuntid va ruddidn val kalhdun yebabunad. 

3 Afara piirsid aigh : Denman nesbman maman vanas kard '? 

4 Yemalelimed Srosh-i yasbarubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 atgh : Den- 
man l■uban-^■ vahnan darvand nesbman mimash , pavan std), zahar va 
mishgd-i aptijim hard ddsht^ C afash val vashUimuntam anshutaan 

LXXXIV. 1, 2. Koo^i.' 1,4. D. omits \. 2, 2. Koo, K,6 add u; ; Hi, ^x/ 
ast. 2,3. His dajewJ. 2,9. D. He, K,o hiive ^ for yo . 2, 11. K.o y>0^« 
5, 1. D. j^. 5, 3. K,.o omits J . 5, 7. Hi, ke = )^. o, 9. His zeudiga 
= ^^)^5, 5,12. D. 0)p^J(^^; K,o JJ(^)P-«^4; Hollas Jj^ , 
ar.l Kg Ip 7 written over JJ/j.J^.C) in the origiual ^IS., the gloss )^y 1 
or Stiy 1 was probablj' so written, and has led to these various readings. 
5,13. oTxwv in Greek. 5,12. -G, 1. His and other Paz. MSS. have rogan 
cldshf, u zahar qardan, u rogan andudan; Sans, tddancja sammdrjitan 
hidadlte., vi^hancha kJiddituu, tailancha vdepitimi. 6,3. K,8, K.o oiu. 


118 Ar.ia-Ytruf LXXXV. 1-7, 

Chapter LXXXV. 

0% ^15 -0^)) ;ff ,^^) T^)' till ^^t)e) -^o* 4 

Chapter LXXXV. 

i Adinam kliaditund luban-i neshman-I 2 mun p6st-i asinm pa- 
van tanu lala vddimd, 3 va pumman kikhvdr ydttyimd, va lakhvdr 
val tanur-i garm hanhhctund. 

4 Afam pursid aigh : Denman neshman maman vanas kard ? 

5 YemalelAned Srosh-yasliariibo, va Ataro yedato, 6 aigh: Den- 
man r<lban-i valman darvand nesliman manash, pavan zivandakdn, 
valman-i hA-khim farzdnak gabra neshman yehevtind ; 7 afash mitr6-« 

LXXXV. 1, 1. D. ^^. 1,4. D. omits \. 2,2. Ut^ paste, Sans, upasthah. 
2, 3. Iv2o adds final ^ . 2. 7. D. has M for 5 . 3, 2—3. Hi, pa tan be = 
_jju i^M ))AJ . 3,4. D. Ins ^ for .i . 3, G— 8. some Paz. MSS. have e^/< 
fan airdzh = JMyoJ ))^ ^, 3, 10. His Mmend nihcidan. c, 7. Hi, A;e 
= ^^5 D. adds -UfQ) ))^. r., n. His ^c'//<i = -"ttD • <^» ^0. J only 
inlljs; Dcst. suggests 3). 0, 12. 1). prefixes ). 7, 1. His A-e. 7,2.110, 
Kjo omit J, 7,3. His adds be -^)l» 


Ania-Yiraf LXXXVI. I.-LXXXYII. 2. 119 

Chapter LXXXVI. 

)j)yi 2^p ^ ^)^ ^^)) ^ ^)^ ^1* ^ ^^m fey '^ 

Chapter LXXXVII. 

Chapter LXXXVI. 

1 Adinam kliaditund riiban-i neshman-I 2 miin mdrl-i sazdim 
pavan tanii lala vazlund, va pavan piimman bara yatimd. 

3 Afam pursid aigh: Denman tauu maman vanas kard? aigh rCi- 
bdno angiiii giran padafras yedruned ? 

4 Yemaleluned Srosli-yasliarubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: De7i- 
man rubdn-i valman darvand ncshman mun hJtvctuk-das vindsid. 

Chapter LXXXVII. 

1 Adinam khaditund riibdn-i ncshmcm-I 2 mCai pavan shdfiak-i 
asrnin , 

,XXXVI. 2,2—3. He omits J J Hi, ^and other Paz. MSS. omit )v3ja J J B. P. 

)jj3j3fl j)jJ^; Dest. suggests ^^3j> ) 3i*^. 2,8. or perhaps slzdrd, 

compare Z. s'izfidrem, Vend. XIII. 2.3,4. 2,4. His and other Paz. MSS, add 
htm — J)f A . 3, 9. perhaps miswritten for )j^. 3, 10. K.,o omits final f . 
5, 2. — LXXXYII. 6,1. onlj- in Hjg, and restored here from the Paz., as it 
seems to supply a necessary connecting link in the narrative. 5, 8—9. Sans. 
sha.itCiadatham pimyan naadsha. 

120 Ania-Viraf LXXXVII. 3-9. 

ViL VO)rQl» V) -^-^ ))^ ) ^ * 5^n)>o -^ ^-o i^^ej) j^^h 

<«?/« va rud-i nafshman hamdi randtd; 3 va pavan pestdn, kof-i 
ashitn Jiamdi khefrimd. 

4 Afam pursid aigJi: Denman ncsliman maman vands hard? 

5 Ycmalelimcd Srosh-ijasharuhd, va Ataro ledato, (i aifjh: Den- 
man ruban-i valman clarvand n^shman munash, pavan stih, ba-::akd 
kai'd, 7 va khvdstak kdmak-i rdi, kudak-i nafshman shir la ychahund. 
8 Ya kevan hamai vang vacimed aigh: Latamman vad denman kof 
khefrunam, va zak kudak shir ychabunam. 9 KeiSan vad fiashakard 
:Stffc kudak la vdmtCmcd. 

LXXXVII. 4, 3—8. supplied by guess, as this sentence is always abbreviated in Hig. 
6,3. K20 removes J to 6,4. 6,7. IIjs Ice = )^» 6,9. Hj^ zendiga = 
U)^tu3 . 6,10-11. His Sans. pdpaJcarmniini sanjdtd. 7,1—4. His om- 
7,3. K...6 prefixes ), 7,9. K.o C^O i ^'^ ^^^^ ^"^^ qdstdn gctM rd. 
8,7. His Pa', oin., fians. pratisljtha. 8,13—14. Hjg tho = ^3 5 K,o adds 
Vii«^) . 8, 16 His adds ke pa zendiga ne ddd — ^a))y-^ ))^ )^ 
^))ojy^ -»*^5 J'^^n prefixes -j*3. 9.1. His om. ; K26 prefixes ). 9,4. His 
adds Jcoh u'e khankl a ^^ iS ) ^)pO» -^ ^)j ' ^' ^- ^^^» "^^^^ ^"'''' 
), 9,7. His wn?>? ^MTtl)^- 

Arcla-VIraf LXXXYIIT. i - 7. 121 

Chapter LXXXVIII. 

)l>^ j^p )^ ^)^ ^^)) ^ ))^ ^^ ^ ^^na "^ey 4 

-•i-^^^ "<5^ ' ^'5 -O)^^-^ ))r^^ -"TtD ))e) -«o)i^ -^ ^)y^ 


Chapter LXXXVIII. 

1 Adinam khaditund ruban-i gabra-I 2 niiln nikunsar min dar-I 
avikht yeluivimuncu] ^ va liamai mar::td; 3 afshan shusar yin piimman 
va gosh va vinik shedhdmj. 

4 Afam pursid aigh: Denman taiiti maman vanas kard, 7nan ru- 
hdno ungun giran padafras yedruncdy 

5 Yemalelimed Srosli-yasharubo , va Ataro yedato, 6 aigh: Den- 
man mban-i valman darvand gahrd munash, pavan stih, avaruno-niar- 
zishnih kard; 7 afash neshmau-i khadihan fr^ft va niyazan kard. 

I.XXX.YIII. 2, 6. D. has ^ for ^ . 2. 9. His Sans, mathnanti : Best, suggests 
p^^p.^. 3, 9. D. has ^ for ^ J Hjc, adds vasli dud had hiti ajcr Mu- 
coid = ^)Hy) ^^ ^){ "Xj^-^ j^v -"00* • ■*'•'• ^*' 'tit' "*' ^^- ^'^-0 

has J for ^. 4, 11. K..o omits final ). 4,14 K,o oni. C, (J. Hj^ adds A-r 
(pa) zend'Kja 61 zani dashia snd = -^J^^) ■=>) Y^-^)Y^ MS) )^ 
^)y)3) ^^OO^' T. 2. Kjo omits J. 7, 4. I), has y, He. K,c £25? 
Koo ^1 for ^i , 7,5. Koo om, 


122 Arda-Ytraf LXXXIX. 1 - 0. 

Chapter LXXXIX. 

^^^ j^ooiej T^ ^^reDe)J^ ) 3 W^-^ -^".^ V) -*"^ 5^"^"* 

>»O0T^) JJf^P T^)* tiil '' 'W5 <)^ ) Jp-^ J-^y^ ^))),^ ^ 

Chapter LXXXIX. 

1 Adinam khadttund ruban-i valmanshan mun, yin dushahu, vi- 
jilrish rai kiist val kust patkuft ; 2 va tishnakili va gursakih va sai- 
mak va garmak rat vaug liamai daslit; 3 va khrafstardn min pusht-/ 
ragelman va avarik andam lianiai peskund. 

4 Afam piirsid aigh: Denman valmanshan ruhdnun maman vanas 
kard^ mun- rubdno dngiin girdn pudnfrus yedruncd ? 

5 Yeraaleluued Srosli-i yasliaiubu, va Ataro yOdatu, G aigli: Den- 
man inbiln-i vaJmanshun darvanddn munslian, pavan stilt., klnuishn va 
vastarg min nafshman tana parddkht 

LXXXIX, 1,2. ^^ in all but K,.o. 1,13. D. has p^ I'or ^. 2,5. Koo om. 
3,2, He, K,o ^3)yiQ)^3AJ. 3,4. D. has ) for J. 4,5. lv,o ))^ , 4,6. 
D. )^l)3 ^ K\.o om. 4, 9— 15. K,,o om. G, 4 5. K20 -"))> ^)y^ ^) ' 
G, 8. Koo J^fQ). 6, 13—14. ))C^)^,^WO in all hut K,„. G, 15. so in D. He; 
I'^io, K,,e ^OO-^^^d) ) ihn imraildsf, ^tms. prahJnVan hitmn ; Best, sug- 
gests ytD-w^ej- 

Anla-Yhaf LXXXIX. 7. — XC. 2. 123 

-?eva ^^^' t^'^y 2!^v ))j 11 ^)y^) -^^^ >*0' ^) ^ro)^)*' 
Chapter XC. 

) ^O r^W WO)i^ WOr^) -M)^V ^MfQ)^ -00^ 1 

yehevund, 7 afsliaii val shapiian va aijanikaii la yehabiind, va manda- 
vaniich radih la kaid; 8 va yin tanu-i nafshman, va mardum zyasli 
yin sardarih mad yekavimuiiad yehevund, gursak va tishnak va avi- 
jamak ddshto; 9 afshan sarmak va garmak va sui va tishn yedriind. 
1(1 Kevan valman 'ycmUnml^ va klivastak val han kliadih ketrund ; 11 
kevan ruban dngim girau padafras yedruned min kiinislin-i nafshman. 

Chapter XO. 

1 Adinam khaditimd rubdno-i valmanshan munshan mdrdn gazed 
va huzvanu hamai vashtammicd. 

2 Afam pursid aigh: Valmanshan maman vanas kard, mun ru- 
hdnd angiin giran padafras yedruned ? 

LXXXIX. 7,9. D. has (O for y. 8,18. Hg, K20, K,6 separate the final ^ taking- 
it as a conj. 10,3—4. K20 om. 11,3. D. ^^ ] K.o J. 
XC. 1,3. He omits J J Kjo omits Jj . 1,6,11. so in all. 2,9. K^o omits final j. 

124 XC. 3. — XCI. 4. 

Chapter XCI. 

t^)** l^P )i^ ^15 -0^)) Tff ))^ ^y Vit ^^))^ ■^«>' 2 

3 Yemaleluned Srosli-yasliarubo . va Ataro yedato , 4 aigh : Den- 
man riiban-i vuhnanslum drozandn va anast-gubishnan mun, pavan 
stih, ziir va kadba va anast kabed f)uft. 

Chapter XCI. 

1 Adinam khaditund riiban-i gabra-I mun farzand-i nafshman 
cektcldnd, va mazg hamai vashtamimd. 

2 Afam pursid aigli: Denman tanu maman vanas kard, mun ru- 
hdno {ingun giran padafras yedruned ? 

o Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 4 aigh : Denman 
ruban-i vahnan datobar-i vajirkar mun, pavan miyan-i vajir-klivastaran, 
vajir-i kadba kard; 

XC. 4,4. D. adds J^i^^p.3, and Iv.o yn^^yi , 4,5. compare Pors. ijSPj)^^; 

or perliaps drojodn; D. omits j. 4,13. K^o om. 4,18. Hig l:ard. 
XCI. 1,1-2. K,„ ^t ^f, ' 1,3. He omits J J K,o adds >aOOT^) • ^^^- ^■ 
adds ))^ . 1, 8, 12. D. has p^ for ^ , 2, 10. Kjo omits final ) . 4, 4. D. 

Arda-Vtraf XCI. 5. — XCII. 4. 125 

Chapter XCII. 

j^ )r^-Hj _^^ rw)^ rws^) jj^P ^))ytD^ -oc^ i 

5 afash hu-cliaslimyish va rastyish madam pcshimurdn va pasimaran 
la niktrid, 6 va 'bara val lihvdduhd-kAmakih va azurih madam khva- 
staran pavan hhcshm va sanrjlh diaid. 

Chapter XCII. 

1 Adinam khaditdnd riiban-i valmanshan munshdn mM\-i darino 
madam chaslim makhUmid yekcwhnundd. 

2 Afam pursid aigh : Denman tariu maman vanas kard, mun riibano 
angim giran padafras yedruned? 

'■> Yemaleliined Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 4 atgh: Den- 
man rubdn-i valman 

3, G. D. ))A3Jii) 

XCI. 5, G. D. )y>iJ^^(^^^ • 5, I'J- i>. omits a . 6, 4. K.q omits final j . 6, 10. 

K20 om. G, 11. often written W*-^^ • 6, 12. D. Koq om. G, 13. Hia snih, 

Sans, shastram ; Dest. roads Jchashmgin/d for 6, 11—13. 
XCII. 1,2. K20 ^^. 1,5. D. ^^'^ Be om. 1,6. He, Koq omit J. 1,10—11. 

IV has P^ for ^ and ^. 4,1. D. )^. 4,3. K^o J. 4, 4. D. adds J. 

126 ArcU-Viraf XCIII. 1 — 6. 

Chapter XCIII. 

TtDe))** rooy (o ^^^))^) wc)^ n)0\^) ^)^y <;o5 -fo* i 
^M^v ^ ^^ ->^) ^e)o» ) -lo"^^ ) ^)^ ^0* 1 2 ^ev^ H)^ 

^0 ^)y^y -^^ ^-^-^ ^_M)>\: )^ ) <i 5^M)>o -^ ))03 \)^ 1 

dusli-chashmsin munshdn nadiikili miii marduman lakhvar dasht. 

Chapter XCIII. 

1 Afam did luban-i valmanshan munshdn nikunsar, yiii dushahu, 
aupast yekavimunad; 3 va azir dud va garmili, va azvar vad-i sard, 
madam ramitund yekavlmCmdd. 

3 Afam pursid aigh: Denman tanudii maman vanas kard, miin 
rubdno angun giran padafras yedrtined ? ■ 

4 Yemaleluned Siosh-i yasliarubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man luban-i valmanshim wm;z, pavan stih, jinak va khan-2 kaiiivanikan, 
ra aspanj va jinak va tanur barijano la yehabimd; G va mun yeha- 
bund mozd minash yansegund. 

XCII. 4, 6. Koo adds Vftl) )]^ ' 

XCIII. 1, 5. K20 adds ^. 2, 1. D. ora. 2, 12. His om. 3, 5. D. K.-o ))^ . 3,10. 
K20 omits final ) . 5, 5. K..o J4(^^)^. 5, 7. Kon J^Q'ftD * "'' ^*^- ^^-» 

omits J. 5,12, K20 J« 6,1. K20 om. 6,3. K20 COO * '^' ^' "^^ '" *^' 

but K20. 

Anla-Ytraf XCIV. l-(5. 127 

Chapter XCIV. 

o^e)^ ) 3i>^ ^0^ -u3 3ji^ ^^^) j^^,^ ^^ ^,.^^) WO^) 

6*^0 ^*M)>o >*oo^^ ■'^^)^ -^1 ^-Kj -^J -"rej) j-«o^e)»)' i tj ^)^ 

Chapter XCIV. 

i Adinam IcltudUund riiban-i vaJmansliun munshdn mini pavan 
yadnian-i nafshman, pestano-i nafsliman madam tavak-/ garm hankhe- 
tund yekavimunad, 2 va kust val kust hamdt garddnast. 

3 Afam piirsid aigli: Denman iieslnnandn maman vanas kard, 
man rubanu angiin giran padafras yedruned? 

4 Yemalelum'd Srosh-yasliariibo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-i valmanshan neshmanan man kudak-i nafshman shir hi ye- 
habund, nizar va tapah kard; 6 va gudftih-i stih rai, shir val kudak-i 
khadihan yehabund. 

XCn'. 1,2. K.o f^-i* 1,4. some Paz. MSS. have zana; Sans, dargatmatdm. 
Ij 5— 6. so in all; Saii.s. 2/aiJi yat tat- 1, 13. all omit J. 2, 1 — 6. Iuq om. 
2.1-4. B. jy^)^ )yt^)^ 1^. 3,.^. K,o ^S- = ))^. 6,2. D.IIe, H,8, 

->i^^ ^Y 

128 Ard.^-VlrAf XCV. I.-XCVI. 1. 

Chapter XCV. 

) 5^V ^ *^ 53>o ^ ^-*o ,^e3) -^^^i^ iiT ,^^) ^)P^ T^) 

0% ^)v-^) 5^3 •'^^ T^^v 

Chapter XCVJ. 

Chapter XCV. 

1 Adinam khiiditimd ruban-i nesliman-I miin kof-I pavan pestaii 
hamai kliefrund, 2 va tislmak va giirsak hamai yelievimd. 

3 Afam pursid aigh: Denmaii nesJima?i maman vaniis kavd? 

4 Yemaleluned Siosh-i yasliarubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigli: Don- 
man ruban-/ valman darvand neshman mun kudak-/ nafshman sliir la 
yehabund, I) ?;« giirsak va tislmak shedkiind; 7 va henafshman hdmak-i 
(1^- va v(ircn-i «i'«rr/?j-mai-zishnik rai, levatman gabra-i biganak vazluud. 

Chapter XCVI. 
1 Adinam khadittmd riiban-i gabra-I mun huzvcmo peskund ye- 

XCV, 1, G. D. omttg v^ IIis karafe, Sans, Mlevaram. 3,5. Kjo ))^ , 5,3. K^o 

ojnits J. 5,4. D. adds J 5 K^o i>) ♦ 5,8. Iv.,o omits J. 6,1. Koq om. 

7,2. D. omits l. 7, 3— G. D. J)y.U^ 5^5* ^' '^- -^^^o ''^^^^ '"^"^ )' 

XCVI. 1,2, He, Kjo ^5, 1, C. Iv,.o omits final ^. 

Arda-Yiruf XCTT. 2.-XCYII. 1. 129 

Chapter XCVII. 

o°o ^J,^1-^ 

■^' va pavan mm liamai kashend, va nasai hamai pezkund ^ va pavan 
koi'iz padmayend. 

3 Afam pursid aigh: Denman gabrd maman vanas kard, mun 
rCihund angun giran padafras yedruned? 
m 4 Yemaleluned Srosli-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 5 aigli: Den- 

man ruban-i valman darvand gabra munasli, pavan stih, tuklim yanse- 
gund, 6 afasli guft aigh: Pezkimam; afasli la afsliiind; 7 afasli khiird, 
va Spendarmad damik drozano kard. 

Chapter XCVII. 

1 Adinam khaditund rdban-i gabra-I va nesliman-I mun huzvan 
peskund yekavimunad. 

XCYI. 2, G. K^o om. 2,9. His bnnid , Sans, chhinatti; compare Chald. pjn. 

3, 5. K20 ))^. 3, 10. K,o omits final. J. 6,4. Hi, hrUiam , Sans, ^iptam. 

7,3. K,o om. 7, G. D. (Op5 J K ))(«9V-i • "',"<■ Kjo adds final j. 
XCVII. 1,2. K,o ^5. 

130 Arda-Viraf XCVII. 2.-XCVIII. 2. 

)yj^ j^P )^ ^)5 -o^n rff y^))^ ^r tit ^^^^^ ^^ ~ 

io ^)^ ))Gy^ ,^e)) ■^)^v 1 '^ ^e))^ % 
• Chapter XCVIII. 

) so^ j^ ^^^-^ ' )i-^^^ -"i^^ ^)irQ)^ -fro- 1 

2 Afam pursid aigh: Denman taniian maman vanas karcl, mtm 
rubdn dngun giran padafras yedrtined ? 

3 Yemaleluned Srosli-yasliarlibo , va Ataro yedato, 4 aigli: Den- 
man rAban-i valmanshdn darvand gabra va nesliman mvinshan, pavan 
zivandakan, kadbd va aiidst kabed guft; o va ruban-i nafshman 
drozano hard. 

Chapter XCVIII. 

i Adinam khadltund ruban-i neshnian-I va gahrd-I mini madam 
rtd va bara vashtamimcL 

2 Afam pursid aigli: Denman tanuan maman vanas hard, man 
rubdno dngun 

XCVII. 2,1. Koo prefixes ). 2, 9. D. fljLU. 2,10. Ho adds J. 2,11. K.o omits 
final )> 4,4. K,o ^)* 4,5. D. )>*0)p^; K,o om. 4,12. Hig snr. 4,14. 
D. ^^Y»> 5,3. His om. 5,4. \\^ ^)^^p5« 5,5. K,o ))^)^ • 

XCVIII. 1,2. K.o ^5' 1, 5— G. His om. 1,9. lIi, sar rcsid, Sans, skirasah 
Chldnatti. 1,10. K,o om. l, 12. D. has ^ for ^. 2,8. Koq adds final 
). 2, 9..D. OOU. 2,10. K20 has J for ^ , 2,11. He omits final ^. 

Arda-Viraf XCVIII. 3.-XCIX. 2. 131 

Chapter XCIX. . 

) - )*',-^^t ) >*0^ >*0)V^ -"Yy ^MrQ)^3^ ^'^ ^ ^ 

fjirdno padafras yedrimed ? 

3 Yemalelimed Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro yedato, 4 aigh: Denman 
ruban-e valmanshdn darvand gahrd va nesliman mwishdn, pavan stih, 
nasdt pavan vandskduh jald ; 5 va bavrak-i maydili yin mayd %ek- 
telwiclj I) va avdrlk ddm-i Auharmazd makliitiuid va zektelund. 
Chapter XCIX. 

i Va hdvandich kabcd khaditund niban-i darvandan gabraan va 
neshmanan; 2 va sahmgim-i himgun-\ reshkun-i pur-anakih-i kabed- 
dard-i tarik-i yin diishahii zakham va padafras-^ guiiak gunak hamai 

XCVIII. 2, 12. K,o omits final ^. 4,3. K,o omits J. 4,4. Hig (ji --^ ^^j . 

4, 6—7. IIis om. 4, 9. Hi, A:e = ^^. 4, 11. Hig sendiga = ^J>)ij3 5 

K-'o "^tyrtD* -i' 12. K>o a«Ji)). 4, 12. — 6, 7. Hi8 rm ms rekhta, Sans. 

midchatvacham praclmrataram Kdicliikshepa. 5, 2. j only in Kjo. 6, 3. 

KoQ omits J . 
XCIX. 1, 1-2. His cm. 2, 1. D. )f, 2,3. K,o has ) for i. 2, 13. D. omits j. 

132 Arda-Viraf XCIX. 3-11. 

)r^^ r^-Ki ,i>o-f m iroo^i^ )n^y ^nro)^ ^n^^ 3 

V)** ^Mro )r'"^a 1^ ro^^r* !P_j*rQ) m roo)^ yi)y^ 

;ff ^ ))^ ii <» V)** ^))ro ,^r rns^^y*' -^^ip ) -Hy^ j^ ) io 

0% M^)v^^ ^^w» -o^^ej^a t ^o*-^ ) ^^ )^^^ )>')*' 

3 Adinam khadUund rahdndm mdnshdud pavan mikh-i daiin 
ziibdiid randtd yekavimimad ; 4 va yin dushahu nikimsar fiod liamai 
vazluncl liomand ; 5 va shedaan pavan shanak-i asinin hamdk tanu-i 
valmanshan hamai Miefrimd. 

6 Afam pursid aigli: Denman rubdndno zak-i mm homand? 
7 afshdn maman vanas kard, mmishdn ruhdno dngun giran padalras 
yedruned ? 

8 Yemaleliined Srosh-yashaiubo, va Ataro y^dato, 9 aigh: Den- 
man ruban-^ valmanshdno darvandan munshan, pavan stih, yin khu- 
dayan aburd-farmano yehevimd liomand; 10 va yin sipdh va gurd-i 
khuddijdn ddshman ychcvund humatid. 11 Kevan latamman angun 
giran dard va zakliam va padafras avayad yediiintano. 

XCIX. 3, 1. D. Ill, i^O** 3,2. Iv,o P^i. 3,3. D. has J for )yo. 3,3,4. K,o omits 
final ). 3, G. J only in D, 3,8. K.,o omits final ^. 3,9. His rust, Sans. 
nihshipldh. 4, 3. D. Hq add final ^ . 5,4. K^o omits J . 5, G. K.o -U)p. 
5,10. D. has 5 for ^J Koq adds final ). C, 5. K,o ^))^« «, 0. — 7, 1. 
K,o om. 7, 5-7. K.o )^ 5^^ )^ )^)^y ) ^A^ * '^' '^^ ^^'-» °°"^^ "'♦ 
9, 4. K,o omits final ) . 10, 1—9. Hig om. 10, 4. only in Koq. 11, 5—6. K,o om. 

Arda-Yiraf C. 1-5. ]33 

Chapter C. 
^^^5 ) ^li^^OO) -^^ -"-f^^^ ->-^^ -^^ ;ff tiii ^^ ^^)' ' 

Chtapter C. 

1 A'linam khaditimd Ganrak-minavad-i piir-marg-i gehaa-maren- 
chinidar-i dush-dmo, 2 mun yin dushahti val darvandau afsos va I'esh- 
kharish haraai kard, va fjuft 3 aigh: Maman rai lakhmaycl-i Auhar- 
mazd liamai yashtamuiu'd, va kar-i li yadiined? 4 7ja pavan dadar-i 
nafshman la mtned, va kamak-« li varzed? 5 Angiiu kabed afsoskar- 
yisb val darvandan hamai drdtd. 

2,1. D. P^J**. 2,8. D. Hg, K -1(^^-*00^5 ^is ridri, Sans, iipahdsijam ; 
Pers. ^JX^ or J^s 'beard' + yXyia. or ^Jvi>- 'a butt'; compare jX^jj 
^tXxi:^, ijiov StU-i- and jixj,.^ Tid^kh.. 2,12. Koo adds final). 
3. 4. or lakJimak-i; K,o J))A>). 3, 8. Koo om. ii, 9. 4, 3. Kjo omits j. 
4,1—2. His farma men kard, chuu ta, Sans, ddesho madi)jo vihifah, yaf 
yuslmdbMh. 4, 6. Hjg kunashnu 4, 8. D. Koo omit J , 5, 7. Hi, adds in 
pddadiMshni andd rislitdkheza, ezh a gesh kunashni, ardmishniJid pidtrid ; 
ke men parastad ash pddadiMshni doshakha ; ash pas snd horn men Adar 
yazda; vaem dida [one line partly cut off by the binder] tiimUum doz- 
hakha; vaem ava sihast , chCin chdhe ke snd hazdr nezhaa. Vatm tdrikl 
ava s'lhast, ku agar hamd hcjam khuska andar geha avar it dtash nihdd, 
andar a tiimitum dozhakha chand muste roshani tie bahod. — Sans, tadi- 
ddnim piiyam enam prasddaddnan ydvat shavotthdnan^ tasmdtsiuydt karm- 
manah, nirdnandatayd pratikiirnte; yo mdm drddhayati tasya prasddo 
narakam ; pashchdt prachalito 'ham Adarena wjdena. Ahan dadarsha 

134 Arda-Yiraf CI. 1-5. 

Chapter CI. 

^))0) o»)ej ,^ ^ ->^-^ )W^ ))^ )jjy-*oocP-" i-^ 1 

ji5 1) :; ^)^^-i(^ -»MJ )ji^J J))J^-» ->-^^^^ ->5^KJ ^-^ ^ ) '- 

Chapter CI. 

1 Akhar, Srosli-yasharuhd va Ataro yedato^ zah-i U yadman 
frdz vaklulimd, 2 va min zcdi jnidk-i tdr'tk-i sahmgim-i htmgim hard 
ydUyund, 3 val zak-i asar i^oshanih ^ va hanjaman-i Auharmazd 
va avicsJiospcnddji yedrCmd. 

4 Amatam yezhemunastd namdz ycdruntam Auharmazd pcsh. 
5 Va dsdn yehevund, guft atgh: Diiist Upamman lak, yasharubo Ar- 
ddi Viraf, Maz- 

tat yat iiktamasti gliordndhakdrdt naraJcdf; mama evam pratihMti, yatlid 
Jcila Mqmlio yo lalcshaikahuntanimnah. Mama andhaJcdrashcha evam 
pratibliuti, yadi sarvdni MsJjfhdni shusMdni antah prithwydm upari vah- 
nau prahshipitdni, antah ghordndhalcdranarakasya Tciyanmdtra ndyotam 
vjvalan na bhavati. 
CI. 1,1.-5,5. His Pasa Adar yazda asra rosJtnn he md, frdzh 6 plsli 
.M^ydyi ddsht horn. Namdzh hurd, gufta -M^yoyo hayha: — Sms. Pash- 
chdt Adar iajdo anantarochishi pra)iUo 'Iiam , prahrishfam piirah Almra- 
majdasya svdmino nidadhe. Prandman chaTcdra , tcvdcha Almramajdo 
data. 2, 5, 6. J), omits j . 2, 7. Hj adds J . 2, 9. D. lias ^ for ^ . 
3,4. D. lias J) for j^. 4,2. Kjo omits final ). 4,4. Kjo ^-mits final )) . 
4, 6.-5, 2. 1>. yH3.5jj^4i^. 5,7. IIis dil =^3; P. ^, 5, 10. D. 
bas .M for UU. 

Arda-YIruf CI. G - 12. 135 

-^•f^)*» )!^ -fi^^ ^^y J ;ff ' ))),^ Ki^rei) ■^i -^ooTti)^^ 
■f)JSO^ ) ^^>*o J ^i)),^' rcD^J ro)))^ ->^-^ -")^ 8 ^^^ 

dayasnano petkhambar; vadwio veil aliu-i ast-Jiomand] C cJucjimat did 
kliavitimast , rastyisli val stihdn yemaleliiii; 7 maman U kvatmau ho- 
manam, niim Auharmazd homancwi', 8 liolci zak-i drdst rust ycmale- 
Idncd li shindsam va kliavitunam ^ 9 hard yemalelun val dundkdnd. 
iO Va amat Auhartnazd pavan dcnman khadumak rjtift^ U shi- 
kuft hard kctrund homanam; ii mamanam roshatuJi dkl^ afam tanu 
Id did; afam vdng vashammdnd., 12 afam khavUunast atcjlr. Den- 
man ait Auharmazd. 

CI. 5, 14—17. Hi8 chird dmad hac ? ai hangdm dmadan tho ne mad istad. — 
Sans. Tiimarthamdydto 'si ? yatah sa yah samdgantim te na samprdpto 'si. 
G, 1. His chunash = ^);0(2' ^^^- ^^ getid ^ -»*fQ)' 7, 1.-8,5. IIis 
he [one line partly cut ofl' by the binder] durast rust gold ; Sans, yat Horm- 
mijdo hliavdmi sarveshdm patutayd sundaratayd satyatayd bn'ihi. ", 3. B. 
rff^j P- ^)- 8' 2. J only in He- 8,7. He, Koo p»;*(3 . 8,7.-13,4. 
His Ardd V'lrd sahJnin 6i dsnud, tan dtdan na tna had^ roshanash did; 
pa zdnn andar namdza hiird Mm, gufta ham Tcu : Mdzdayasna guddrad 
horn ku: Shao piesh Ardd Zaratiist, hu Jcerba and pa sendiga kunun, ne 
ddnum hu hast aydo ne. Pas guft rdst -u^Yoyo l>agh; — Sans. Arddd 
Virdya vachastatra shushrdva, vapushcha vilokiiun na shakto hahhCiva, 
tejonidhih drishfan, tanu na drishtan; jdnubhydm anfah vinamat prand- 
mau chakre 'ham, avochacha: Mdjda'tasnaih prahito 'ham: Ydhi purah 
halavato Jarathustrasya , kila punyan yat vayan jlvitdvasthdydh kiirm- 
mahe, no jdnhnah asti, kinvd nahi. Pashchdt uvdcha satya Ahuramajdo 
ddtd. 10,1. D. om. 10,6, D. has J for a . 11,1. K20 ^. 12,4. D. om. 

136 Arda-Viraf CI. 13-20. 

^^) ->0^ -0^^ O^ Me) -^^ 1 -^^1^ 1)d •^•" 1 -JOKI*^^ 

-")^ iv^v ^ »Me) ^wJ ^)K)-x^ ) i^' 1^)^ 5^v n)0^ (j5 

13 AfasJi guft dtuldr Aultarmazd, inin minavacirm afzuniktum^ 

14 rt^/y/r. Bava yemalelun lak, Arddi A^ivaf, val Mazdayasnan-i sfi7;, 

15 aigli: Khadiik ait ras-i yasliaraish, ras-i poryo-dkesliih ; va zak-^ 
avarik ras, liamak la ras. 10 Zak kbaduk ras vaklidimed-i yasliaraish ; 
va al pavan farukhmh ^ va al pavan tangili, va al pavaii liicli ras 
azasli varded; 17 va bara varzed liumat va hukht va huvarsht; IS va 
pavan zak ham-dino yekavimuned-i zyash mia li mekadlimd, Spitaraan 
Zaratuhaslit va Yishtasp yin geliaii rubak karto; 19 va yakbsenuned 
dad-i frdrun, min avdran bara pahrejed. 20 Va dcnmanich madam 
tikas yehevuned, mgh: afra yeheviincd tora, va afra ychcvuned asp, va 
afra yehevuned zcdicihd va asim , va afra 

01. 13,7. K,o omits JU. 14,1. Hig om. 14,3. K,o omits final f. 14,5. D. \Uo 
have .ju for OU . 14, 9. His prefixes pa ^ ))^ ', Koo J^O'fQ) . 15, 4. K.o 
omits J. 15,0. K20 prefixes ), and omits J. 15,9. K,,o omits J, IG, 9. 
Pers. ii.Li; Hig barahunash, I'ers. ^lift^j . 19,1. K^o om. 19,4. K20 
adds final ^, 19,6. Ho, Koe add J] K.„ adds )) . 20,0, Hjg om. 20,8, 
KoQ has ^ for r^ , 20, 17. D. UAll.uJ> ♦ 

Arda-Vlraf CI. 21-24. 137 

yelievuned zak-i marduman tanu; 2i zak khaduk \id afrdyd la giimejed 
miin, ym stih, yasharaisli stdyad, va hdr kirfak vaduned. 22 Driist lak 
Arcjdt Yiraf ! zak-i nafslunan avadili vazluno; 23 maman kola pakih va 
pddtydoih-i lekum vaduned va yaklisenuned, 24 va bamak amat dadyish 

CI. 20, 23. K20 omits J. 21,4. or afrd'ih. 21,11. Ilig adds: Pas fjnfta -u^^^ 
Srosh asho, Aclar yazda, hush nmdid a hvaresht varziddra Tiunaskni. 
LasJit gerefta Mm Srosh asho, Adar yazda; farava hiid hend andar u sar 
Chinvacl piihal, hu duo liasna rdsf, u Mihir yasd, u Astdd yazda pcrozagar 
spihir Jchudhdi, hamotn nishastand ; avadatar vesh dihishni, vesh rdzihdtar 
ezh usma; pesh esha nid horn. Vasu guff a Jcu: Go u and hard had, mar- 
dum, gdca, gospenda, saml, nrvar, at ash, dva, rdst go, chi azh edar pa 
rdsti he shdyad vadardan. Pas rdmeshnt bud horn, chi fravash ashoid 
gvdi dad hu: Oi bazh ne hard. Pash u>t^yoyo guft hagh: — Sans. 
athavd piinydtmandm uttamdndn hinchlt daddti. Pashchdduvdcha Horm- 
mijdo data Shrosham punydtmaham , Adarancha tajdam, prati yaf: I)ar- 
shayata asya tan ydU suhritahartrmdu hartmnandm. Haste dadhdra man 
Sroshah punydtmahah, Adarashcha lajdah ; sahdyinau hahhuoatuk antash- 
Chandorapuhalecha setau, yat yatra Rasnali satyali, Mihirashcha lajdo 
maitr'tlahslianah, Astdda iajdo vijayi chahrddliipatishclia, sarve ii]}avislitdh 
santi; gnrutardh prachuratardh ye apisrishteh, adhihatejasvitardshcha 
dkdshddapl; purasteshdm pranito 'ham. Techa avochat yat: Br CM tat 
yat tatra samdcharitamasfi, manushyesJm, goshu, pashusliu, prithvlcanas- 
IKitivahiijaleshu , satyameva prahruhi, yatah ctasmdt satyena shahyate 
samuitaritum. Pashchdt sdnandah sambhlto 'ham, yat vriddhayo muh- 
tdtmandn sdhshin daduh, yadasau pdpaTi na hritavdn. Pashchdt Horm- 
mijda uvdcha data. 21,13. D. iuu] K.q adds ^. 22,3. K-.q lias «o for 
au. 22,5. Koo omits J. 22,8. K.q omits final ). 23,5. D. J-lQ^C^'i) * 


138 Ard&-Viraf CI. 25-29. 

-K >*o-o vy^ »^^ ^ ^y*^^ ' ^^-<j-«o)^. -Hj^ '''^ ^)K)-^ 

yaklisenuned, 25 dakyd yoslidasar va yazisbno amat, pavaii ham- 
giinak, Yadadan-minishnyish vaduned, liamak li kliavitunam. 

26 Ya amat zak sakhiin yashammiind, zofar namaz yedrund val 
dadar Auharmazd. 27 Va akhar, Srosh-yasharubo, piiiizkaryish va tag- 
diliryish, vadard val denman giis-i vastarg. 28 Piruz yehevimad gad- 
man-i shapir dino-i Mdzdaijasndn! 

20 Frajaft pavan driid va sliadih va rdmishn. 


CI. 25, 1. D. Ho A.M^ . 28, 4. D. om. 28, 6. end of Pazand iu Hig ; K20 adds 

the tale of G6slit-i Fryano follows immediately, two lines being left blank in 
He, one in Koj, and none in Kjo- 


The Book 



English Translation with notes 


M. Hang, Ph. D. 


"Words printed in italics are not expressed in the original text, but are sup- 
plied, in the translation, to complete the sense. AVhen marked as parentheses, 
they are merely explanations of the preceding words. As the translation is, how- 
ever, not strictlij literal, such additional words as pronouns, particles and the verb 
'to be', which are clearly understood in the original, are not italicized in the 

Notes to which the word [Dest.] is appended, are based upon remarks 
affixed by Destur Hoshangji to his edition of the text. The same abbreviations 
are used as in the notes to the Pahlavi text. 

Chapter T. 

In the name of God. 

1 They say that, once upon a time, the pious Zaratusht (Zoroaster) 
made the religion, which he had received, current in the world; 2 and 
till the completion of 3U0 years, the religion was in purity, and men 
were without doubts. 3 But afterwards, the accursed Evil-spirit, the 
wicked one, in order to make men doubtful of this religion , 4 instiga- 
ted the accursed Alexander, the Ruman i , who was dwelling in Egypt 2, 
so that he came to the country of Iran with severe cruelty and war 
and devastation; 5 he also slew the ruler of Iran, G and destroyed 
the metropolis and empire, and made them desolate. 

7 And this religion 3, namely, all the Avesta and Zand, written 
upon prepared cow-skins, and with gold ink, was deposited in the 
archives 4, in Stakhar Papakan^; 8 and the hostility of the evil -des- 
tined, wicked Ashemok, the evil-doer, brought onward Alexander, the 

1 That is, a native of those Greek provinces -which afterwards became an 
important part of the eastern empire of the Romans. 

- The -word Mujrayik , which has been wholly misunderstood by the Pazand 
writers, is evidently connected with anc. Pers. Mtidrdya, Heb. C"''lIiD 'Egypt', and 
alludes to the fact that Alexander came from Egypt to complete the overtlirow of 
the Persian empire. See Z.-Pahl. Glos. p. xxxix. 

3 That is, the religious writings. 

•* Or, 'among the city documents'; karUd, or Jciritd, must be traced to Chald. 
Nn"'"lp5 Heb. nnp? which latter is used, in the names of several towns, as the 
English word 'fort' is in the names Fort-William, Fort-George, etc. See Z.-Pahl. 
Glos. p. xl. 

5 The name of Persepolis in Sasanian times, the modern Persian w^\ia^(. 

142 Ard&-Viraf I. 9. 

Ruman, who was dwelling in Egypt, and he burnt them up i. 9 And 
he killed several desturs and judges and herbads and mobads and 

> This statement, regarding the burning of the religious books by Alexander, 
which often occurs in Parsi writings, has been supposed to have originated in a 
modern misunderstanding , whereby the destruction consequent upon the Moha- 
medan conquest, has been attributed to the Greek invader. Heeren first expressed 
the opinion that, as the persecution of foreign religions was quite contrary to 
Alexander's policy, this statement of the Parsis was not to be credited; and his 
opinion has been generally adopted by later writers, without further examination. 
On comparing, however, the statements made in Pahlavi books, with the accounts 
of the destruction of Persepolis, given by classical writers, it appears that the 
latter rather confirm, than contradict, the statements of the Parsis. From the account 
given in the text, and that quoted from the Din-kard in the Zand-Pahlavi Glossary, 
p. xxxi— xxxviii. , it seems that the books deposited in the archives at Persepolis 
were burnt at the time of Alexander's conquest; but the latter account speaks of 
another copy of the books, which fell into the hands of the Greeks, and was trans- 
lated by them; from which it must be concluded, that the Persians do not complain 
of any special religious persecution on the part of Alexander, but only of the ordinary 
devastation of a conqueror. The same two copies of the books are also mentioned 
in the proclamation of Khusru, son of Kovad, quoted from the Din-kard in my 
Essay on Pahlavi, p. 145—152; wherein he likewise states that Valkhash the Ash- 
kanian (Vologeses the Arsacidan) ordered the collection and preservation of such 
fragments of the Avesta and Zand as had escaped the destruction and ravages of 
Alexander and his soldiers; these ravages could not have been those of the Moha- 
nicdans, as Khusru reigned a century before the Mohamedan conquest. Turning to 
the accounts given by classical writers, we find from Diodorus (17,72) and Curtius 
(5, 7), that Alexander really did burn the citadel and royal palace at Persepolis, in 
a drunken frolic, at the instigation of the Athenian courtezan Thais, and in revenge 
for the destruction of Greek temples by Xerxes; Arrian (Exped. Alex. 3,18) also 
speaks of his burning the royal palace of the Persians. This act of barbarous folly 
was evidently the result of hasty impulse, and was probably committed at night, 
when the palace was full of attendants, courtiers and priests; the last, who had 
special charge of the archives, would naturally attempt to save their treasures, and 
would certainly be opposed by the intoxicated Greeks, at the cost of many lives. 
The religious books would be burnt with the archives, in which they were depos- 
ited, and many Persians, priests and others, would lose their lives in the confusion; 

Arda-Yiraf I. 10 — 15. 143 

upholders of the religion i, and the competent and wise of the country 
of Iran. 10 And he cast hatred and strife, one with the other, 
amongst the nobles and householders of the country of Iran; 11 and 
self-destroyed, ho fled to hell-'. 

12 And after that, there were confusion and contention among 
the people of the country of Iran, one with the other. 13 And so 
they had no lord, nor ruler, nor chieftain, nor destur who was ac- 
quainted with the religion, 14 and they were doubtful in regard to God; 
lo and rehgions of many kinds, and different fashions of belief, and 


such would be the natural consequences of the facts mentioned by the western 
writers, and such are the statements made by the eastern writer in our text. 

' These names refer to the various grades of the Zoroastrian priesthood. The 
destur (Pahl. dastdbar) is the highpriest, and is compared by the Parsis to the 
bishop in Christian churches. The word does not occur in the Zand-avesta , and is 
probably not Zand, but Persian, meaning 'one who v.ields power', and is also used, 
in Persian, to signify a minister of state; the ancient form was, no doubt, clasto- 
bara. In the Zand-avesta, the dignity of a destur, that is, of a spiritual head and 
guide, is expressed by the term zaratJnisJitra (see Yasna XIX. 18., and my Essay 
'iiber die Ahuna-vair}-a Formel' in the Sitzungsberichte der phil.-phil. und hist. 
Classe der. K. bay. Akad. der Wiss. 1872, p. 125). 

The judge (Pers. ddicar , Pahl. ddtubar, originally, no doubt, ddto-bafa, 
'upholder of justice') is always distinguished from the destur, but like him, was a 
raft(^ 'head or chief. He appears to have held a high rank, which was probably 
hereditary, as it is still claimed by a high Parsi family at Surat, though not 
acknowledged by the majority. 

The herbads, Z. aetJtrapaiti (see the Zand-Pahlavi Glossary, p. 127—130), 
are now those students of Zoroastrian theology, and of the priestly order, who have 
finished tlieir studies, and successfully read their first Izeshne, Pahl. yazishn. 

Those herbads who are chiefly engaged in the performance of ceremonies, 
become ttiobads, Pahl. magopat which indicates a form mago-paiti in ancient Per- 
sian. The 'upholders of the religion' are the students of the Avesta. The herbads 
and mobads, as well as the students, are subordinate to the destur, between whom 
and the mobad, a marked distinction is made, whenever they arfe mentioned in 
Pahlavi books. 

'' This appears to refer to Alexander's premature death. 

144 Arda-Yiraf I. 16 — 17. 

scepticism, and various codes of law were promulgated in the world; 
16 until the ti7ne when the blessed and immortal Ataro-pad-i Mar- 
spendan was born; on whose breast, in the tale which is in the Din- 
Icard 1 , melted brass was poured. 17 And much law and justice were 

1 It is luardly possible to interpret this passage otherwise. The words cUud- 
Jcarfo can only refer to that large and comprehensive collection of old religious 
traditions, which goes by the name of JDin-Jcard, and was compiled from a far 
more extensive Zand and Pahlavi literature than that which has reached our time. 
In one of the two volumes, which I possess, of this rare book, Ataro-pdd Mdr- 
spenddn is frequently mentioned; and in two passages, special allusion is made to 
the fiery ordeal noticed in our text. These passages are here appended , without 
emendation, and accompanied by a translation which must, however, be considered 
merely tentative, as the style of the original abounds with difficulties. 

yiyi^Yi -^^ P jj^iJ3.iA» )Y»J^^ -^St^^ ^ H13 a, p. 51-52. 

^ «y)e) h ^\ ^^y^) )')Y)0 hci )Yiy ^ -o^^^e) -^oo^^)* ^Yiy^ 
W^^ (P ^^^-^ot^oo j-wv-^ )W*^V )^)^-o ^) -<^^^^)*' ^we) 

'On truth, which is the inherent freedom from falsehood of our learned (good-speakers 'i) 
that is, when it is also owing to habitual practice; and glorifying, and the assis- 
tance of the testimony of the archangels, and other marvels (miracles?) of that 
kind; besides the well-understood proclamation by the pious Zaratusht, and heavenly 
visions; and the open manifestation of things at various times, by the desturs of 

Arda-Vtraf I. 18. 145 

administered according to different religions and different creeds; 18 

the religion, from those occurrences (or from the rising and setting V) ; and by the 
melted brass performance of the blessed Ataro-pad ]\[arspondan , and his preserva- 
tion among the dissenting opinions of the dissenters of the whole of Khvaniras (the 
civilized world) in the reign of that Shahptihar, king of kings, who was the son of 
Aiiharmazd; and the manifestation of miracles, from var mraugs of several other 
kinds, which were kept in use till after the end of the reign of that Yazdagird, 
king of kings, who was the son of Shaharyar'. 

^5) W^ \ ^GA ^ 1 W^^)^-^ J))^)^ )5Ky ) lf>3 a p. 238. 

J^:^^ ^ ^y^) WO»^) -'^-^ )W >')YV' -^^ IW^-X^ ^"5 (J5 

j:>5 );*(J,p5 ^n,^ tmo-" ^^'J^^i ^-^3^ ^^ va ^^'^-f 

[Speaking of the miracles of Zaratusht.] 'And one was the execution, by 
Zaratusht, of the var performance, that secure and irrefragable indicator, unto 
judges and magistrates, in obscure judicial matters, of which it is said in the reli- 
gion, there are about 33 kinds. This also, afterwards, the disciples of Zaratusht 
kept in use, till the overthrow of the monarchy of Iran. And the custom of it, is 
only that of pouring melted copper upon anyone; as in tiie performance of the 
blessed Ataro-pad Marspendan , through whose preservation, a knowledge about the 
religion was diffused in the world; and of the manifestation too, through that great 
miracle, this also is said, in like manner, in the good religion, that of the many, 
when they beheld that var n'lranr/, they believed who were unbelievers'. 

The var niranff, mentioned in these two passages, seems to have been an 
ordeal, for testing the truth of a person's statements, by pouring melted metal on 


146 Arda-Virdf I. 19-26. 

and the people of this religion (religious hooksj, deposifcd in Shas- 
pigan 1 , were in doubt. 

19 And afterwards, there were other magi and desturs of the 
religion ; 20 and some of their number - , were loyal and apprehensive. 
21 And an assembly of them was summoned in the residence of the 
victorious Frobag fire ^ ; 22 and there were speeches and good ideas, 
of many kinds, on this subject: 23 that 'it is necessary for us to seek 
'a means, 24 so that some one of us may go, and bring intelligence 
'from the spirits ; 25 that the people who exist in this age, shall know 
'26 whether these Yazishu and Dron and Afrinagan ceremonies, and 
'Nirang jjrayers, and ablution and purifications ^ which we bring into 

liis chest (var) ,' but sometimes the heated metal was applied to the tongue, or the 
feet, as appears from another passage in the Din-kard (MS. Hn b. p. 181 — 183), 'on 
the distinction between the lawful and proper miracle of the var n't rang ^ and the 
demoniacal and improper nirang of sorcery'. If the person remained uninjured by 
the application of the melted metal, the truth of his statements was considered as 
established, provided the ordeal had been conducted in a lawful and pious manner, 
and with a due regard to purity of person and clothing. 

1 That is , those who believed in the religious writings deposited in the 
treasury of Shaspigan. See Z.-Pahl. Glos. p. xxxvi. 

- Or 'on that account they were', etc. 

^ This is one of the three most ancient fires in Iran, which were held in great 
reverence, and are mentioned in various Pahhivi books. A short sketch of the 
history of tlicse old sacred fires, is to be found in the Bundehesh (p. 41. Westerg.). 
The Frobag fire is there said to have been first established in the dtcsh-gdli on the 
mountain Gadman-homand in Khvarizem (Z. Qairizem), the ancient Khorasmia, on 
the banks of the Oxus, and extending to the Caspian sea. After Yima's death, this 
fire was preserved from Dahak, and in the reign of Gushtasp, it was transported 
from Khvarizem to the mountain Roshan in Kabulistan, where it is said to have 
been still existing, when this aci-ount, in the Bundehesh, was written. The assembly 
of desturs, mentioned in the text, would therefore appear to have been held in 

^ These ceremonies, which are all accompanied by prayers, are commonly 
practised by Parsi priests, at the present day. 

The Yazishu (keshne) ceremony consists chiefly of the preparation, offering 

Arda-Yiraf I. 27. 147 

'operation, attain unto God, or unto tlic demons; 27 and come to the 
'relief of our souls, or not.' 

and drinking of the Homa juice, during the recital of the prayers contained in the 
Yasna. It is the most sacred ceremony of the Parsi religion, and is evidently a 
remnant of the ancient Vedic Soma sacrifice. "With regard to the blessings resulting 
from this ceremony, see the Iloma Yasht (Yas. IX.). 

The Dron (Darun) and Afrlngdn ceremonies are often performed together, 
especially at tlie solemn repasts of the Parsis, called cJiashnw, which take place at 
some of the great festivals, such as the Khordad-sal, and in lienor of the deceased. 
Of these two ceremonies, the Darun is considered the more important. The droji 
(Z. draond) are small, flat, round cakes of unleavened bread, about the size of the 
palm of the hand. Of these, four are generally used; two of them, specially called 
droii, are arranged on the left, parallel to the left side of the table, and the two 
others, called frasasH, are similarly arranged on the right. Some butter (gdush 
JtndMo) is put upon the nearer, or lower, drdii; and a twig of the pomegranate- 
tree on the further, or upper, frasasti. Between the further dron and the further 
frasasth an egg is placed; and the presence of tlie bunch of sacred twigs, called 
Barsom (barcsmau = brahman), is also indispensable. The drons are now conse- 
crated, and the name of him, in whose honor the ceremony is performed, must be 
mentioned, whether he be an angel, or a deceased Zoroastrian. Afterwards, pieces 
are broken off the drdns by the Mobad, and given to those present to eat, 

When the Darun ceremony is over, the Afringan commences, at the great festi- 
vals; but it may, however, on other occasions, be performed Avitliout the Darun. A 
tray, containing wine and fruits , is used ; with flowers on the left side. The wine 
and fruits are. consecrated, when the priest drinks first, and then gives the wine to 
those who are present to drink. This ceremony is like tlie Darun, performed in 
honor of some angel, or deceased Zoroastrian; and its name is derived from the 
word dfrrnc'oni, 'I bless', which is used during its performance. 

The word Nnang is used both in a general and a more restricted sense. 
In the former, it signifies a prayer formula, usually short, to be recited on certain 
occasions; for instance, when cutting the nails, or hair, and after the completion of 
certain ceremonies, such as that of the Homa. These formulas are now mostly 
in the so-called Pazand; and are supposed to ensure the success of the ceremony 
performed, or to avert any evil which might arise. In a more restricted sense, 
Nivang means the ceremony, as Avell as the prayer formula, relating to the pre- 
paration of the gomcZ-, 'cow's urine', which is used as the most efficacious means of 

148 Arda-Vlraf I. 28 — 40. 

28 Afterwards also, with tlie concurrence of the desturs of the 
religion, tliey called all the people to the residence of the Frobag 
fire. 29 And from the whole number, they set apart seven men ^d io 
had not the slightest doubt of God and tlie religion, 30 and whose 

own thoughts and words and deeds were most orderly and proper; 
31 and they were told thus: 'Seat yourselves down, 32 and select 
'one from among you, who is best for this duty, and the most inno- 
'cent and respected'. 

33 And afterwards, those seven men sat down; 34 and from the 
seven, three were selected; and from the three, one only, named 
Viraf ; 35 and some call him the Kishapurian i. 36 Then that Yiraf, 
as he heard that decision, stood upon his feet, 37 joined his hands on 
his breast, and spoke 38 thus: 'If it please you, then give me not 
'the undesired narcotic-, 39 till you cast lots for the Mazdayasnians 
'and me 3; 40 and if the lot come to me, I shall go willingly to that 

'Ablution' is the translation of the term |;«fy?/at'?/^, which can be traced to 
the Z. paifi/dpa, a word which has not, however, the same meaning as is generally 
attached to pddydinh^ by which the Parsis understand washing, with water, the 
hands aiul arms up to the elbows, the face as far as behind the ears, and the feet 
up to the ankles; which they perform whenever they are going to recite prayers, 
repeating a formula during the ablution. 

'Purification' (ydshddsar'iJi ^ Z. yaozhddtJirya) is the so-called Barashnora 
ceremony, which is described in Vend. IX. This process of purification, in which 
cow's urine plays an important part, lasts for nine nights. 

1 Or 'by the name of Nikhshapiir', according to the orthography of the old MSS. 
This name, which is also written Nishapuhar, Nikhshapuhar, etc., is that of a com- 
mentator on the Avesta who is quoted in the Pahlavi translation of Tend. V. 34. 
VIII. 22. , and also many times in the Nirangistan. 

- AVlien natives of India wish to obtain supernatural information, tliey some- 
times give (it is said) a narcotic prepared from the seeds of the dhattura plant, to 
a boy, or old man, and place much reliance upon his answers to their questions, 
wliile under its intoxicating influence. [Dest.j 

3 It is possible that the text is incorrectly read, and that var naMchak is a 
echiiical name for some mode of casting lots ; especially as the change of per- 

Arda-Vhaf I. 41.- II. 9. 149 

'place of the pious and the wicked, 41 and carry this message cor- 
'rectly, and bring an answer truly'. 

42 And afterwards, the lots of those Mazdayasnians and me 
were drawn; 43 the first time with the loord 'well-thought', and the 
second time with the iDord 'well-said', and the third time with the 
ivord 'well-done'; each of the three lots came to Yiraf. 

Chapter II. 

1 And that Viraf had seven sisters, 2 and all those seven sisters 
were as wives i of Yiraf; o they had also learnt the religion hy heart, 
and recited the prayers. 4 And when they heard those tidinrjs^ then 
hey came upon them so very grievously, 5 that they clamored and 
shrieked, 6 and went into the presence of the assembly of the Maz- 
dayasnians, 7 and they stood up and bowed, 8 and said thus: 'Do 
'not this thing, ye Mazdayasnians; 9 for we are seven sisters, and he 

sons in 42, is awkwardly suspicious. Hu alters 3^ to ij in both places; His reads 
u man in 39, and Yirdja 6 in 42; and Destur Hoshangji would omit j\ in 42; but 
no editor is justified in making arbitrary alterations in an old text. The Pazand 
MSS. read ndluclia^ and some desturs vdijeh, for nahtchaJc ; the Sans, version has 

1 This incident appears to be introduced, merely as an illustration of the 
extraordinary piety of Yiraf, in obeying the precepts of his religion with regard to 
Jchvat'toadatha, or 'next-of-kin marriage'; it also indicates that the tale was written 
before the ancient practice of marriage between brothers and sisters, was discontin- 
ued. The later Pazand and Persian MSS. obscure the meaning by omitting this 
sentence; and His, by sometimes changing 'sisters' into 'wives', and 'brother' into 
'husband', conveys the idea that Yiraf had seven wives who were merely sisters to each 
other. Destur Hoshangji thinks that they were not married, but only a sisterhood of 
nuns, in imitation of Christian customs; thougli he admits that there is no evidence 
that such an institution ever existed among Zoroastrians. If, however, they were 
married, he thinks it may have been merely a nominal marriage. As an instaijce of 
, the ancient practice of marriage between brother and sister, may be mentioned that 
of Cambyses, son of Cyrus, with his sister Atossa (Herod. III. 88). 

150 Arda-VJr&f II. 10 — 24. 

'is an only brother; 10 and we are, all seven sisters, as wives of that 
'brother. 11 Just as the door of a house, in which seven lintels i 
'were fixed, and one post below, 12 they who shall take away that 
'post, will make those lintels fall; 13 so for us seven sisters, is this 
'only brother, who is our life and maintenance; 14 every benefit from 
'him, proceeds from God. 15 Should you send him, before his time, 
'from this realm of the living to that of the dead, 16 you will commit 
'an injustice on us without cause'. 

17 And afterwards, those Mazdayasnians, when they heard those 
words, pacified those seven sisters, 18 and said thus: 'We will deliver 
'Viraf to you, safe and sound 2, in seven dtiys; 19 and the happiness 
'of this renown will remain with this man'. 20 Then they became 

21 And then, Viraf 3 joined his hands on his breast before the 
Mazdayasnians, and said to them 22 thus: 'It is the custom that I 
'should pray to the departed souls, and eat food, and make a will; 
'aftei wards, you will give me the wine and narcotic'. 23 The desturs 
directed thus: 'Act accordingly' *. 

24 And afterwards, those desturs of the religion selected, in the 
dwelling of the spirit &, a place which was thirty footsteps from the 

' Or 'joists' ; the meaning may be that the lintel of the doorway was formed 
of seven narrow timbers laid, side by side, over the opening, which, when large timber 
is scarce, and walls are thick, is an easy way of making a large lintel; or it may 
refer to an entrance verandah, in which one post supports seven joists by means of 
a post-plate. 

2 Literally: 'healthy'. 

3 Literally: 'that Viraf, which is more definite than is necessary in English; 
so the demonstrative pronoun is omitted in the translation, here and elsewhere. 

* That is, in accordance with the custom mentioned by Yiraf. 
* * That is, the dwelling of the angel of fire (Ataro ycdafo) , the fire-temple 
in which they were assembled, previously called 'the residence of the Frobag fire'; 
see I. 21, 28. 

Arda- Viraf II. 25 — 32. 151 

good 1. 25 And Viraf washed his head and body, and put on new 
clothes; 26 he fumigated himself with sweet scent 2, and spread a 
carpet, new and clean, on a prepared couch 3. 27 He sat down on the 
clean carpet of the couch-', 28 and consecrated the Dron, and remem- 
bered the departed souls, and ate food. 29 And then those desturs 
of the religion filled three golden cups with wine and the narcotic of 
Vishtasp^; 30 and they gave one cup over to Viraf with the word 'well- 
thought', and the second cup with the word 'well-said', and the third 
cup with the ivord 'well-done'; 31 and he swallowed the wine and 
narcotic, and said grace whilst conscious, and slept upon the carpet. 

32 Those desturs of the religion and the seven sisters were oc- 
cupied^ seven days and nights, with the ever-burning fire and fumiga- 
tions ; and they recited the Avesta and Zand of the religious ritual «, 

1 Literally: 'as to that which is good'. As the soul of Yiraf was about to 
quit the body, it was necessary that the latter should be treated as a dead body, 
and be kept thirty footsteps away from fire, water and other holy things; see 
Vend. VIII. 7. [Best.] 

- Such fumigation is not now practised by the Parsis, but that it was so for- 
merly, is evident from Vend. IX. 32. [Dest.] 

3 Divan, or dais. 

■> Or 'at the proper time, lie sat down on the clean carpet', 

^ This specific name of a narcotic is also used in the Pahlavi translation of 
Vend. XV. 14, as follows: gak mtm hdn frdz harad mang, ayuf shtt^ ayiif zah-l 
Vishfdspdn, ai/itf zak-l Zaratnhashtdn : 'that old woman brought manff, or sMf, 
either that of Vishtusp, or that of Zaratlisht'. [Best.] 

" The original term is n/rang-i dmoik, by which is generally understood the 
ceremony and prayers requisite for the preparation of the gomeZ, or cow's urine for 
purificatory purposes; and it may probably be taken in this sense here. This ritual 
was recited in order to avert any evil influence which might do harm to Arda Viraf, 
on his journey to the other world. It is interesting to observe that both the Avesta 
and Zand of these prayers were recited; that is to say, both those which were com- 
posed in the Avesta, or so-called Zand language, and those in the proper Zand 
idiom, or Pahlavi, (see the Pahl.-Paz. Glossary under those terms). 

152 Arda-VIraf II. 33. -III. 7. 

33 and recapitulated the Nasksi, and chanted the Gathas'-, and kept 
watch in the dark. 34 And those seven sisters sat around the carpet 
of Viraf , 35 and seven days and nights, the Avesta was repeated. 
36 Those seven sisters, with all the desturs and herhads and mobads 
of the religion of the Mazdayasnians, discontinued not their protection 
in any manner. 

Chapter III. 

1 And the soul of Yiraf went, from the body, to the Chinvat 
bridge of Chakat-i-Daitik, 2 and came back the seventh day^^ and 
went into the body. 3 Yiraf rose up, as if he arose from a pleasant 
sleep, 4 thinking of Yohuman '^ and joyful. 

5 And those sisters, with the desturs of the religion and the Maz- 
dayasnians, when they saw Yiraf, became pleased and joyful; 6 and 
they said thus: 'Be thou welcome, Yiraf, the messenger of us Mazda- 
'yasnians, who art come, from the realm of the dead, to this realm of 
'the living'. 7 Those herbads and desturs of the religion bowed before 

* The 21 Nasks (Nosks), or 'books', of tlie Avesta are frequently mentioned 
in the Parsi writings. Tliey comprised the whole religious and scientific literature 
of the Zoroastrian priesthood (see the word nash in the Pahl.-Paz. Glos.). It is 
doubtful whether the recapitulation of the Nasks refers to the whole of them, or 
only a portion; but it means, probably, only a recital of their general contents, as 
it can scarcely be supposed that all the Nasks were extant, in their entiretj', in the 
time of Arda Viraf. An abstract of the contents of many of them, is preserved in 
the Din-kard, in the Pahlavi language. But fragments of only three of them, are 
now extant in the old Avesta language, viz. the larger portion of the Vendidad, a 
fragment of the Hadokht Nask, and another of the Vishtasp Nask. The Vendidad 
and Vishtasp Nask are still recited, as prayers for religious purposes, by the Parsi 
priests; and the formulas used, when the Vendidad is so recited, are given in 
Westergaard's Zend-avesta, p. 485. 

' The recital of the five Clathas , which are the most sacred hymns and 
prayers the Parsis possess in the Yasna, is compulsory on every Zoroastrian. 

3 Literally: 'day and night'; that is, the natural day of twenty-four hours. 

'• That is, 'inspired with good thoughts'. III. 8-24 . 153 

Vtraf. .^ And then Yiraf, as he saw them, eame forward and bowed, 
and said thus: 'For you is a blessing from Auharmazd, the lord, and 
'the archangels fcnnesJuispendsJ ; and a blessing from the pious Zara- 
'tusht, the descendant of Spitama ; 10 and a blessing from Srush the 
'pious, and Ataro the angel (yazad), and the glorious religion of the 
'Mazdayasnians; 11 and a blessing from the remaining pious; and a 
'blessing from the remaining spirits of paradise who are m happiness 
'and repose'. 

12 And afterwards, the desturs of the religion said 13 thus: 'A 
'faithful minister i art thou, Yiraf, who art the messenger of us Maz- 
'dayasnians; and may thy Ijlessing be for thee also. 14 AVhatever 
'thou sawest, relate to us truly', 

15 Then Viraf spoke thus: 'First this is to be said, 16 that to X>«^*4<c*v- *^ 
'give the hungry and thirsty food, is the first thing^ 17 and afterwards ^^ ct^»<Wc. 
•to make enquiry of him, and appoint his task'. ftxH^ ^""^ 

18 Then the desturs of the religion assented 2 thus: 'Well and c^<a, : 
'good'. 19 And well-cooked and savory ^^ food and broth, and cold ^cSU*^ 
water and wine were brought. 2m They also consecrated the cere- ^<^^^ 

monial cake {dr6?i): and Yiraf muttered grace, and ate the food, and 
having finished the sacred repast (myazd), he said grace. 21 And he 
recounted the praises of Auharmazd and the archangels , and thanks 
to llorvadad and Ameredad, the archangels; and he uttered the bene- 
dictions {dfrincifjan). 

22 He also directed thus: 'Bring a writer who is wise and learned'. 
23 And an accomplished writer, who was learned, was brou-ght by 
them, and sat before him; 24 and whatsoever Yiraf said, he wrote 
correctly, clearly and explicitly. 

' Literally: 'a proper servant'. 

' Literally: 'ordered'. 

5 Literally: 'well-scentod'. 

154 Arda-Viraf IV. 1 — 18. 

Chapter IV. 

1 And he ordered him to write 2 thus: In that first night, Srosh 
the pious and Ataro the angel came to meet me, B and they bowed 
to me, and spoke 4 thus : 'Be thou welcome, Arda Viraf, although thou 
'hast come when it is not thy time', i 5 I said: '1 am a messenger'. 
C» And then the victorious Srosh, the pious, and Ataro the angel, took 
hold of my hand. 7 Taking the first footstep with the good thought, 
and the second footstep with the good word, and the third footstep 
with the good deed, I came up to the Chinvat bridge, the very wide - 
and strong and created by Auharmazd. 

8 When I came up there, 9 I saw a soul of the departed 3, whilst 
in those first three nights the soul was seated on the top of the body, 
10 and uttered those words of the Gatlia: 11 'Ushta ahmai yahmai 
'ushta kahmaichid'; that is, 'AVell is he by whom that which is his 
'benefit, becomes the benefit of anyone else'. 12 And in those three 
nights, as much benefit and comfort and enjoyment came to it, 13 as 
all the benefit which it beheld in the world; 14 just as a man who, 
whilst he was in the world, was more comfortable and happy and joyful 
through it. 

15 In the third dawn, that soul of the pious departed into the 
sweet scent of trees ; 16 and he considered that scent pleasanter than 
every pleasant scent which passed by his nose among the living; 17 
and the air of that fragrance comes from the more soutli M'n sid e, from 
the direction of God. 

18 And there stood before him *, his own religion and his own 
deeds, in the graceful form of a damsel, as a beautiful appearance, that 

' Or 'although the time of thy coming is not yet'. 

2 Or 'the refuge of many', or 'the much-protecting', according to His. 

3 The remainder of this chapter is nearly the same as the Hadokht Nask, II. 

* Compare Mkh. IL 125 -139 with the remainder of this chapter. 


Arrla-VJraf IV. 10. -Y. 2. 155 

is, grown up in virtue; 19 with prominent breasts, that is, her breasts 
swelled downwards \ which is charming to the heart and soul; 20 whose 
form was as brilliant, as the sight of it was the more well- pleasing, 
the observation of it more desirable. 

21 And the soul of the pious asked that damsel 22 thus: 'Who 
'art thou? and what person art thou? than whom, in the world of the 
'living, any damsel more elegant, and of more beautiful body than 
'thine, was never seen by me'. 

23 To him replied she who was his own religion and his own deeds, 
24 thus: 'I am thy actions, youth of good thoughts, of good words, of 
'good deeds, of good religion. 25 It is on account of thy will and actions, 
'that I am as great and good and sweet-scented and triumphant and un- 
'distressed as appears to thee. 20 For in the world, the Gathas were 
'chanted by thee, and the good Avater was consecrated by thee, and the 
'fire tended by thee ; 27 and the pious man who came from far, and who 
'was from near, was honored by thee. 28 Though I have been stout, I 
'am made stouter through thee; 29 and though I have been virtuous, I am 
'made more virtuous through thee; 30 and though I have been worthy, I 
'am made more worthy through thee ; 31 and though I have been seated 
'on a resplendent throne, I am seated more resplendently through thee; 
'32 and though I have been exalted, I am made more exalted through 
'thee ; 33 through these good thoughts and good words and good deeds 
'which thou practisedst. 34 They honored thee, and the pious man 
•after thee, 35 in that long worship and communion with Auharmazd, 
"when tliou performedst, for Auharmazd, worship and proper conversa- 
'tion for a long time. 36 Peace be from it'. 

Chapter V. 

1 Afterwards, the width of that Chinvat bridge became again 
nine javelin-lengths. 2 AVith the assistance of Srosh the pious, and 

' This appears to be the simplest way of reconciling this explanatory phrase 
with the preceding epithet j but the whole sentence is somewhat obscure. 

156 Arda-Viraf Y. 3 — 13. 

Ataro the angel, I passed over easily, happily, courageously and 
triumphantly, on the Chinvat bridge. 3 I had much protection from 
Mitro the angel, and Rashn the just, and Tai the good i, and the angel 
Vahram the powerful, and the angel Ashtad the world-increasing, and 
the glory of the good religion of the Mazdayasnians; 4 and the guar- 
dian angels '- (fravashis) of the pious , and the remaining spirits first 
bowed to me, Arda Viraf. 5 I also saw, I Arda Yiraf, Rashn the just, 
who held, in his hand, the yellow golden balance, and weighed the 
pious and the wicked. 

G And afterwards, Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, took 
hold of my hand, 7 and said thus: 'Come on, so that we may show 
'unto thee heaven and hell; and the splendor and glory and ease and 
'comfort and pleasure and joy and delight and gladness and fragrance 
'which are the reward of the pious in heaven. 8 We shall show thee 
'the darkness and confinement and ingloriousness and misfortune and 
'distress and evil and pain and sickness and dreadfulness and fearful- 
'ness and hurtfulness and stench in the punishments of hell, of various 
'kinds, which the demons and sorcerers and sinners perform. 9 "We 
'shall show thee the place of the true and that of the false. 10 We 
'shall show thee the reward of the firm believer s in Auharmazd and 
'the archangels, and the good which is in heaven, and the evil which 
'is in hell; 11 and the reality of God and the archangels, and the non- 
'reality of Akharman and the demons ; and the existence of the resur- 
'rection of the dead and the future body. 12 We shall show thee the 
'reward of the pious, from Auharmazd and the archangels, in the midst 
'of heaven. 13 We shall show thee the torment and punishment of 
'various kinds, which are for the wicked, in the midst of hell, from 
'Akharman and the molestations of the demons'. 

> That is, the Yazad Ram, 'the good flyer'; see Mkh. GIos p. 203-204, 

2 More correctly 'spiritual representatives'. Every creature and object created 

by Auharmazd, is supposed to possess a spiritual representative in the other world 

eee MkJi, XLIX. 2<J. 

Arda-Viraf VI. 1. — VII. 3. 157 

Chapter VI. 

1 I came to a place, 2 and I saw the souls of several people, 
who remain in the same position, 8 And I asked the victorious Srosh, 
the pious, and Ataro the angel, thus : 'Wlio are they ? and why remain 
'they here?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'They call 
'this place, TTamestagan {the ever-stationary^; 6 and these souls remain 
'in this place till the future body i ; 7 and tliey arc the souls of those 
'men whose good works and sin were equal. 8 Speak out to the 
'worlds thus: 'Let not avarice and vexation prevent you from doing a 
"very easy good works; for everyone whose good works are three 
"Srosho-charanam ^ more than his sin, goes to heaven; 10 they whose 
"sin is more, go to hell; 11 they in whom both are equal, remain 
"among these Hamestagan till the future body'. 12 Their punishment 
'is cold, or heat, from the revolution of the atmosphere; and they have 
'no other adversity'. 

Chapter VII. 

1 And afterwards, I put forth the first footstep to the star track, 
on Hiimat, the place where good thoughts (humat) are received with 
hospitality. 2 And I saw those souls of the pious whose radiance, 
which ever increased, was glittering as the stars; 3 and their throne 
and seat were under the radiance *, and splendid and full of glory. 

' That is, 'the resurrection'. 

- Literally: 'Consider not the easier good 'ivories with avarice and as vexation'. 

» This is evidently the name of some verj- small weight , the value of which 
is no longer known. It is apparently identical with the sraosM-charanaya which 
is so frequently mentioned in the Vendidad, in connection with numerals, when a 
fine is awarded. 

* Or 'were very brilliant'. 

158 Arda VJraf YII. 4. -IX. 8. 

4 And I asked Srosli the pious, and Ataro the angel, thus: 'Which 
'place is this? and which people are these?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 6 thus: 'This place 
'is the star track; and those are the souls 7 who, in the world, offered 
'no prayers, and chanted no Gathas, and contract ed no next-of-ki n mar- 
'riage; 8 they have also exercised no sovereignty, nor rulership nor 
'chieftainship. 9 Through other good works they have become pious'. 

Chapter VIII. 

i When I put forth the second footstep, it was to Hukht of the 
moon track, the place where good words {hukht) find hospitality; 2 
and I saw a great assembly of the pious. 

3 And I asked Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, thus: 'Which 
'place is this ? and who are those souls ? ' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This place 
'is the moon track; and these are those souls who, in the world, offered 
'no prayers, and chanted no Gathas, and contracted no nex^-of-k in 

Jmarriage; (J but through other good works they have come hither; 
'7 and their brightness is like unto the brightness of the moon'. 

Chapter IX. 

1 Wlien I put forth the third footstep on Huvarsht, there where 
good deeds {huvarshf) are received with hospitality, there I arrived. 
2 There is the radiance which they call the highest of the highest; 
o and I saw the pious on thrones and carpets made of gold; 4 and 
they were people whose brightness was like unto the brightness of 
the sun. 

5 And I asked Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, thus: 'Which 
'place is this? and who are those souls?' 

Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 7 thus: 'This is the 
'sun track; and those are the souls S who, in the world, exercised 
'good sovereignty and rulership and chieftainship'. 


Arda-Viraf X. l.-XI. 1. J59 

Chapter X. 

i I put forth tlie ibuvtli footstep unto the« radiance of Garodman, 
the all-glorious; 2 and the souls of the departed came to meet us, and 
they asked a blessing, and offered praise, 3 and they spoke thus : 'How 
'hast thou come forth, pious one? 4 From that perishable and very 
'evil world, thou hast come unto this imperishable, unmolested world 
'5 Therefore taste immortality i, for here you see pleasure eternally'. 

() And after that. Ataro . the angel of the fire of Auharmazd , came ^/^m-v^ 
forward, saluted me, 7 and said thus: 'A fine supplier art thou, Arda -tv^nte a^<»-S 
'Viraf, of green wood, who art the messenger of the Mazdayasnians !' (7t>) c cU<vic^ 

8 Then I saluted, and said U thus: 'Thy servant, Ataro the ^ ^X. . 
'angel, it was who, in the world, always put upon thee wood and per- 
'fume seven years old, 10 and you exclaim about my green wood ! ' 2 

11 Then Ataro, the angel of the fire of Auharmazd, said 12 thus: 
'Come on, that I may show thee the tank of water of the green wood 
'which was put upon me\ 

13 And he led me on to a place, and showed the blue water of 
a large tank, 14 and said: 'This is the water which that wood exuded, 
'wliich thou puttedst upon me'. 

Chapter XL 

I Afterwards, arose Vohuman, the archangel, from a throne made 

1 Destur Hosliangji considers this as referring to the zaremaya raoghna 
(Hadokht Xask II. 38; the )Haicl//6zarm raogan of Mkh. II. 152), otherwise called 
mhio roghan^ a gobletful of which is said to be given, by the archangel YoMman, 
to the soul of a pious person before it enters paradise. By drinking it, the soul is 
supposed to become oblivious of all worldly cares and concerns, and is thus pre- 
pared for eternal happiness. 

- The text of this conversation may be corrupt in some places, but it is haz- 
ardous to attempt emendations. The translation gives the most plausible meaning 
which can be extracted from the original, with the minimum of alteration. 

160 Avda-Viraf XI. 2,- XII. 5. 

of gold 1, 2 and he took hold of my hand ; with the words 'good thought' 
and 'good word' and 'good deed', he brought me into the midst of Au- 
harmazd and the archangels and other holy ones. 3 and the guardian 
angels of Zaratuslit Spitama, Kai-Vishtasp, Jamasp2, Isadvastar the 
son of Zaratuslit, and other upholders and leaders of the religion, 4 than 
whom I have never seen anyone more brilliant and excellent. 

5 And Yohuman ^ said G thus : 'This is Auharmazd'. 7 And I 
wished to offer worship before him. 

8 And he said to me thus: 'Salutation to thee, Arda Viraf, thou 
'art welcome; 9 from that perishable world, thou hast come to this 
'pure, bright place'. 10 And he ordered Srosh the pious, and Ataro the 
angel, 11 thus: 'Take Arda Viraf, and show him the place and reward 
'of the pious, 12 and also the punishment of the wicked'. 

13 Then Srosh the pious and Ataro the angel took hold of my 
hand; 14 and 1 was led by them from place to place. 15 I also saw 
the archangels, and I beheld the other angels; 16 I also saw the 
guardian angels of Gayomard, Zaratusht, Kai-Vishtasp, Frashoshtar, 
Jamasp, and other well-doers and leaders of the religion. 


Chapter XII. 

1 1 also came to a place, and saw 2 the souls of the liberal, who 
walked adorned, 3 and were above the other souls, in all splendor; 
4 and Auharmazd ever exalts the souls of the liberal, who are brilliant 
and elevated and mighty. 5 And I said thus: 'Happy art thou who 

1 Compare Vend. XIX. 31: useJdshtad Vohu-mano hacha pdtvo zaranyo' 
hereto. [Dest.] 

- In the Jamasp-namah, Jamftsp is said to have been the mobad of mobads, 
or chief highpriest, who succeeded Zaratusht in the time of king A^ishtasp. In the 
Avesta, his name is generally mentioned with that of Frashoshtar (see Yasna 12, 7, 
46,18-17. 49,8-9. 51, 17-18. Yasht 13, loj.), as it is also in sentence 16 of the text; and 
they are supposed to have been brothers. 

^ There is probably some omission here; see the note in the Pahlavi text. 

Arda-Yiraf XII. 6-13. 


'art a soul of the liberal, that are thus above the other souls', And 
it seemed to me sublime. 

7 I also saw the souls of those who, in the world, chanted the 
Giithas and used the prescribed prayers (yeshts), 8 and were steadfast 
in the <^ood religion of the Maz daya snians, which Auharm azd taught_ to_ 
Zara tAsht; 9 when I advanced, theij wcre^ in gold-embroidered and 
silver-embroidered clothes, the most embellished of all clothing. 10 And 
it seemed to me very - sublime. 

ii I also saw a soul of those who contrac t next-of-kin jriarriag es ^^ 
in material-fashioned splendor, 12 when the lofty splendor of its resi- 
dence ever increased thereby K 13 And it seemed to me sublime. 

' This appears to be tbe meaning intended, when this sentence is compared 
with 12 and 16. Arda Viraf can hardly be describing his own dress here, as he 
confines his descriptions, elsewhere, to the state of the souls he sees. If there be 
no omission in tbe text, it is possible that hdmand sbould be read for honuuiaw, 
and the translation would then be: 'when they advanced to me'. 

- Or 'more'. 

3 The ideas of tbe modern Parsis, with regard to khvaetvadatha or next-of- 
kin marriage, may be gathered from the following translation of a note apjiended 
to a Persian version of Akharman's advice to Aesbma about the Gahanbiirs, Myazd 
and Khvetudat, in the MS. H5 : 'Therefore, it is necessaiy to know that the greater 
khictiidat is that of a sister's daughter and brother's son; the medium hltvetiidat 
is that of a brothers son with a brother's daughter, or of a sister's son with a 
sister's daughter; and inferior to the medium l;Jivcff{dat is that of a sister's son and 
a brother's daughter. It is also necessary to know that any one who performs 
khvcfitdat, if his soul be fit for hell, will go among the hamestagdn; and if he is 
one of the hamestagdn-, be will go to heaven'. An older treatise on Jclnett'idat, 
which occupies seven folio pages in tlie Din-kard, appears not to mention first 
cousins, but confines itself to the three nearest relations ( mothe r, siste r and daiigh- 
ter) , and defends tlie practice on the grounds of mytliological history and general 

•• The original text is so obscure that it is hazardous to be more explicit in 
the translation; azw^h, or nfasJi . may refer to the soul itself, or its good deeds, 
or its splendor. 


162 Arda-Vtraf XII. H.-XIII. 10. 

14 I also saw the souls of good rulers and monarclis, lo who ever 
increased then- greatness, goodness, power and triumph thereby i, 16 
when they walk in splendor, in t heir golden trowsers 2. 17 And it 
seemed to me sublime. 

18 I also saw the souls of the great and of truthful speakers, who 
walked in lofty splendor with great glory. 19 And it seemed to me 

Chapter XIII. 

1 I also saw the souls of those women of excellent thoughts, of 
excellent words, of excellent deeds, and submissive to control, who 
consider their husbands as lords, 2 in clothing embroidered with gold 
and silver, and set with jewels. 3 And I asked thus: 'Which souls 
'are those ? ' 

4 And Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'These 
'are the souls of those women who, in the world, have honored water, 
'and honored fire , and honored eaijl i and jtrees , cattle and sh^p , and 
'all the other good j^reations of Auharmazd. 6 And they performed 
'the Yazishn and Dron ceremonies^ and the praise and service of God; 
'7 and they performed. the rites and praises of the angels of the heav- 
'enly existences^ and the angels of the earthly existences; 8 and they 
'practised acquiescence and conformity, reverence and obedience to 
'their husbands and lords; and they were without doubts on th e 
'religion of the Mazdayasnians. 10 They were diligent in the doing of 


1 This sentence is also obscure, but asash appears to refer to the walking, 
'^ The reading adopted in the Pahlavi text is rdnd-vard'md , which is equi- 
valent to rdn-girdhi in Persian, and may be compared with gird-rdn and rdnhi : 
another probable reading is rukho va vanlhw , whicli may be translated: 'coronets 
and crowns'; ruhh and girsm (garzan, or harzan) being both terms for Persian 
crowns; gar dim and Jcarjatvdn arc also somewhat similar terms; and as vardino 
can be read vartird, it might perhaps be likewise compared with kartir, the term 
for 'crown' in the Sasanian inscription of Naksh-i Rajab. 

Arda-Viraf XIII. ll.-XIV. 14. 163 

'good works, 11 and they huve been abstainers from sin'. 12 And it 
seemed to me sublime. 

Chapter XIV. 

I I also saw the souls of performers of the Yazishn ceremony^ 
and of those who know the scriptures by heart, splendid among the 
lofry, and exalted among the great i. 2 And it seemed to me sublime. 

o I also saw the souls of those who solemnized the whole ritual 
of the religion, and performed and directed the worship of (fod, 4 who 
were seated above the other souls; 5 and their good works stood as 
high as heaven -. And it seemed to me very sublime. 

7 I also saw tlic souls of warriors, whose walk was in the supre- 
mest pleasure and joyfulness, and together with that of kings; 8 and 
the well-made arms and equipments of those heroes, were made of gold, 
studded with jcAvels, well-ornamented and all embroidered; 9 and they 
were in w onde r ful trows ers 3, with much pomp and power and triumph. 
10 And it seemed to me sublime. 

II I also saw the souls of those who killed many noxious crea- 
tures (Jihraf stars) in the world; 12 and the prosperiiy * of the waters 
and sacred fires, and fires m general, and trees, and the prosperity also 
of the earth was ever increased thereby; and they were exalted and 
adorned 5. 13 And it seemed to me very sublime. 

14 I also saw the souls of agriculturists, in a splendid place, and 

' Literally: 'splendid in what is lofty, and exalted in what is gre<at'. 

^ Literally: 'stood sky-high'. 

3 Or 'greaves'; but more probably 'coronets and crowns', s^ee note to XII. 16. 
It will be observed that the sentences 7 — 9 are more closely connected in Palilavi 
than in this translation. 

■» It must be recollected that the Huz. (jachnan means both bakht and khurah 
in Pazand, and the former, which appears to be its original meaning, is here the 
better suited to the context. 

^ Literally: 'they were in e^altatiou and adorumeut'. 

164 Arda-Viraf XIV. 15. — XV. 14. 

glorious and thick majestic clothing; io as they stood, and offered praise, 
before the spirits of water and earth, trees and cattle; 10 and they 
utter thanksgiving and praise and benediction; IT their throne also is 
great, and the place they occupy is good. 18 And it seemed to me 

19 I also saw the souls of artizans who, in the world, served their 
rulers and chieftains; 20 as they sat on thrones which were well-car- 
peted and great, splendid and embellished. 21 And it seemed to me 
very sublime. 

Chapter XV. 

1 I also saw the souls of shepherds, by whom, in the world, qua- 
drupeds and sheep were employed and fed, 2 and preserved from the 
wolf and thief and tyrannical man. ?■> And at appointed times i, water 
and grass and food were given; 4 and they were preserved from severe 
cold and heat ; 5 and the males were allowed access at the usual time, 
and properly restrained when inopportune: •'• whereby very great ad- 
vantage, profit and benefit, food and clothing were afforded to the men 
of that time. 7 Which souls walked among those who are brilliant, on 
a beautiful eminence - , in great pleasure and joy. 8 And it seemed to 
me very sublime. 

9 I also saw many golden thrones, fine carpets and cushions decked 
with rich cloth 3, 10 on which are seated the souls of householders and 
justices, who were heads of village families, and exercised mediation 
and authority, 11 and made a desolate place prosperous; 12 they also 
brought many conduits , streams and fountains for the improvement of 
tillage and cultivation, and the advantage of creatures. 13 And as they 
stand before those who are the guardian angels of water, and of trees, 
and also of the pious, in great power and triumph, 14 they offer them 

Or 'when the time arrived'. 

As bar has many other meanings, this phrase is doubtful. 

Pers. hub =^ yuh. 

Arda-Vir&f XV. 15.-XVI. 8. 165 

blessings and praise, and repeat thanksgivings. 15 And it seemed to 
me very sublime. 

!G I also saw the souls of the faithful, the teachers and inquirers, 
in the greatest gladness on a splendid throne. 17 And it seemed to 
me sublime. 

IS I also saw the friendly souls of intercedei's and peace-seekers, 
19 who over increased thereby their brilliance, which was like the stars 
and moon and sun; 20 and they ever walked agreeably in the light of 
the atmosphere. 

'2\ I also saw the pre-eminent world of the pious, which is the 
all-glorious light of space, much perfumed with sweet basil (oqjmum)^ 
all-bedecked, all-admired, and splendid, full of glory and every joy and 
every pleasure, 22 with which no one is satiated K 

Chapter XVI. 

i Afterwards , Srosh the pious and Ataro the angel took hold of 
my hand, and 1 went thence onwards. 2 I came to a place, and I saw 
a great river which was gloomy as dreadful hell; 3 on which river were 
many souls and guardian angels; 4 and some of them were notable to 
cross, and some crossed only 2 with great difficulty, and some crossed 

.") And I asked thus : 'What river is this ? and who are these people 
'who stand so distressed?' 

6 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 7 thus: 'This river 
'is the many tears which men shed from the eyes ^ , as they make la- 
'mentation and weeping for the departed. 8 They shed those tears 

1 Literally: 'which no one knows satiety fiom'. 

- Literally: 'and there are who ever crossed'. 

' Most probably, chashm has been accidentally admitted into the text, from the 
margin of gome old MS., being merely the Paz. equivalent of the preceding Huz. 
ainman; unless it be corrupted from vhashmak. when the pbrase might be traoe- 
lated: 'from 'he fountain of the eyes'. 

166 Arda-Viraf XVI. 9.-XVII. 11. 

'unlawfully, and they swell to this river. Those who are not able 
'to cross over, are those for whom, after their departure, much lamen- 
'tation and weeping were made; 10 and those who cross more easily, 
'are those for whom less was made. 11 Speak forth to the world i 
'thus : ' When you are in the world, make no lamentation and weeping 
"unlawfully; 12 for so much harm and difficulty may happen to the 
"souls of your departed". 

Chapter XVII. 

i I came back again to the Chinvat bridge. 2 And I saw a 
soul of those who were wicked, when in those first three nights, so 
much mischief and evil were shown to their souls, as never such distress 
was seen by them in the world. 3 And I inquired of Srosh the pious, 
and Ataro the angel, thus: 'Whose soul is this?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said b thus: 'This soul 
'of the wicked wandered there where the wicked one died, over the 
'place where the life went forth; 6 it stood at his head, and uttered 
'the Gatha words 7 thus: 'Creator Auharmazd! to which land do I go? 
"and what do I take 2 as a refuge?' f^ And as much misfortune and 
'difficulty happen to him, that night, 9 as in the world, unto a m;m 
'who lived in the world, and lived in difficulty and misfortune'. 

10 Afterwards 3 J a stinking cold wind comes to meet him. 11 So 
it seemed to that soul as if it came forth from the northern quarter, 

• In Pahlavi, the plural is here used, to express 'the inhabitants of the world'. 

2 Or it can be read vddnnam , 'I make', as indicated in K20 and adopted in 
Mkh. II. 159. In the Hadokht Nask III. 4., this quotation from Yas. XLVI. 1. is 
ditierently translated. The translation which is given here, is nearly the same as 
that which I proposed in my work on the Oathas II. pag. 46, without knowing 
the book of Arda Viriif. 

^ It is jiot very clear whether tlie remaining incidents in this chapter are 
represented as actually seen by Arda Viraf, or as merely described by Srosh, .bu.t 
the iormer seems the more likely. 

Artia-Vtraf XVII. 12-22. Ig7 

from the quarter of the demons i; a more stinking wind than which, 
lie had not perceived in the world. 12 And in that wind, he saw his 
own religion and deeds, as a profligate woman -. naked, decayed, gap- 
ing 3, bandy-legged, lean-hipped, and unlimitedly spotted ■* , so that spot 
was joined to spot, like the most hideous ^ noxious creature (Ichi'afstar), 
most filthy and most stinking. 

I.) Then that wicked soul spoke thus: ' Who art thou? than whom 

, 'I never saw anyone of the creatures of Aiiharmazd and Akharman 
'uglier, or filthier, or more stinking?' 

J 14 To him she spoke thus: '1 am thy bad actions, youth of 

'evil thoughts, of evil words, of evil deeds, of evil religion. 15 It is on 
'account of thy will and actions, that I am hideous and vile, iniquitous 
'and diseased, rotten and foul-smelling, unfortunate and distressed, as 
'appears to thee. IG When thou sawest anyone who performed the 
'Yazishn and Dron ceremonies, and praise and prayer and the service 
'of God; 17 and preserved and protected water and fire, cattle and 
'trees, and other good creations ; IS thou practisedst the will of Akhar- 
'man and the demons, and improper actions. Ill And when thou sawest 
'one who provided hospitable reception, and gave something deservedly 
'in gifts and charity, for the advantage of the good and worthy who 
'came from far, and who were from near; 20 thou wast avaricious, and 
'shuttedst up thy door. 21 And though I have been unholy, (that is, 
'I have been considered badj, 1 am made more unholy through thee; 
'22 and though I have been frightful, I am made more frightful through 


' The north is supjiosed to be the special residence of Akharman and the 
demons, see Vend. XIX. 1.; and hell is also referred to tlie same region in Jlkh. 
XLIX. 15-17. 

■^ This description, which is no longer extant in tlie Hadokht Xask, closely 
resembles that of the clnikhsh yd nasush in Vend. VII. 2. VIII. 71. IX. 26. 

3 The reading of this epithet is doubtful, and consequently, its meaning is 

* Or perhaps: 'sealed'. 

'•> Literally: 'sin-accustomed', 'sinful' or 'criminal'. 

168 Arda-vii-af xvii. 23.-XVI11. 11. 

'thee; 23 though I have been tremulous, I am made more tremulous 
'through thee; 24 though I am settled in the northern region of the 
^demons, I am settled further north through thee; 25 through these 
'evil thoughts, and through these evil words, and through these evil 
'deeds, wliich thou practisedst. 26 They curse me, a long time, in the 
'long execration and evil communion of the Evil spirit' ', 

27 Afterwards, that soul of the wicked advanced the first footstep 
on Dush-hftmat {the place of evil thoughts) 2, and the second footstep 
on Dush-hukht {the place of evil words) ^, and the third on Dush- 
huvarsht {the place of evil deeds) ^; and ivith the fourth footstep, he 
ran to hell. 

Chapter XVIII. 

1 Afterwards, Srosh the pious and Ataro the angel took hold of 
my hand, 2 so that I went on unhurt. 3 In that manner, I beheld 
cold and heat, drought and stench, 4 to such a degree as I never saw, 
nor heard of, in the world. 5 And when I went further, 6 I also saw 
the greedy jaws of hell, like the most frightful pit, descending in a 
very narrow and fearful place; 7 in darkness so gloomy, that it is ne- 
cessary to hold by the hand; 8 and in such stench that everyone whose 
nose inhales that air ^, will struggle and stagger and fall ; and on 
account of such close confinement, no one's existence ^ is possible; 
10 and everyone thinks thus: 'I am alone'; 11 and when three days 
and nights have elapsed ^ he says thus: 'The nine thousand years' are 

' Compaie IV. 34-35. 

'■* Compare VII. 1.; or perhaps: 'with evil thoughts'. 
^ Compare VIII. 1.; or perhaps: 'with evil words'. 
* Compare IX. 1.; or perhaps: 'with evil deeds'. 

■* Literally: 'everyone into whose nose that air ascends'; compare Mkh. VII. 
30 — 31. 

•"' More correctly: 'stay', 'endurance', or 'continuance'. 

^ At the end of which, the opposition of Akharman is to cease, and the resur- 
rection to take place. 

Arda-Vimf XVIII. 12. -XX. 5. 169 

'completed, and they will not release me!' 12 Everywhere, even the 
lesser noxious creatures (klirafstars^ are as high as mountains i, 13 
and they so tear and seize and worry the souls of the wicked, as would 
he unworthy of a dog 2. 14 And I easily passed in there, with Srush 
the pious, tlie well-grown and triumphant, and Atar«*) the angel. 

Chapter XIX. 

1 I came to a place, and I saw the soul of a man, 2 through the 
fundament of wliicli soul, as it were a snake, like a beam, went in, 
and came fovtli out of tlie mouth ; 3 and many other snakes over seized 
all the limbs. 

4 And I inquired of Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, ') thus : 
'What sin was committed by this body^, whose soul suffers so severe 
'a punishment ? ' 

(> Srosli the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 1: thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man wiio, in the world, committed sodomy, 8 and 
'allowed a man to come on bis body; 9 now the soul suffers so severe 
'a punishment'. 

Chapter XX. 

1 1 came to a place, and I saw the soul of a woman, 2 to whom 
they ever gave to eat cup after cup of the impurity and filth of men. 

3 Am^ I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers such a punishment?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This is the 

' Literally: 'stand up mountain high'. 

- Or 'as a dog a bone', according to Mkh. VII. 29. 

^ Or 'by the body of this one', which vrould represent the Pahlavi of this 
frequent phrase equally well, and be more correct in language; but being clumsy, 
and the souls being described as possessing bodies of their own, it is not adopted 
in the li'anslation, 


170 • Arda-VIraf XXI. l._ XXII. t. 

'soul of that wicked woman who, having not abstained, nor lawfully 
'withheld herself, approached water and fire during her menstruation'. 

Chapter XXI. 

1 I also saw the soul of a man , 2 the skin of whose head they 
ever widen out ', and with a cruel death they ever kill him. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers such a punishment?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, slew a picfus man'. 

Chapter XXII. 

1 1 also saw the soul of a man, 2 into whose jaws they ever pour 
the impurity and menstrual discharge of women, 3 and he ever cooked 
and ate his own seemly child. 

4 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers such a punishment?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 6 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, had intercourse with a 
'menstruous woman; 7 and every single time, it is a sin of iifteen and 
'a half Tanapuhars' 2. 

* That is, they ever flay his head, 

* According to the Pahlavi Rivayat, the penalty for a tandpiihar is 300 stirs 
bf 4 dirams each, in weight. The value of the diram is uncertain; but according 
to a passage in the Persian MS. H5, on the five kinds of marriage, the proper dowry 
for a first-class wife is '2000 dirams of silver, that is, 2300 rtipts, and 2 dirams 
of gold, that is, 21/4 tolas'; the rupi is now a tola weight of silver, but when this 
MS. was written, 150 years ago, neither denomination was very definite; however, 
this passage fixes the penalty for a tandpuhar between 1350 and 1380 rup'is ; and 
consequently, the sin described in the text, would cost about 2000 pounds sterling, 
if the penalty were exacted only in silver. 

ArM-Vtraf XXIII. l.-XXV. 3, 171 

Chapter XXIII. 

i I also saw tlie soul of a man 2 who , because of hunger and 
thirst, ever cried thus: 'I shall die'. 3 And he ever tore out his hair 
and beard, and devoured blood, and cast foam about with his mouth. 

4 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers such a punishment?' 

5 Srosli the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 6 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, devoured talkatively i, and 
'consumed unlawfully, the water and vegetables of Horvadad and 
'Amerodad, and muttered no grace; 7 and through sinfulness, he cele- 
'brated no Yesht ; 8 such was his contempt of the water of Horvadad, 
'and the vegetation of Amerodad. 9 Now this soul must suffer so se^ 
'vere a punishment'. 

Chapter XXIV. 

1 I also saw the soul of a woman 2 who was suspended, by the 
breasts, to hell; 3 and its noxious creatures {khrafstai's) seized her 
whole body. 

4 And 1 asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers such a punishment?' 

5 Srosli the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 6 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked woman who, in the world, left her own husband, 
'7 and gave herself to other men, and committed adultery '. 

Chapter XXV. 

1 I also saw the souls of several men, and several women, 2 
whose legs and necks and middle parts a noxious creature (khrafstar) 
ever gnawed, and separated one from the other. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by these bodies, 
'whose souls suffer such a punishment?' 

• The Parsis are uot permitted to talk when eating. 

172 Arda-Viraf XXV. 4. -XXVII. 2. 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those wicked ones who, in the world, walked without 
'shoes 1, 6 ran about uncovered-, made water on foot^^ and performed 
^other demon-service'. 

Chapter XXVI. 

I I also saw the soul of a woman 2 who ever stretched out her 
tongue on her neck, and she was suspended from the atmosphere. 

3 And I asked thus: 'Whose soul is this?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said ij thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked woman who, in the world, scorned her husband and 
'master, and cursed, abused and defied him' ^. 

Chapter XXVII, 

1 I also saw the soul of a man 2 whom they ever forced to 
measure dust and ashes, with a bushel and gallon &, and they ever 
ffave it him to eat. 

' Literally: 'performed walking with one shoe'; in all places where this sin 
is mentioned, its name refers to only one shoe; but the Pahlavi characters for 
hhadt'i-imik, 'one-shoe' could have been easily corrupted from those for avi-niiVc^ 
'without shoes' ; and it seems more probable that 'walking without shoes' should be 
prohibited, than the inconvenient practice of 'walking with one shoe'. [Dest.] 

2 That is, without sadrah and Jciistt, shirt and sacred thread. [Dest.] 

' That is, whilst standing, whereby more than a frahda measure of the 
ground is polluted. [Dest.] See Vend. XVIII. 40; frahda is the fore-part of the 
foot, ^aws. prapada ; perhaps the instep. See Haug, Das 18te Kapitel des Wen- 
didad, pag. 12. Aus den Sitzungsberichten der Kgl. baierischen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften von 1869. 

■• Literally: 'offered abuse and made justificatory replies'. 

^ Or 'bucket', 'goblet', or perhaps 'scale-pan'; if diilak be a measure, its 
amount can only be guessed; but the kafiz is defined as 'a measure containing 64 
pounds weight', which corresponds very closely with a bushel. The present tense is 
used in the Pahlavi of this sentence and some others, as it might be in English. 

Arda-Yiraf XXVII. 3. - XXIX. 3. 173 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suflFers sucli a punishment?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, kept no true bushel, nor 
'gallon, nor weight, nor measure of length; U he mixed water with 
'wine, and put dust into grain, and sold them to the people at a high 
'price; 7 and stole and extorted something from the good'. 

Chapter XXVIII. 

i I also saw the soul of a man who was held in the atmosphere i, 
3 and fifty demons ever flogged him, before and behind, with darting - 

And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers such a punishment?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the aflgel, said 5 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, was a bad ruler », 6 and 
'was unmerciful and destructive ^ among men , and caused torment and 
•punishment of various ^ kinds'. 

Chapter XXIX. 

1 1 also saw the soul of a man 2 whose tongue hung on the out- 
side of his jaw, and was ever gnawed by noxious creatures {hhrafstars). 

o And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers such a punishment?' 

' Literally: -whom the atmosphere held'. 

- Compare Vend. XVIII. 65.; Z. Mshvahvo, Tir Yasht 6 and 37.; Pers. i.,*^, 
Sans. ksJiap., Tiship ; all these imply motion, otherwise 'stinging, sharp' would suit 
the context both here and in the other passages, L. 3 and LII. 2, where shapdlc 
occurs. See Haug. Das 18te Kapitel des Wendidad, pag, 48. 

^ Literally: 'performed misgovernment'. 

^ Or 'a destroyer'. 

5 Literally: 'such'. 

174 Arda-Viraf XXIX. 4.- XXXI. 7. 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that man who, in the world, committed slander, and embroiled 
'people one with the other; 6 and his soul, in the end, fled to hell'. 

Chapter XXX. 

1 I also saw the soul of a man 3 whose limbs they ever break 
and separate, one from the other. 

And 1 asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who made unlawfully much slaughter of cattle 
'and sheep and other quadrupeds' K 

Chapter XXXI. 

1 I also saw the soul of H man 2 who, from bead to foot, remained 
stretched 2 upon a rack ; 3 and a thousand demons trampled upon him, 
and ever smote him with great brutality and violence. 

4 xVnd I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body?' 
T) Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said G thus: 'This is the 

'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, collected much wealth; 

'7 and he consumed it not himself, and neither gave it, nor allowed a 

'share, to the good; but kept it in store' ■^. 

1 Tliough the Parsis, nowadays, do not use beef, owing probably to an un- 
derstanding with the Hindu governments of former times, its 'lawful' use is evidently 
contemplated in this chapter, and put upon the same footing as that of mutton. It 
is only the immoderate, or unnecessary, slaughter of domestic animals, which is 
here reprobated as a sin. [Dest.] 

■^ Literally : 'placed'. 

' The moral seems to be that the proper use of wealth is first, for our own 
reasonable gratification, and next, in works of charity. The Parsis are enjoined by 
their religion to be liberal towards the good and worthy and helpless. fDcst,] 

Arda-VirSf XXXII. 1. — XXXIII. 5. 175 

Chapter XXXII. 

1 I also saw the soul of a lazy man, whom they called Davanus \ 
2 whose whole body a noxious creature (Jchrafstar) ever gnawed, and 
his right foot was not gnawed. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said ') thus : ' This is the 
'soul of the lazy Davanos who, when he was in the world, never did 
'any good work; 6 but with this right foot, a bundle of grass was cast 
'before a ploughing ox'. 

Chapter XXXIII. 

i I also saw the soul of a mnn 'J whose tongue a worm ever 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body?' 
■i Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This is the 

' Destur Hoshangji suggests that this may be the name of some Greek, noted 
for his laziness, or neglect of dut}- ; and no doubt, such a name as Aavnog might 
be proposed; but it should be recollected that the name is vei^ indeterminate, as 
the Pahlavi characters with which it is written, admit of 648 different readings, 
theoretically: moreover, neglect of good works is a sin more likely to be attributed 
to a co-religionist than to an infidel. 

This tale of Davanos, or Danavos, may be traced to the thirteenth, or Spend. 
Xask, as appears from the following passage from the Pahlavi Rivayat: cMgun ytn 
Spend, madam gahrd-I, val Zaratuhasht namud, a'lgh hamuli handm ytn andkih 
yehevfmd, va ragehnan ae hiruno yehevund. Zaratuhasht, madam zak lahd. 
min Auharmazd purstd. Auharmazd guft atgh: Zah gahrd ae, Davdnas shem, 
madam XXXIII maid pddahhshah yehevimd ; afash aJcaraz htch Tcirfak Id var- 
zid, bard hangdm-I, amafash pavan zak ragelman-I, vavdstar (?) frdz gospend 
yedrund. 'As in the Spend nask, it was shown to Zaratftsht, regarding a cer- 
tain man, that all his limbs were in torment, and one foot was exempt. Zaratusht 
asked Auharmazd the reason of it. Auharmazd said thus: That man, named Da- 
vanas, was ruler over thirty- three countries; and he never practised any good work, 
but once, when he conveyed fodder (?) to a sheep with that foot. 

176 Arda-Vtr&f XXXIII, 6. -XXXVI. 3. 

'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, spoke many lies and i'alse- 
'hoods; 6 and, thereby, much harm and injury were diffused among 
^all creatures'. 

Chapter XXXIV. 

1 I also saw the soul of a woman 2 whose whole body the noxi- 
ous creatures (khrafstars) ever gnawed. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked woman who, in the world, dressed her hair-curls 
'and hair i over the fire; fi and threw hairs from the head and scurf - 
'and hair of the body upon the fire ; 7 and introduced fire under the 
'body 3, and held herself on the firo'. 

Chapter XXXV. 

1 I also saw the soul of a woman 2 who ever chewed with her 
teeth, and ever ate, her own dead refuse. 

8 And I asked thus: 'Whose soul is this?' 

\ Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked woman, by whom, in the world, sorcery was 

Chapter XXXVI. 

1 I also saw the soul of a man 2 who stood up, in hell, in the 
form * of a serpent like a column; 3 and his head was like unto a hu- 
man head, and the remaining body, unto a serpent. 

1 Tlie reading of the Pahlavi text is rather uncertain. 

* Or 'vermin'. 

3 J^fowadays the Parsis do not consider it wrong to heat, or foment, the body 
and limbs over the fire. [Dest.J This passage may, however, refer to scorching 
hairs otl" the body, or even to burning the body itself. 

* Or 'manner'. 

Arda-VIraf XXXVl. 4. -XXXVIII. 7. 177 

4 Aud I asked" thus: 'What sin was committed by this body?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 6 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, committed apostacy; 7 and 
'he fled into hell, in the form of a serpent'. 

Chapter XXXVII. 

1 I also saw the souls of several men and several women 2 who 
were suspended, head downwards, in hell; 3 and snakes and scorpions 
and other noxious creatures (kJirafstars) ever gnawed all their bodies. 
4 And I asked thus: 'Of which people are these souls?' 
T) Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said tl thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those people, by whom, in the world, water and fire were 
•not cared for, 7 and corruption was brought to water and fire, and 
'fire was extinguished intentionally' i. 

Chapter XXX VHI. 

1 I also saw the soul of a man 2 whom they ever gave to eat, 
the flesh and dead refuse of mankind, with blood and filth, and other 
corruption and stench. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said o thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, brought bodily refuse and 
'dead matter to water and fire and his own body and those also of 
^other men; 6 and he was always carrying the dead alone 2, and was 
'polluted; 7 he also did not wash himself in this occupation'. 

1 Or perhaps, 'by looking' at it, with the evil eye. 

* The term Jchacluk-bar is also technically extended to all who neglect sag- 
did, or paivand, or any other observance, or abstinence, appointed with regard to 
the dead. It is the irisfo-kasha of Vend. III. 15, or one who carries the dead in 
an unlawful manner; which must be carefully distinguished from the nasu-kasha of 
Vend. VIII. 11—13, Pahl. jiasd-sdldr., who carries the dead with all the prescribed 
observances and precautions. [Dest.] 


178 Arda-Viraf XXXIX. l.-XLT. 8. 

Chapter XXXIX. 

1 I also saw the soul of a man 2 who ever ate the skin and 
flesh of men. 

3 And I asked thus: 'Whose soul is this?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This is 
'the soul of that wicked man who, in the world, kept back the wages 
'of laborers, and the shares of partners ; 6 and now the soul must suffer 
'severe punishment'. 

Chapter XL. 

1 I also saw the soul of a man 2 who ever carried a mountain 
on his back; 3 and in snow and cold, he had that mountain upon his back. 

4 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 6 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man, by whom, in the world, falsehood and ir- 
'reverence and depreciating words were much spoken about people; 
'7 and now his soul ever suffers the punishment of such severe frost'. 

Chapter XLI. 

1 I also saw the soul of a man 2 whom they gave excrement and 
dead refuse [and corruption to eat ; 3 and the demons ever beat him 
with stones and axes. 

4 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers so severe a punishment?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 6 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who was at the warm baths which many 
'have frequented, 7 and he carried their bodily refuse and dead matter 
'to water and fire and earth; 8 and the pious went in, and came out 
'wicked' i. 

1 That is, 'contaminated' by the impurity of the place. The darpand, 'wicked', 
is the infidel who does not keep the Zoroastrian law. 

Arda-VirafXLII. 1. — XLIV. 6. 179 

Chapter XLII. 

1 I also saw the souls of several people 3 whom they cause to 
weep; and they ever make piteous cries. 

3 And I asked thus: 'Which people are these?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those who had a father in their mother i ; 6 and when they 
'were born, the father did not acknowledge them; 7 and now they 
'ever make lamentation for a father'. 

Chapter XLIII. 

1 I also saw the soul of a man, 2 at whose feet several children 
fell, and ever screamed; o and demons, just like dogs, ever fell upon 
and tore him. 

4 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers so severe a punishment?'^ 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said H thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, did not acknowledge his 
'own children'. 

Chapter XLIV. 

1 I also saw the soul of a woman 2 who ever dug into a hill 
with her own breasts; 3 and ever held, on her head, a mill-stone like 
a cap. 

4 And I asked thus: 'AVhat sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers so severe a punishment?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 6 thus: 'This is the 

1 This sentence and the next can be translated in various ways, but all seem 
to imply that this chapter treats of illegitimate children, though it in not very clear 
why their misfortune should doom them to hell, unless we read : 'the father was not 
acknowledged by them', in the next sentence. 

180 Arda-Viraf XLV. 1. — XL VII. 5. 

'soul of that wicked woman who, in the world, destroyed her own in- 
'fant, and threw away the corpse'. . 

Chapter XLV. 

1 I also saw the soul of a man, 2 all whose limbs were ever 
gnawed by a worm. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, committed perjury ; 6 and 
'he extorted wealth from the good, and gave it to the bad'. 

Chapter XLVI. 

1 I also saw the soul of a man 2 who holds human skulls in his 
hands, and ever eats the brains i. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus : ' This is the 
'soul of that wicked man whose wealth, in the world, was not acquired 
'by honesty, but was stolen from the property of others; 6 and it 
'was left by him among his own enemies, 7 and only he himself must 

"be in hell'. 

Chapter XLVIL 

1 I also saw many people 2 whoso heads and beards were shaved, 
and complexion yellow, and the whole body rotten, and noxious crea- 
tures {klirafslars) ever crept upon them, 

3 And I asked thus: 'Who and which are these?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those people who, in the world, have been apostates and 

' Compare Mkh. II. 48 — 49: 'since it is said, that: Whoever cats anything, 
not from his own regular industry, but from another, he is such-like as one who 
holds in hand men's heads and eats men's brains'. 

Arda-Vfraf XL VII. G.-L. 2. 181 

'deceivers; 6 and men were ever ruined by them, and led away from 
'the law of virtue to the law of evil; 7 and many religions and impro- 
'per creeds were made current in the world'. 

Chapter XL VIII. 

1 I also saw the soul of a man 2 whom demons, just like dogs, 
ever tear. 3 That man gives bread to the dogs, and they eat it not; 
4 but they ever devour the breast, legs, belly and thighs of the man. 

5 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers so severe a punishment?' 

ti Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 7 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, kept back the food of the 
'dogs of shepherds and householders; or beat and killed them'. 

Chapter XLIX. 

1 I also saw the souls of several men 2 who ever devoured the ex- 
crement and bodily refuse and dead matter and corruption of mankind ; 

3 and the demons dug up stones, and ever threw them from behind, 

4 till a mountain of them was carried on their backs, and they were 
not able to support it. 

5 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by these bodies, 
'whose souls suffer so severe a punishment?' 

6 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 7 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those wicked, by whom, in the world, land was measured ', 
'and measured false; 8 and many people were rendered unsettled 2 and 
'unproductive, so that they came to want and poverty; 9 and it was 
'ever necessary to contribute heavy taxes'. 

Chapter L. 

1 I also saw the soul of a man 2 who ever dug into a hill with 

Literally : 'weighed'. 
Or 'unsupported'. 

182 Arda-Viraf L. 3. — LIII. 1. 

his fingers and nails; 3 and demons ever beat and [frightened him, 
from behind, with darting i serpents. 

4 And I asked thus: 'AVhat sin was committed by this body?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 6 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, removed the boundary- 
'stones of others, and took them as his own'. 

Chapter LI. 

i I also saw the soul of a man 2 who was ever given to eat of 
the flesh which was ever dragged from his body with an iron comb. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers such a punishment?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, made false covenants 
'with men'. 

Chapter LII. 

1. I also saw the soul of a man, 2 to whom they ever applied 
pricking 2 spurs and arrows and stones and axes. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel , said 5 thus : ' This is 
'the soul of that wicked man who, in the world, committed many 
'breaches of promise, 6 and broke promises with the pious and with 
'the wicked ; 7 for both are promises , alike with the pious , and alike 
'with the wicked' 3. 

Chapter LIII. 

1 And afterwards, Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, took hold 

1 See XXVIII. 2. 

2 See the note to XXVIII. 2. 

3 See the Mihir Yasht, 2. It should be remembered that the 'wicked' include 
all members of other religious communities, as well as the sinful Mazdayasnians. 


Arda-Virftf LIII. 2. - LIV. 0. 183 

of my liand ; 2 and I was carried on to Chakat - i - Daitili , below the 
Chinvat bridge, into a desert; 3 and was shown hell in the earth of 
the middle of that desert, below the Chinvat bridge. 

4 The groaning and cries of Akharman and the demons and de- 
monesses and many other i souls of the wicked, came so, from that 
place, 5 that I was frightened, because I considered that they would 
shake the seven regions of the earth which heard that noise and 
groaning. 6 And I entreated Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, 
7 thus: 'Carry me not here, but turn back'. 

8 And then, Srosh the pious , and Ataro the angel, said to me 9 
thus: 'Fear not! since there is no danger whatever for thee from here'. 
10 And in front, went Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel; 11 and in the 
rear, fearlessly, I, Ardai Viraf, went on further into that gloomy hell 

Chapter LIV. 

1 And I saw the darkest hell, which is pernicious, dreadful, ter- 
rible, very painful, mischievous and foul-smelling. 2 And after further 
observation , it appeared to me 2 3 as a pit, to the bottom of which , a 
thousand cubits would not reach ; 4 and though all the wood which is 
in the world, were all put on to the fire in the most stinking and 
gloomy hell, it would never emit a smell; 5 and again also, as close ^ as 
the ear to the eye, and as many as the hairs on the mane of a horse, 
G so close and many in number, the souls of the wicked stand, 7 but 
they see not and hear no sound, one from the other; 8 everyone thinks 
thus*: 'I am alone'. 9 And for them are the gloom of darkness, and 
the stench and fearfulness of the torment and punishment of hell, of 

1 That is, besides those already described. 
- Literally : 'and after I have reflected, it seemed thus'. 

3 Such appears to be the meaning of the Pahlavi text, as it now stands, but 
it may perhaps be corrupt. 

* Literally: 'considers in this manner, that'. 

184 Arda-Vtraf LIV. 10. - LVI. -4. 

various kinds; 10 so that whoever is only a day in hell, cries out 11 
thus: 'Are not those nine thousand years yet completed, when they 
'should release us from this hell?' 

Chapter LV. 


1 Then I saw the souls of the wicked who died, and ever suffer 
torment and punishment, in that dreadful, dark place of punishment of 
various kinds, such as driving snow, and severe cold, and the heat of 
brisk-burning fire, and foul stench, and stone and ashes, hail and rain, 
and many other evils. 

2 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by the body of 
'these, whose soul suffers so severe a punishment?' 

3 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 4 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those wicked people, by whom, in the world, mortal sin 
'was much committed, 5 and the Bahram {most sacred) fire was extin- 
'guished, and a bridge of a rapid river was demolished; G and false- 
'hood and irreverence were spoken, and much false evidence was given. 
'7 And their desire was anarchy; and because of their ^ greediness and 
'avarice and lust and wrath and envy, the innocent, pious man was 
'slain; 8 and they have proceeded very deceitfully. 9 Now the soul 
'must suffer such severe torment and punishment". 

Chapter LVI. 

1 Then I saw the souls of those whom serpents stung and ever 

2 And I asked thus: 'Whose souls are those?' 

3 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel , said 4 thus : ' These are 

> It is uncertain how many of the nouns which follow, are connected with the 
postposition m?, 'because of; as some of the earlier ones may be intended to be 
coupled with the foregoing noun, 'anarchy'. 

Arda-Viraf LVII. l.-LIX. 2. l85 

'the souls of those wicked who , in the world , have been defrauders i 
'of their (iod and reliirion'. 

Chapter LVII. 

1 I also saw the souls of women whose heads were cut off' and 
separated from the body, and the tongue ever kept cryinf^. 

i And I asked thus: 'Whose souls are those 2 of these?' 

3 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 4 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those women who, in the world, made much lamentation 
'and weeping 3, and beat the head and face". 

Chapter LVIIL 

J Then I saw the soul of a man '2 whom the draggers drag to 
hell and ever beat. 

'■] And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body?" 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, often washed his head 
'and face, and dirty hands, and other pollution of his limbs, in large 
'standing waters and fountains and streams, 6 and distressed Horvadad *, 
'the archangeF. 

Chapter LIX. 

i I also saw the soul of a woman 2 who ever wept, and ever 
tore '■> and ate the skin and flesh from her own breasts. 

1 This appears to refer to the misappropriation of religious endowments; see Mkh. XXXVI. 13: 'who will devour a thing which is received in his custody, 
and becomes an embezzler". 

- Pointing them out of a number of others. 

3 That is, for the dead; outward tokens of mourning being justly considered 
as a selfish sin. 

^ The special protector of water. 

'' Literally: 'dug\ 


186 Arda-Viraf LIX. 3.-LXI. 7. 

And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers so severe a punishment?' 

4 Srosh tlie pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus : ' This is the 
'soul of that wicked woman who left her own infant crying on account 
'of want and hunger'. 

Chapter LX. 

1 I also saw the soul of a man 2 whose body remains set into a 
brazen caldron; and they ever cook it. 3 One foot, which is the right 
one, remained outside the caldron. 

4 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said G thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, among the living, lustfully i and im- 
'properly, went much out to married women; 7 and his whole body 
'became sinful. 8 But with that right foot, the frog and ant, snake 
'and scorpion, and other noxious creatures {khraf stars) were much 
'smitten and killed and destroyed'. 

Chapter LXl. 

1 I also saw the souls of those wicked 2 who swallowed and 
voided, and again swallowed and voided. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What souls arc those of these?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus : ' These are 
'the souls of those wicked who, in the world, believed not in the spiiit, 
'ti and they have been unthankful - in the religion of the creator Auhar- 
'mazd. 7 They have been doubtful of the happiness which is in heaven, 
'and the torment which is in hell, and about the reality of the resur- 
'rection of the dead and the future body'. 

1 Literally: 'with the lustfulnesa of the living'; but the construction is doubtful. 
- Meaning, probably, that they had not uttered the appointed thanksgivings 
and invocations. 

ArdA-Viraf LXII. 1. — LXTY. 5. 187 

Chapter LXII. 

1 r also saw the soul of a woman 'i who ever o;ashcd her own 
bosom and breasts with an iron comb. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was connnitted by this body, 
'whose soul suffers so severe a punishment?' 

4 Srosli the pious, and Ataro the angel, said ") thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked woman who , in the world , despised her husband 
'and master 1 , and became and remained vile; U being also herself 
'untrue to him, she acted improperly with other men'. 

Chapter LXTII. 

i 1 also saw the soul of a woman 2 who ever licked a hot oven 
with her tongue, 3 and ever burnt her own hand under the oven. 

4 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'v.hose soul suffers so severe a punishment?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 6 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked woman who, in the world, offered defiance 2 to her 
'own husband and master, and became abusive »; 7 she also acted 
'disobediently, and did not grant cohabitation at his desire; 8 and she 
'stole property from her husband, and secretly formed a hoard for 

Chapter LXIV. 

1 I al«o saw the soul of a woman 2 who ever came and went 
crying and wailing; 3 upon her head also, ever came pelting hail; 
4 and under foot, hot, molten brass ever streamed; 5 and she ever 
gashes her own head and face, with a knife. 

1 Or 'guardian'. 

- More literally: 'made justificatory replies'. 

* Literally : 'dog-tongued', somewhat analogous to 'snarling' and 'gnappish'. 

188 Arda-Viraf LXIV, 6.-LXVI. 6. 

6 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, when 
'the soul ever suffers so severe a punishment?' 

7 Srosb the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 8 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked woman who , undutifully , became pregnant from 
'other men, and she effected the destruction of the infant. LO Because 
'of the pain and punishment, she fancies that she hears the cry of that 
'infant, and she runs; 11 and such vehemence of running is occasioned, 
'as of one who walks upon hot brass; 12 and she ever hears the cry 
'of that infant, and gashes her own head and face with a knife, and 
'demands the child, 13 but she sees it not till the re- establishment of 
HJic world 1 ; this punishment she must suffer'. 

Chapter LXV. 

1 I also saw several souls 2 whose chests were plunged in mud 
and stench, 3 and a sharp sickle ever went among their legs and other 
limbs ; 4 and they ever called for a father and mother. 

5 And I asked thus: 'Who are these souls? G and what sin was 
'committed by them, whose souls suffer so severe a punishment?' 

7 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 8 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those wicked who, in the world, distressed their father 
'and mother; 9 and asked no absolution and forgiveness from their 
'father and mother, in the world'. 

Chapter LXVI. 

1 I also saw the souls of a man and a woman 2 whose tongues 
were put out, and ever gnawed by the jaws of serpents 2. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by the body of 
'these? 4 and who are those souls?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said G thus: 'These arc 


1 Compare cli, LXXXVII. 

- Or perhaps: 'the jaws were ever gnawed by serpents'. LXVII. l.-LXVIII. 8. 189 

'fhc souls of fhose who, in the world, ever committed slander i, and 
'embroiled people together'. 

Chapter LXVIL 

I I also saw the soul of a man 2 who was suspended by one leg 
in the darkness of hell 2 ; 3 and he had an iron sickle in his hand, and 
ever gashed his own chest and armpits ^^ 4 and an iron spike was 
driven into his eye. 

5 And 1 asked thus: 'Whose soul is this? and what sin was 
'committed by him?' 

Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 7 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man, to whom a city was confided for administra- 
'tion; 8 and that which was proper to do and order, was not done and 
'not ordered; 9 and deficient weights and measures of capacity and 
dength, were kept, 1<» and he listened to no complaints from the poor 
'and from travellers' *. 

Chapter LXVIII. 

1 I also saw the souls of a man and a woman 2 whom they ever 
drag, the man to heaven and the woman to hell. 3 And the woman's 
hand was caught in the knot and sacred thread of the man, 4 and she 
said thus: 'How is it when we had every benefit in union, among the 
'living, 5 now they are dragging thee to heaven, and me to hell?' 

6 And the man said thus: 'Because whatever things I received of 
'the good and w^orthy^ and the poor, I also gave them back'''; 7 and 
'I practised good thoughts and good words and good deeds; 8 I also 

1 Literally: 'acted slanderously'. 
- Or 'tlie bell of darkness', as the MSS. stand. 
3 Or 'loins'. 

■« Literally: 'caravan people'; generally travelling merchants, foreign traders 
and travellers; see also ch. LXVIII. and XCIII. 

'" One Paz. MS. adds 'and travellers', as in sentence 10. 

« The meaning of this sentence, in the original text, is not quite certain. 

190 Avda-Viraf LXVITI. 9. — LXIX. 4. 

'heeded God, and disregarded the demons; 9 and I have been stead- 
'fast in the good rehgion of the Mazdayasnians. 10 But thou despisedst 
'the good and poor and worthy and travellers; 11 thou also disregardedst 
'God, and thou worshipedst idols; I'i and practisedst evil thoughts and 
'evil words nnd evil deeds; 13 and thou hast been steadfast in the re- 
'ligion of Akharman and the demons'. 

14 Then the woman said to the man 15 thus: 'Among the living, 
'thou thyself wast completely' lord and sovereign over me; 16 and my 
'body and life and soul were thine; 17 and the food and income- and 
'clothing which I had, were from tliec; IS tlicn wherefore didst thou 
'not chastise and punish me for it? 19 Thou hast not even taught me, 
'the reason of thy goodness and excellence, 20 whereby thou mightest 
'have caused goodness and excellence in me, '21 and so now it would 
'not be necessary to suffer this evil'. 

'22 And afterwards, the man went to heaven and the woman to 
hell. '23 And owing to the repentance of that woman, she was in no 
other affliction, in hell, but darkness and stench. '24 And that man 
sat in the midst of the pious of heaven, in shame from not converting 
and not teaching the woman, who might have become virtuous in his 
keeping ». 

Chapter LXIX. 

1 I also saw the souls of women, 2 into both whose eyes a 
wooden peg was driven, 3 tied by one leg, head downwards. 4 And 
many frogs, scorpions, snakes, ants, flies, worms and other noxious 
creatures {khraf stars) went and came inside their jaws, noses, ears, 
posteriors and sexual parts. 

' Literally: 'all thyself was'. 

2 The IIuz. ifdUnnishn may stand either for dmadishn, or for dvarishn., in 
Pazand; its meaning must, therefore, be the same as that of Pers. -jjcicf or 

* The construction of the original text is obscure. 

Ai(la-Viraf J.XIX. 5. — LXXl. 9. 191 

T) And 1 asked thus : ' Whose souls arc these ? (i and what sin was 
'committed by them, whose souls suffer so severe a punishment?' 

7 Srush tlie pious, and Ataro the angel, said 8 thus: 'These arc 
'the souls of those wicked women who had a husband in the world, 
'9 and slept and granted cohabitation with another man; iU and the lied 
'of the husband was kept defiled, and his body injured'. 

Chapter LXX. 

1 I also saw the souls of women whom they threw head down- 
wards ; 2 and someUiing like a hedgehog, which had iron spines grown 
from it, was introduced into the body and dropped back; P) and from 
it, a finger dropping the semen of the demons and demonesses, which 
is stench and corruption,, ever went into the inside of the jaws and nose. 

4 And I asked thus: "Who are those souls, who suffer such a 
'punishment ?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said b thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those wicked women who, in the world, broke promises 
'to their husbands, 7 and they have stayed away fronr the husband, 
'and been never contented, and granted no cohabitation'. 

Chapter LXXL 

1 I also saw the soul of a man 2 whom the fangs of serpents 
stung and ever gnawed ; 3 and in both eyes , snakes and worms ever 
voided; 4 and an iron spike was grown i ujiou the tongue. 

5 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers so severe a punishment?' 

G Srush the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 7 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man, by whom sodomy was much commiired; 
'8 and through a desire for improper lust, he debauched the wives of 
'others. 9 And his smooth speaking deceived and seduced the wives 
'of others, and separated them from their husbands'. 

Or perhaps: -scraped". 

192 Arda-Viraf LXXII. l.-LXXIV. 5. 

Chapter LXXII. 

1 I also sa-w the souls of women, by whom their own menstrual 
discharge was ever devoured. 

2 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by the body of 
'these, whose soul suffers so severe a punishment?' 

3 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 4 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those women who heeded not their menstruation, ."> and 
'injured water and fire and the earth of Spcndarmad and Horvadad and 
'Amerodad, and looked upon the sky and the sun and the moon, 7 and 
'injured cattle and sheep with their menstruation, 8 and kept the pious 
'inan polluted'. 

Chapter LXXIII. 

1 I also saw the souls of women 2 who ever slied and sucked 
and ate the blood and filth of their ten fingers; 3 and worms ever 
came into both eyes. 

4 And I asked thus: 'Who are these souls? o and what sin was 
'committed by them who suffer so severe a punishment?' 

6 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 7 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those wicked women who beautified their faces, and kept 
'the hair of others as ornament; 8 and they captivated the eyes of the 
'men of God ' '. 

Chapter LXXIV. 

1 I also saw the souls of those who remained tied, head down- 
wards, by one leg; 2 and a knife was driven into their hearts. 

3 And T asked thus: 'Who are these souls?' 

i Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those wicked, by whom, in the world, beasts, cattle and 
'sheep were unlawfully slaughtered and killed'. 

' Til is is an uncommon phrase, and the PaJ^and MS. 11^ has therefore i-cad 
it 'men of the worhl'. 

ArdA-Yiraf LXKV. 1.-I,XXV1I. 4. ]93 

( hapter LXXV. 

1 I also saw souls who were thrown under the feet of cattle, 
2 struck by the horns, and their bellies torn, and bones broken; and 
they were groanins;. 

3 And I asked thus: 'Who are these people?' 

4 Srosli the pious, and Atnro the angel, said o thus: 'These are 
'the souls of tliose wicked, by whom, in tlie AVorld, the mouths of 
'beasts and ploughing cattle were muzzled; U and water was not given 
'to them in the heat; and they were kept at work hungry and thirsty'. 

Chapter LXXVI. 

1 1 also saw the souls of women who ever lacerated their own 
breasts with their own hands and teeth; 2 and dogs ever tore and ate 
their bellies ; 3 and both feet stood on hot brass. 

4 And I asked thus : ' Whose souls are these ? and what sin wa 
'committed by them?' 

r> Srosli the pious, and Ataro the angel, said G thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those wicked women wiio , in the world, prepared food 
'during menstruation, 7 and brought it before a pious man, and bade 
'him eat. (^ They also ever resorted to sorcery; 9 and they injured 
'the earth of Spendarmad and tlie pious man'. 

Chapter LXXVII. 

I Then I saw souls whose backs, hands and legs had wounds, 
2 and they were suspended with tlie posteriors to the face*; 3 and 
heavy stones ever rained on their backs. 

4 And 1 asked tlius: ' Wlio are those? and what sin was com* 
'mitted by them ? " 

' This sentence can also be read: 'Ijead downwards in molted brass'; but the 
form avitakht, for 'melted', is unusual, 


]94 LXXVIl. 5. — LXXIX. 9. 

5 Srusli the pious, iuul Ataro the angel, said 6 thus: 'Tliese are 
'the souls of those wicked who had beasts iu the world, 7 and ap- 
'pointed them hard work, and made the burden unlawfully heavy, 8 and 
'gave no sufficiency of food, so they suffered through leanness; 9 and 
Huhen sores ensued, they were not kept back from work, and no re- 
'medy was provided. 10 Now they [the souls) must suffer such severe 
'punishmeni '. 

Cliaptei- LXXVIII. 

1 Then 1 saw the soul of a woman 2 who ever dug an iron hill 
with her breasts ; 3 and an infant cried from that side of the hill, and 
the cry ever continued; 4 but the infant comes not to the mother, nor 
the mother to the infant. 

5 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers so severe a punishment?' 

6 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 7 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked woman who, in the world, became pregnant, not 
'from her own husband, but from another person; 8 and she said thus: 
"I have not been pregnant". 9 She also destroyed the infant'. 

Chapter LXXIX. 

1 Then I saw the soul of a man, 2 both whose eyes were scooped 
out, and his tongue cut away; o and he remained suspended, in hell, 
by one leg; 4 his body also was ever raked with the two brazen 
prongs of a fork; 5 and an iron spike was driven into his head i. 

G And 1 asked tlius: 'What man is this? and what sin was com- 
'mitted by him?' 

7 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 8 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man whose justice, in the world, was false; 9 and 
'he took bribes, and made false decisions'. 

* Or 'liis heart', ns tlic I'nlilavi word cnn be reml eitlter sar, or iViL 

AnlA-Vhaf LXXX. I.-LXXXII. 1. {% 

Cliapter LXXX. 

1 Then 1 saw the souls of several who remained suspended, head 
downwards, in hell; 2 and they force the blood, filth and brains of 
men into their mouths, and convey excrement into their noses '; 3 and 
they 2 ever cry thus: 'We keep just measures'. 

4 And 1 asked thus: 'Who are these bodies? and what sin was 
'committed by them?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro tlie angel, said G thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those wicked, by whom, in the world, weights and bushels 
'and other small measures were kept short, 7 and things were sold 
'to men'. 

Chapter LXXXF. 

1 Then I saw the soul of a woman whose tongue was cut away, 
and eyes scooped out; 2 and snakes, scorpions-, worms and other 
noxious creatures {khraf stars) ever devoured the brain of her head; 
3 and from time to time, she seized her own body with the teeth, and 
ever gnawed the flesh. 

4 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 6 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked woman who was, in her lifetime, an adulteress. 
'7 She also practised much sorcery; and much mischief emanated 
'from her\ 

Chapter LXXXII. 

1 Then I saw the soul of a certain woman whose tongue was 
plucked out '^. 

1 Or perhaps: 'convey them into their not-es". 

- Perhaps meaning the tormentors, and not the souls; as also in the pre- 
ceding sentence. 

* The text is doubtful; it may mean: 'whose tongues were many', but that 
would not be a very intelligible punishment, although a good illustration of this 
woman's i'luilr. 

196 Arda Yfmf LXXXII. 2.-LXXXV. 3. 

2 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this woman?' 

3 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 4 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked woman whose tongue, in the world,, was sliarp ; 
'5 and her husband and master was much troubled by her tongue'. 

Chapter LXXXIII. 

1 Then 1 saw the soul of a woman who ever ate her own dead 

2 And 1 asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this woman':" 

3 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 4 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked woman who, in the world, ate much meat con- 
'cealed from her husband, 5 and gave it to another person ' i. 

Chapter LXXXIV. 

1 Then I saw the soul of a woman 2 whose breasts they cut off; 
and her belly was torn, and the entrails given to the dogs. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this Avoman?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This is th(i 
'soul of that wicked woman, by whom, in the world, ])()ison and oil - 
'of opium were made and kept^, G and given by her to people to eat'. 

Chapter LXXXV. 

1 Then I saw the soul of a woman, 2 on whose body they 
construct an iron coating, 3 and they turn back the mouth, and put it 
back to a hot oven ^. 

> This is ultored in soiiio Pazaiid MSH., as follows: 'wlio, among tlif livings, 
stole the property of others, and gave the food, which- her husband bought, to 
another person'. 

- Perha])s: ii(iuor', or 'infusion', 

•' (Jr 'were kept prepared'. 

' This obscure description may refer to some old Persian torture which is, 
luclvilv, now uulviMiwn. 

AriU-Viriif LXXXV. 4. — LXXXVIII. 2. 197 

4 And I asked thus: 'What sin was connnitted by this woman?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said thus: 'This is the 
*soul of that wicked woman who was , among the living, the wife of a 
'well-disposed, intelligent man; T and she broke her faith to her hus- 
'band, and slept with a sinful and ill-disposed ma^j'. 

Chapter LXXXVI. 

i Then I saw the soul of a woman, 2 through whose body a 
grievous ^ snake ascended, and came forth by the i;nouth. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'where the soul suffers so severe a punishment ? ' 

4 8i-6sh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus:^ ['This is 
'the soul of that wicked woman who violated a next-of-kin marriage'. 

Chapter LXXXVII. 

I Then I saw the soul of a woman i who ever scraped her own 
body and face with an iron comb, 3 and ever dug an iron hill with 
her breasts. 

4 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this woman?' 
3 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 6 thus:] 'This is 
'the soul of that wicked woman who, in the world, committed a crime, 
'7 and through a desire for wealth, gave no milk to her own infant. 
8 And now she ever makes an outcry thus: "Here let me dig into 
"this liill, that 1 may give milk to that infant". 9 Yet until the 
'reestablishment of the world., she does not reach the infant'. 

Chapter LXXXVIII. , 

i Then I saw the soul of a man 2 who remained suspended, 

1 Or perhaps: 'prickly'. 

- In all the MSS., except Hjs, the passage in brackets is omitted, and the 
former part of this chapter is united with the latter part of the next, although the 
' connection of the narrative is not vcrv obvious. 

198 Arda-Viraf LXXXVllI, 3. — XC. 1. 

head downwards, from a gibbet, and ever had sexual intercourse; 
3 and they dropped semen into his mouth and ears and nose. 

4 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers so severe a punishment?' 

5 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 6 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, committed improper sexual 
'intercourse; 7 and deceived and seduced the wives of others'. 

Chapter LXXXIX. 

1 Then I saw the souls of those who , on account of weakness, 
were dashed about from side to side in hell; 2 and they ever kept 
crying on account of thirst and hunger, cold and heat; 3 and noxious 
creatures {khrafstars) ever bit out of the back of their legs and 
other limbs. 

4 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by those of these 
'souls, who suffer so severe a punishment ? ' 

5 Srosli the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 6 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those wicked whose food and clothing, in the world, were 
'consumed by themselves, 7 and not given by them to the good and 
'worthy; and they exercised no liberality whatever; 8 and they kept 
'themselves, and the people who had come and remained under their 
'control, hungry and thirsty and without clothing; so they suffered 
'cold and heat, hunger and thirst. 10 Now they are dead, and their 
'wealth has remained for others; 11 now the souls suffer so severe a 
'punishment from their own actions'' i. 

Cluipter XC. 

1 Then I saw the souls of those whom serpents sting and ever 
devour their tongues. 

1 The singular number is used, in the original, throughout these last two 
sentences, which may be more literally rendered as follows: 'Now it has passed 
away, and the wealth has remained for another person, now the soul sufifers so 
severe a puiiisliment IVom its own actions". 

Ar(la-Viraf XC. 2. - XCIH. 2. 199 

2 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed hy those, whose 
'soul suffers so severe a punishment?' 

;> Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 4 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those liars and irreverent * speakers who , in the world, 
'spok(i much falseliood and lies and protaniry'^. 

Chapter XCI. 

2 Then I saw the soul of a man who slew his own child and 
ever ate the ))rains. 

~ And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this body, 
'whose soul suffers so severe a punishment?' 

• 3 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 4 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that sentencing judge who made unjust decisions between ap- 
'plicants for justice; o and plaintiffs and defendants were not looked 
'upon, by him, favorably and justly; G but through a desire of wealth 
'and covetousness, he shouted at suitors with anger and severity'. 

Chapter XCH. 

1 Then I saw the souls of those, into whose eye a wooden peg 
was driven. 

2 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by the body of 
'these, whose soul suffers so severe a punishment?' 

3 Srosh the pious , and Ataro the angel , said 4 thus : ' These are 
*the souls of those malicious ones who kept back benefits from mankind'. 

Chapter XCIII. 

1 I also saw the souls of those who were fallen, headlong, into 
hell; 2 and smoke and heat were driven upon them from below, and 
a cold wind from above. 

> Or 'untruthful', if ardst be read instead of ancisf. 
^ Or perhaps: 'untruth'. 

200 Arda-Vtraf XCIII. :^. — XCVI. 2. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by these bodies, 
'whose souls suffer so severe a punishment y ' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those who, in the world, gave no place, nor caravanserai 
'for travellers, nor lodging, nor space, nor baking oven; <'• or who 
'gave them, and took hire for them'. 

Chapter XCIV. 

1 Then I saw the souls of those whose own breasts were placed 
upon a hot frying-pan, by their own hands, 2 and were ever turned 
from side to side. 

3 And 1 asked thus: 'What sin was committed by these wom§n, 
'whose souls suffer so severe a punishment?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those women who gave their own infants no milk, but 
'emaciated and destroyed them; 6 and for worldly gain, gave milk to 
'tlio infants of others'. 

Chapter XCV. 

1 Then I saw the soul of a woman who ever dug a hill witli 
her breasts, 2 and was ever thirsty and hungry. 

3 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this woman?' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said Ti thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked woman who gave her infant no milk, G but left 
'it hungry and thirsty ; 7 and herself went with a strange man through 
'a liking for avarice, and a lust for illicit intercourse', 

Chapter XCVI. 

1 Then I saw the soul of a man whose tongue was cut out; 
2 and they ever drag him by the hair, and scatter about the dead re- 
fuse 1, and measure it with a bushel. 

Probably the hair pulled out by the roots. 

Arda-VIraf XCVI. 3.-XCIX. 1. 201 

:> And I .asked thus: 'What sin was committed by this man, 
'whose soul suffers so severe a punishment?'' 

4 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 5 thus: 'This is the 
'soul of that wicked man who, in the world, took seed, (> and said 
'thus: 'I will sow it'; and he sowed it not, 7 but ate it; and the earth 
'of Spendarmad was defrauded'. 

Chapter XCVII. 

1 Then I saw the souls of a man and a woman whose tongues 
were cut out. 

2 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by these bodies, 
'whose souls suffer so severe a punishment?' 

3 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 4 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of that wicked man and woman who, among the living, spoke 
'much falsehood and profanity i, 5 and deceived their own souls'. 

Chapter XCVIII. 

1 Then I saw the souls of a woman and a man who voided and 
ate up the excrement. 

2 And I asked thus: 'What sin was committed by these bodies, 
'whose souls suffer so severe a punishment?' 

3 Srosh tlie pious, and Ataro the angel, said 4 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of that wicked man and woman who, in the world, devoured 
'dead refuse through sinfulness ; 5 and killed the water-otter - in the 
'water, 6 and smote and slew other creatures of Auharmazd'. 

Chapter XCIX. 

1 And I saw as many more souls of wicked men and women; 

^ Or 'untruth', if arust be read. 

2 The udra iipcipa of Vend. XIII. IG, 51. XIV. 1. [Best.] In the latter far- 
gard, very severe penalties are attached to the crime of seriously injuring this animal. 

202 Arda-Viraf XCIX. 2. - CI. 3. 

2 and they ever suffer terrible, fearful, hurtful, harmful, painful, dark, 
hellish torment and punishment of various kinds. 

3 Then I saw souls whose tongues were scraped with a wooden 
peg; 4 and they ever went down, into hell, head foremost; 5 and the 
demons ever ploughed their whole bodies with an iron comb. 

G And I asked thus: 'Whose souls are these? 7 and what sin 
'was committed by them whose souls suffer so severe a punishment?"' 

8 Srosh the pious, and Ataro the angel, said 9 thus: 'These are 
'the souls of those wicked who have been disobedient unto their rulers 
'in the world, 10 and have been enemies of the armies and troops 
'of their rulers. 11 Now they must here suffer such severe pain and 
'torment and punishment'. 

Chapter C. 

i Then I saw the Evil-spirit, the deadly, the world -destroyer, 
whose religion is evil, 2 who ever ridiculed and mocked the wicked 
in hell, and said 3 thus: 'Why did you ever eat the bread of Auhar- 
'mazd, and do my work? 4 and thought not of your own creator, 
'but practised my will ? ' 5 So he ever shouted to tlie wicked very 
mockingly i. 

Chapter CI. 

i Afterwards, Srosh the pious and Ataro the angel took hold of 

my hand, 2 and brought me forth from that dark, terrible, fearful 

place, 3 and carried me to the eternal light, and the assembly of 
Auharmazd and the archangels. 

» The Pazand MS. His adds the following: 'This (corruption here), the re- 
quital of their own deeds, they receive disagreeably, until the resurrection of tlie 
dead. When he sent me to his hell of retribution, I went behind Ataro the angel, 
and I saw that which is called the darkest hell; and it seemed to me like a pit 
which was a hundred thousand lances (deep). The darkness also seemed to me 
such as if all the dry wood in the world, put upon the fire, would not give so 
much as a handful of light in that darkest hell'. 

AiHla-Yiraf CI. 4 — 21, 203 

4 When I wished to offer homage before Aiiharmazd. 5 And he 
was gracious and said thus:i 'A perfect servant art thou, pious Ardai 
'Viraf, the messenger of the Mazdayasnians; go to the material world, 
'ti and as thou hast seen and understood, speak truly to the worlds; 
'7 for I, who am Auharmazd, am with thee; 8 everyone who speaks 
'correct and true, I honor and know 2; 9 so say to the wise'. 

10 And when Auharmazd spoke iu this manner, I remained aston- 
ished , 1 1 for I saw a light , but I saw nobody ; I also heard a voice, 
12 and I understood that: 'This is Auharmazd'. 

13 And he, the creator Auharmazd, the most munificent of spirits, 
said 14 thus: 'Speak thou forth, Ardai Yiraf, to the Mazdayasnians 
'of the world, 15 thus: 'There is only one way of piety 3, the way of 
"the primitive religion, and the other ways are all no ways. 16 Take 
"ye that one way which is piety, and turn ye not from it in prosperity, 
"nor in adversity, nor in any way; 17 and practise good thoughts and 
"good words and good deeds; 18 and remain in that same religion 
"which, as received by him from me, Spitaman Zaratusht and Yishtasp 
"made current in the world; 19 and hold the proper law, but abstain 
"from the improper. 2U And be ye aware also of this, that cattle 
"are dust, and the horse is dust, and gold and silver are dust, and 
"the body of man is dust; 21 he alone mingles not with the dust, 

1 His substitutes the following, for the beginning of this chapter: 'Afterwards, 
conducted by Ataro the angel into eternal light, I was carried up to the presence 
of Auharmazd. I offered homage, and Auharmazd, the Deity, said'. 

- His continues as follows, to the end of sentence 13: 'I, Arda Yiraf, heard 
his words, and could see nobody, but saw a light. I fell on my knees, in prayer, 
and said thus: 'I am instructed by the Mazdayasnians thus: 'Go before Arda 
"Zaratusht, as we know not whether the good works, we do among the living, 
"exist, or not". Then the just Afiharmazd, the Deity, the most munificent of 
spirits, said'. 

3 This is a translation of the Z. aevo panto yb ashahe, vispe anyaesham 
apaniam; which is a phrase commonly used in the colophons of MSS., and is 
said to have been taken from the Hadokht naek. [Best.] 

204 ArdA-Viraf CI. 22-29. 

"who, in the world, praises piety i and performs duties and good works'. 
'22 Perfect art thou, Ardai Viraf! go and prosper; 23 since every 
'purity and purification which you perform and keep, 24 and everything 
'which you keep lawfully, 25 and the purification and ceremonial, when 
'you perform them, in like manner, mindful of God, 1 know them all'. 

26 And when I heard those words, I made a profound bow to 
the creator Auharmazd, 27 And then, Srosh the pious, conveyed me 
successfully and courageously to this carpeted place. 28 May the glory 
of the good religion of the Mazdayasnians be triumphant ! 

29 Completed in health and pleasure and joy. 

1 Or 'holiness'; that is, recites the ashem voJm formula; see Hadokht nask 
I. 3. Hi8 inserts here the following: '(or gives something to the pious and good). 
Then said Auharmazd, to Srosh the pious and Ataro the angel, thus: 'Show him 
the proceedings of the performers of good actions'. I took the hands of Srosh the 
pious and Ataro the angel, and they went forward to the end of the Chinvat bridge, 
there where Rashn the just, and Mitro the angel, and Ashtad the angel, the vic- 
torious lord of the universe, all sat ; much the most admirable of the creation, much 
more splendid than the sky; before them I was led. And they spoke thus: 'Say 
'what thou mayst have done there, unto men, cattle, sheep, earth, trees, fire and 
'water; and speak truly, for it will be necessary to pass on from here through 
"truth'. Then I became joyful, for the guardian angel of the pious gave evidence 
thus: 'He committed no sin'. Afterwards, Auharmazd the Deity, said' (as in sen- 
tences 22 — 25.) 

Appendix L 

The tale of 

Gr 6 s h t - i r r y a n 0, 

The P a h 1 a V i text 

with Transliteration and 
the various readings of five MSS. 

Edited by 

E. W. West, Ph. D.. 


This tale of G6sht-i Fryano is appended to the hook of Ardii Viraf , in the 
three MSS. He, K20 and Koe; and it appears, by the colophons, to have been so 
appended in the old MS. of Mihrpanah Sroshyar of Nishapur, whence it was copied 
in A. D. 1249. 

* The same remarks apply to this text as to the preceding ; but besides the 

MSS. He, K20 and K26, the following have been used: 

H7. — Dr. Haug's Parsi-Persian MS. No. 7, dated A.Y. 1178—1179. 

L15. — the London MS., India office library, Z. and P. XV.; undated, but 
written about 135 years ago. 

It will be observed that the name Gdsht is a corruption, or more probably, 
a mistaken pronunciation, of Yosht ; but as this blunder is found in the oldest 
existing MSS., it is retained in this transliteration of the text. 

Chapter I. 

) 4 ^,|^) -ujj yiQ)^ ^5e) ^J^(2) )>*ci^e) ■'M^oo tin ^^^^ 

Chapter I. 

1 Denman madikan-i G6sht-i Frydno fariikhu yehevunad, pavaii 
Yadadan aiyydrih. 

2 Aetun yemalelund aigli: yin zak and amat Akht-i yatuk, levat- 
nian YII bevar sipah, val shatro-i Fraslino-vajarano Yazlimd, o afasli 
draid aigh: Shatro-i Frashno-vajarau pil khiist bara vadiinam. 4 Va 

1,3— 4. Z. Yoishtd yd Fryanamm, Yasht V.81, XIII. 120; H, ,jLjvJ o^-ci^^; 
out of 53 occurrences of this name, Kvg omits J once, and L15 ten times; 
and He omits the final } four times, K20 fifteen, Koe five, and L15 ten times, 
1,9. K20 omits ,Jl%, 2,6. H7 <X^£ ; perhaps a miswriting of .^(^Wf oi' 
u/iM) , as it would be hazardous to connect it with Chald, XJ1J/, oi" ^^i^l' 

'Pers. 8j.i>. 'an attack'. 2, 8. Z. Akhtyo, Yasht V. 82 ; out of 28 occurrences 
of this name, K20 omits J six times, and L13 twice; H7 »4>Ls». Jc:^|, 3,8, 
Pers, s:>.A«5M2fc 'a beaten road'; H7 o*-*^*.^*, Pers. yix^^J, 

208 G6sht-i Fryanf) I. 5-10. 

-u)^ G ^^))£) J(jo» 1>*0^e) -<50» ^)))H3 -«^ ^)*0 _^_)*L3 

^)))Hi ^-^ ^^^^ '>^^^ ■'JI^OO ^-^ (O •!>-H3' ) ' 
))H^6 ->))W5 tit: ^dv ^)^oo -^^o* ^) -"ow* 8 -^ ^lea^K" 

))H^^6 ■>W5>» ^^ )-»))> ^^'J^c^ ))*o^e) JM^oo i^^* !j5 it^ y 

amat val tamman mad, afash maKlum bavihu/tast, mgh Yadaddn 
dad-parish min XY shanat la yelievuned; 5 afash frashno azasli 
pursid. G Kola mim la tiiban yehevund vajardano, afash fraz vakhdiuid 
va bara zektelund. 

7 Va akhar, yin zak shatro-i Frashnu-vajaran, gabra-I yehevund, 
Marspend shem; 8 afash val Akht-i yatiik giift aigh: Shatro-i Frashno- 
vajaran pil khust al vaduno, va deiiman mardum-i avi-vanas al zekte- 
lun; 7r¥im yin denman Shatro-i Frashno-vajaran, gabra-I ait, G6sht-i 
Fryano shem, mun dad-parish min XV shnnat loit; 10 va kola zak 
frashno-i lak min val pursih, afat bara vajared. 

I. 4,8. He, K26 feD))*Om» 4,9-10. H7 ^l^^f; ^^^ YW^ tiH* ^' "' 
uncertain; H7 yix. o(c>, Pers. y^^l but compare Pers. yi-j-j , u^-vi, 

U^-?.^^.-, J^^.^-, Lrr>.}^i.-> «»■ (>J;;"». 4,14. Koo ^^>*0. 5,2- Z. 
fraskna, Yasht V. 82 ; out of 40 occurrences of this word, He omits the final 
^ 9 times, Kjo 17, Kog 12, and L15 11 times; If? .yMMu^-i , 9, 1. so in all," 
and it may be so read as a continuation of the preceding sentence ; but it is 
more probably miswritten for C^M^^ or ^C >, and to be read iu connection 
with what follows. 10, 6. K^o om- 10, 7. for ^\ J I'^so oni. 

(*6sht-i Fryano I. 11 — 19. 209 

^n«oo ^^a ))*iy^ •»^ooi' ^) ^i^oo ^s^^iy ^-^ ^ n 

iT t 15 ^n^oo 5»w^ ■»^o» •»^ \ \Y^^ ->W5i* 1 ^4 
^oo-^ ^^ro)) j^o* i)*>fiiti^ •>-*»-»^i ^)^oo ■'^o^ »K)(^ ^-^ 
^n^oo ^^e) ^)^oo -'^o* -i*) -X5V i^^ « ^)P-^i -^ jjj 
«^ ) 1^^ soiyc-xj ^*W) ->^o» »>»0'^>*0>*» ->-*»^) -fiv tin ^^ 

11 Va akhar, Aklit-i yatAk val G6slit-i Fryano petkham shedimd^ 
12 aigh: Fraz val baba-i li yatun, vad XXX va III frashno min lak 
pursam; 13 va hat pasuklio la yehabimili, khadiif yemaleluned aigli: 
La khavitiinam, adtnal pavan ham zaman baia zektelimam. 

14 Va Go sht-i Fryano val baba-i Akht-i yatiik yatimd; 15 va min 
zak, chigun Akht-i yatuk nasai-i mardumano azir-i vastarg dasht, yin 
la vazlund. 16 Afash val Akht-i yatuk petkham shedimed 17 aigh: 
Lekum nasai-i anshutddno azir-i vastarg yakhsennned; 18 va amat li 
yin y(itunam, ameshospenddno levin-i li homand, yin zak jinak aigh 
nasai-i anshutddn yehevuned, li yin yatunam; 19 adinam ameshospen- 
dano min panahih-i 

I. 11,9. all but K26 have ^ tor ^. 12,8—10, in Yasht V. 82, the number is 

99; K20, K26 omit y 13. 6. hhad substituted for ay. 13, 11. ^C^ in all. 

15, 4. He omits final ^ *, H7 cUas. . 17,4. ^y^j^^ in all but Koq. 18,6. 

K20 omits final \ . 18, 15. )y^)%^4i '" "'' '^'^^ 1^^"- 


210 GSsht-i Fry&n6 I. 20— 24. 

^ ^^ I ^Wi ^^ ^^^ 5»^oo ■>^o' -^-^c 1 21 
lO* ^ ^^rQ)^-» ^)P^ jV till ^^f '>**5^^ ■'W?? 24 

li lakhvar yekavimund; 20 va akhar, zak frashno-i lak min li pursih, 
li vajardano la tubdno. 

21 Ya akhar, Akht-i yatuk farmud zak vastarg va jamak madam 
dashtano, va vastarg-i navak yaityAntano va ramituntano ; 22 va afash 
G6sht-i Fryano rat, yin bavihunast, guft 23 aigh: Bara yatun, madam 
denman jamak va balishn bara yetibun; va frashno zyat pursam, rfist 
bara vajar. 

24 G6sht-i Fryano guft aigh: Mar-i darvand sastar! madam den- 
man hdlishno la yetibunam ; maman yin denman balislino nasai-i anslm- 
tddn ait ; 

I. 20,12. K20 omits final ). 21,8. H7, K20 om. 22,1-2. H7 JiS. 22,7. Ha, 
K26, Lis rQ)))*to|U* 23'^- H7, K20, Lis om. 23, 12. H7 adds g^j^ ^ ^ , 
24,5. Z, mairyd; H7 Pers. Joe, apparently identifying the phrase with Z. 
mashyo drvdo sdsta, \end. XXL l; in 21 places, elsewhere, H7 gives the 
Pers. gloss ^\ sf j 'highway robber', compare Pers. J^ ; out of 32 occur- 
rences, He omits J twice, and Lis 9 times. 24,6. Ho adds J 6 times, K^o 
5, and Kje 11 times out of 32. 24, 10. K20 omits final ). 24, 12. K-s has 
p for ^» 24, 18. y^)^-^ in all but Koq. 

Gfisht-i Fry&n8 I. 25. -U. 2. 211 

n^oo-o ^ i>*o>jy ^-5 ^T^a ^i^oo -'^o» ^-ny ) 28 

<Si> fOVi)y^ ^)) ->)^^ ^-^ ^ 1)*03e) ■'^OO)' 29 M^IJ'^'O ^M 

Chapter 11. 

^^m ^r >y^^^ ^^Oi^r f 5<W5 ■'^o* )y^^ ttDr*) i 

25 va levatman li yadaddn va ameshospenddno homand; panakih-i li 
homand; 26 va li madam denraan bdlishno bara yetibunam, adinam 
minavaddnd, min panakih-i li, lakhvar yekavimund; 27 akhar, frash- 
noihd-i lak min li pursih, li vajardano la tuhdno yehevuned. 

28 Va akhar Akht-i yatuk farmed, zak balishno madam dashtano, 
navak yaityuntano; 2'J G6sht-i Fryano madam zak hdlishn-\ navak 

Chapter II. 

1 Nakhiist frashno Akht-i yatuk min G6sht-i Fryano denman pursid 
2 aigh : Vahishto pavan stih shaptr, khaduf zak-i pavan mfnavad ? 

I. 25,3-4. K,o ^^>0' 25,6. 26,5,9. Ko© omits final ), 27,2. Hg, K20, K?, 

JOQ^^^J^^ Lis J)4(53^. 27, 10. K20 omits final ). 28,1. K.^o, Ui om 
28, 5. K20 adds &SU . 29, 5. K20 adds final ) . 

II. 2, 2. K20, Lis omit final f ] and it is probably miswritten for J . 2, 6. khad 
substituted for atf. 

212 Gosht-i FryAno II. 3 — 8. 

Me) ^so* -^ ^ i^^' ^^^ ^nyo^) ^o» 6 © ^))<5€^ -^ 

3 G6slit-i Fryano gtift aigli : Zivandakdn pavan shekond yehevim- 
dsh, mar-i darvand sastar, va yemUuntakdn val dusliahu avapat; 
4 maman vahisht-2 pavan stih, shapir aigli zak-i pavan minavad. 5 Afash 
nishan denman, aigh kola mun, pavan stih, kdr va kirfak la \adiinecl, 
azasb tamman val fryad la yamtuned. 6 Afat nishan-i dadigar den- 
man, aigh bara hatat, pavan stih, mandaviini-i la naduk vadiined, 
adinash val vahisht-2 shapir la yamtunih. 

7 Va Aklit-i yatuk, chigun amatash zak milaya ashniid, stared 
hard yehevdnd, 8 chand amat gabrd-1-i ycsht-I bard vdduned, stared 

II. 3,5. out of 24 occurrences of this phrase, Ho adds iinal ) G times, K^e 9^ 
and Li5 3 times, 3,7. Hg omits one I once, K20 5 times, K26 8, and L15 17 
times ; K26 adds j 12 times. 3, 8. compare Pers. liXj . 3, 9 — 10. see notes 
on I. 24,5-6. 3, 12. He omits twice, K20 14 times, K26 18, and L15 9 times. 
3, 13. He adds final | 7 times, K20 twice, K26 16, and L15 5 times. 3, 16. or 
mift. 4,2. K20 omits J. 5,9. He, L15 om. 5,10. only in Kae. 6,1. Hj, 
K.o -J^JO** ^' ^« ^6, ''15 oi»- 6,16. Kjo, K.-c omit J. 7,1. K26 om. 
7,10.-8,7. He, Lis om. 8,2—3. K.e N^-f )fi) a^ omit J. 

G68hM FryAn6 II. 9— 15. 213 

51^00 ->^0» ^ -O^^r' Vit ^^y ^'^" -^^ •' * ^),^1^ ^«>H3 

3^11 -u^^ -»oo^^a -"j^ ^ r^^^ )rO(2 -"11^ -fi^^ 

yehevund yekavimunad. 9 Afash aetun guft aigh: Anakih li, Akht-i 
yatuk, miti lak Gosht-i Fryano, aigh madam li cliir homanih. 10 Chigun 
tag gabrd madam tagtiim gabra, va tag asp madam tagtum asp, va 
tag tora madam tagtum tora, ehigun asman madam zamik pddakhshah 
homanih. 11 Maman li, pavan denman frashno, 000 mug-gabra zekte- 
lund homanam, 12 raunshan and yazishn-i Yadadan kard yekavimunad, 
amatshan -a^zd khurdano-i parahom rai, hamak tanu zard yehevund 
yekavimunad. 13 Afam tishga dukht-i Spitaman zektelund, amatshdn, 
dino stayinidano rai, afsar-i pavan zahaba va marvdrid min dahyu- 
patan hashkekhundd. 14 Amatam mm valmanshan pursid, afshdn guft 
aigh: Vahtsht-i pavan minavad shaptr, 15 li guft aigh: Lekum 

II. 9,3. K,o adds final ), 9,9. K,o om. 10, 1. H7, K,,, ^)(0. 10,3. K20 

adds \. 10,23. K,o adds J^ . 10,24. Koo has OU for -o . 11,8. Hr 
om.; Ko /U^. 12,8. H? Jj.ia. . 13,1, H7 ^Jjt) - 13,6. perhaps for 

y(}0)^' 13,14. K,o has ^ for ^. 13, 17. so in all, y^ being used for 
il. 14,2. K20 iy> 14, a. Koo )l{^{^^. 14,8. Kjo, K-g omit medial 3 J 
K20 omits J. 14,11. Ho, K26 -JQ)) Lis -J^J^J • 

214 Gosht-i Fryanf) II. 16 — 21. 

-^^r'r -^fb T^ •^t'V ^-^ /ff tin ^^)iej tO* t)*o^e) ii)> 17 

0% ^\i^)^ ^^^ m tin V)^ ^on)»^ i^W) Md) ii^ 

^0.))^ -"M^-«o Mfi) r-*'))'-^ tin ^^y ^^^ ■'^oo? 18 

■^■^^)*' -'■^ T^ ^-^ Tff tin ^^"^ 1^)* »>^^fii :2r ~^^ 

acfww shapir medammuned, ham-aetim shapir aigli val zak vahisht-i 
shapir vazluned. 16 Afam fraz vakhdimd, afam bara zektelund. 

17 JIum frashno denman pursid atgh: Maman zak mandavam, 
mill dam-i Aiiharmazd , mun pavan shatman yetibuned, bulandtar aigh 
pavan ragelmari yekavimimcd ? 

18 G6sht-i Fryano guft aigli: Zivaiidakan pavan shekona yelievAn- 
ash, mar-i darvand sastar, va yemituntakan val dushahu avapat; 
19 maman zak kalba aito. 

20 Illiim frashno denman piirsid aigh: Maman zak, min dam-i 
Aiiharmazd, mun satuned, va gam la hankhetuned ? 

21 G6sht-i Fryano guft aigh: Zivandakan pavan shekona yehe- 

II. 15, 5, 8. K20 adds final ^ . 15, 12. Kno om. 16, 4. 17, 6. K20 om. 17,13—14. " 
H7 xj. 17,20. H, adds jtS^; Pers. yX^, 19,1. Koq ^. 20,11. ^ 

in all but Koo- 

G68ht-i Fry&n6 II. 22-28. 215 

•»^ f •O'V ^-^ ,ff tin ^"*^)^^ ^f ^y^^ '^^-»o'(^ 23 

-v^ ^^ni) V) <;c^ ) 2GjjPaoocP^ -'^^T^ ^MSoS -oP^ 

o**o ))*oV •")*' 

•^^n)*0 -"M^^ MeJ >*»->^)|»-^ tin ^^Y ^Y^^ ''W5>' 28 

mar-i darvand sastar, va yemituntakan val dushahu avapat; 22 ma- 
man zak vanjishk alt, mun satuned, va gam lA hankhetuned. 

23 Chaliariim frashno denman pursid aigh: Maman zak manda- 
vaniy min dam-i Auharmazd, mun kaka srubin, va srubo gushtin ? 

24 G6sht-i Fryano guft aigli : Zivandakan pavan sliekona yehevAn- 
ash, mar-i darvand sastar, va yemituntakan val dushahu avapat; 25 
maman zak klirus karitund, muruk-i Srosli-yasliarubo ; 26 va amat vang 
vaduned, khayd patiyarak min dam-i Auharmazd lakhvar yakhsenuned. 

27 Panchum frashno denman puisid aigh: Kutak kard shapir, 
khaduf andak khurishno ? 

28 G6sht-i Fryano guft aigh: Zivandakan pavan shekona yehe- 

II. 22, 3. H7 o^^l. , Pers. viJLxLsuT; Lis ^-l(J(«) . 23,7-8. H7 om. 23,9. 

He, Lis om. 26,5. H7 ^ t^ , 27,6. II7 J ^^5"^ throughout. 27,9. ]thad 
substituted for ay. 

216 Gosht-i Fryano II. 29 — 35. 

^ro^ ^^^ ^^15 '^fiJ /ff ^0 »)-oV ^V tii: ^^^ ^"'^ 

^M<:e^ -^ J3-fl^-^^ -^l ))*oV ^V ) 31 M^C^ ))^\} ^-*oo 

%6^) ^^^ ;ff ) ^a ;ff till ^^ne) tO' )>H3^a -O^-k^ 32 
jj^-^c n^v ^^^) -^ <;€.^ ) ;ff^ ^Yy^ •'^^ ^te) 

mar-i darvand sastar, va yemituntakan vnl dushaliA avapat; 29 maman 
hatak kard shapir aigh andak khvirislino; 30 maman payan kutak 
kard baresum sliayad huridano chidano; 31 va andak khuiislino val 
ashkombo la yamtuned, va liat yamtAned vad angezed. 

32 Shaslmm frashno denman pursid aigh: Maman pur, va maman 
•zak-i nim-pur, va maman zak-^ akavaz pur la ychevuned? 

33 G6sht-i Fryano guft aigh: Zivandakan pa van shekona yehe- 
vAnash, mar-i darvand sastar, va yemituntakan val dushahli avapat; 
34 maman zak-i pur, khiinid-'i tubanik latamman, va amat bara vadirSd, 
riihdnd yasharuho; 35 zak-i fum-pur , shekond-i daregush-i saryd 
ztvishn, amat hard yemUuned^ 

U. 29,2. Li5 )^)y 30,7. K.o ))^\ • 31, 1,8. H7, L15 om. 32,2. K20 om. 
32,10. H7 om.; K20 omits J. 32,14. K,,o, L^ omit j. 34,4. H7 ^j ; 
compare Pers. JuUi*. , 34,11—12. only in Kog. 35,1—9. only in K20, Ko,; 
K20 adds )\yJ^ to 35, 1. 

Gosht-i Fryan6 II. 36 - 41. 217 

)*>f)id-f j^^V ^-^ ,^ tit ^^))^ ^r >y^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 
reJp-^ rff ^'J »)^)^ -^ M^)5 i>»oo» -o^^ ii^ 1^^ )^e)P-^ 

rubdno yasharubo; 36 va zak-i <d/<*/i;, muu akaraz pur la yehevuned, 
zak shekona-i sarya zivishn, amat bara yemUuncd, rubdno darvand. 

37 Hafttim frasbno denman pursid aigh: Maman zak mandavam-i 
mardumau pavau nihan yozbemund kaidano, afshan nihan kardano la 
shdyand ? 

38 G6sht-i Fryano giift aigh: Zivandakan pavan shekona yehe- 
vunasb, mar-i darvand sastar, va yemttuntakan val dushahu avapat; 

39 maman zak zruvdnu aito mun khadih mhdno kardam Id tubdno; 

40 maman zruvdn khud-pedak yehevuned. 

41 Hashtum frasbno denman pursid aigh: Kadara zak zivatidak 

II. 35,10. K20 has J for ), 36,2. K20 omits J. 36,3. H7 ^^^ , 36, 15. Hg, 
L,i have ^ for final c^ . 36,16. Kjo has J lor ). 37,8. Lis omits J. 
37,18. I ijuems unnecessary, unless W be merely a substitute for A. 39,3. 
K20, K26 omit final )] H, always ^tj\ . 39,4.-40,2. K,6 om. 40,1. 
Lji om. 40.5. Kjo om. 41, 8. H7 ^^\$ iXJ y.j\ , 


218 Gosht-i Fryfino II, 42 — 46. 

-jM) 1 sonrei)" ^oo^ ->rQ)^ o^)^ i 4j ^)p-5) ^)^5 i) 

mGn Asfi - vihdd khadituned yemituned , afash aetun kamak aigh 
lakhvar val zivandak vazlimed; 42 va tanidtch Asti-vihad khadituned 
va bara yemitunM, afash khvar medammuned ? 

43 G6sht-i Fryano guft aigh: Zivandakan pavan shekona yehe- 
vAnash, mar-i darvand sastar, va yemituntakan val dushahu avapat; 
44 maman zak mardum ait mun yesht la kard yekavimuned, va parahom 
la vashtamund yekavimuned; 45 va dadigar, zak mardum val gds-i 
ncshmandn mad yekavimuned, afash] neshman la kard yekavimuned; 
46 va sadigar, zak anshutd mun zivandak ruhdno la yasht yekavimuned, 
va yasharubo-dad la dad yekavimuned, va yazishn-i 

II. 41,11 — 12. Z. Asto-vidhotu , Vend. IV. 49, V. 8, 9, 41,16. Koo adds final ). 
42, 2. H7 v| JuLj; O-^^ in all others. 42, 6. K20, L15 oni. 44, 2. K20 om. 
44, 4. He fQ)i» . 44, 13. K20 has ^ for ^ ; L15 )^^ . 45, 4, Koo uses 
the hybrid JCsH) y j J or l^, should be added. 45, 6. J only in He ; 
H7 Pers, v::^^^ . 45, 7. He, K.o, L,5 ^^^ij) . 45, 11. He, Ljs om. 46,4. 
■f)iU'^''° all but Kio- 46,6. K20 adds yt . 46,7. Kjo omits final ). 

Gosht-i FryanS II. 47 — 51. 219 

0% ^)^^ -Hy-^ ^K m :^f ) 5>*» ) :j^^^ ) ,^^) i ^)^f ) -^m 
j^ij))^ -»))^->o Me) >*»-»^))'-^ ti!i ^^>' ^vo^e) ^^ooi* so 

-^^j Md -",^ ) -",^ 1 e)-»^^ ) ^)r'^ ^>H5 )»» m 

Yadaddno la kard yekaviniuned, a/as/i yasharubo-dad val shaptr mar- 
dilm afash guft aigh: Yehabunam, va la dad yekavtmimdd ; 47 afash 
yemitimed, karaak angiin, aigh laklivar zivandak vazlimecl ; 48 va tani- 
dich yemitimed, va Asti-vihad khadituned , afash khvar medammimM. 

4'J Nuhtini frashno denmau pursid aigh: Pil va asp va gamla va 
khamra va tora va gospend va neshman va kalba va khuk va gurbah 
pavan chand mah zerkhund ? 

50 Gusht-i Fryano guft aigh : Zivandakan pavan shekona yehevunash, 
mar-i darvand sastar, va yemituntakan val dushahu avapat; 51 raaman 
pil pavan III shanat zerkhuned, va asp va gamla va khamra pavan XII 
bidana zerkhund, va tora va neshman pavan tishga bidana zerkhund, 
va gospend pavan 

II. 46,18. Koo omits final ). 46,22. H7 J. 46,25,26. Kjo adds y>» to 


46, 34. Lis has ^ for ^ . 47, 8. Kjo has .^ for ^ . 48, 2. H, 
\l Jot«J'; O^^ '"^ ^^' others. 51,16. K20 has C^ for 35 L^ 3wy3 . 
51,24. K20 has c^ for 3. 

220 Gosht-i Fryano II. 52 — 55. 

<?o ^)r'^ ^Y -0 Me) 

(a> ^"j^c^ 1 ^)rO)y» ) \^^y -^^y-^ V^**^^ ) V)*o-^ na -^-^ 
-"rej) m ■>-r^V ^-^ rff tiil so^)te) t^^* )yiy6 -OnJexj 55 

V bidand zerkhund, va kalhd va khuk pavan IV hidand zerkhund, 
va gurhak pavan XL yom zerkhiined. 

52 Dahiim frasJino denman pursid aigh: Mardum kadam pavan 
rSmishntar va asantar zived ? 

53 G6sht-i Fryano guft aigh: Zivandakan pavan shekona yehe- 
vunash, niar-i darvand sastar, va yemituntakan val dushahii avapat ; 
54 maman anshutd zak pavan ramishntar va asantar zived-i avi-bimtar 
va khursvand va chahuntar. 

55 Yazdahum frashno denman pursid aigh: Maman zak mandavam-i, 
pavan stih, val Auharmazd va ameshospendan humundk ait. 

II. 51,29. OfWi^ in all but L15, which has both words. 51,30. so in all, but 
P^ for 5 would be better. 51,31—38. K.,o puts after 51,44. 51,36—37 
K,o -^O^ )M . 51, 38. Kjo has S^ for 5 . 51, 40. K.o has _A» for A 
51,44. K,o has i for ^. 52,2. He, L,5 ora. 52,8. K-e om. 54,2. He 
Im5 ^)^'^' 54,6. K20 om. 54,11. so in He, K.g, L,s; Kjo ^ffO^** 
^7 JitXX^yi:^ , 54, 13. H7 Ji-yKS^yi. 55, 13, K20 om. 55, 15. K^o ^^Y^^ 

Gfisht-i Fryano II. 5(i - 62.. 221 

0% V^O-^ Md) 

56 G6sbt-i Fryano guft aigh: Zivandakan pavan shekona yehe- 
vimash, mar-i darvand sastar, va yemitimtakan val diishahu avapat; 
57 maman, yin stih, dahyupat val Auharmazd va ameshospendan \m- 
manak att; 58 va jinak-i dahyiipatdm humdndk-i roshano Garodmdno; 
•'•9 va pdytnakdn-i daJnjupatdn humanak ait val ameshospendan, 60 va 
dahyiipatdn yin dar humanak ait val zak starak-i Parviz karitund ; 
61 avarik anshuta, amat khveshkdr va hustobdr ait, humanak homand 
val avarik starak-i khurdak-i pavan asman homand. 

62 Dvazdahum frashno denman pursid aigh : Khurishno kadam 
basimtar va pavan mizaktar ? 

II. 57,2. K,o 3->. 58,3. final ) unly in Hg; L15 omits )^, and adds i) . 
58, 4. — 59, 3. Kjo om. 59,2. compare Pers. ^^jLj , ^ajU ; II7 ^I>^x^aj . 
fiO, 2. H7 om. ; K20 yttyo^i ; K,6 yO)^^ , J^^ J . 60, 0. J only in Hs. 
00,10. compare Z. panrvanim., Yas. IX. 2G; Pers. ,wj, |>J^j-t>' ^^,^- Ins 
^^. 61,4. He, L,5 add J^ . 61,6. Kjo omits medial ). 61,12. J only 
in He, Kjo. 61, 13. J only in Hg. 62, 11. H7 Ji^jA . 

222 G6sht-i Fryan6 II. 63-68. 

^ rff _J* ' rff ^Ky tin ve^ne) 1^)* )ro^e) -O^o^ 65 

63 G6sht-i Pryano guft aigh : Zivandakan pavan sliekona yehe- 
vunash, mar-i darvand sastar, va yemituntakan val dushahu avapat ; 
64 maman khurishno zak pavan mizaktar va hasimtar^ mun min baba-t 
frdrCin tukhshdkih andokbt yekavimuned, va afash laklivar kar va 
kirfak vashtamuned va yakhsenuned. 

65 Sizdahum fraslino dcnman pursid aigh: Khaduk maman? va 
II maman ? va III maman ? va IV maman ? i;« V maman ? va VI 
maman? va VII maman? va VIII maman? va IX maman? va X 
maman ? 

66 G6sht-i Fryano guft aigh: Zivandakan pavan shekona yehe- 
vunash , mar-i darvand sastar , va yemituntakan val dushahu avapat ; 
67 maman khaduk, khurshed-^ shapir miin hamak gehan roshano yakh- 
senuned ; 68 va II , 

II. 64,2—7. Kso V^O-f Md ) ■^^^ 1)*Ck)** "^-^ • ^^'^^- •* °°^y ^" 
He, K26. 64, 11. K20 adds OQ . 64, 12. K20 omits a , 64, 19. only in Kjo, 
K2,. 64, 22. K20 cm. 65, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, 29, 32, K20 om. 65, 29, He om. 
67,3. K20, L,5 omit j. 68,1. only in K^o, K^g. 

Gosht-i Fryano II. 69 — 76. 223 

yaityunishn va hurishno-i vayo ; 69 va III, humat va hukht va h^- 
varshto; 70 va IV, maya va damik va aurvar va stor; 71 va V, 
punch Kat sliapir; 72 va VI, shitd gds-i gasanbar; 73 va sliiba, haft 
ameshospend; 74 va VIII, hashtih ndmih shapir; 75 va IX, tishga 
sulak-i pavan tanu-i mardumano ; 76 va X, asrya angust-i pavan yad- 
man-< mardumano. 

[The text leaps here, from the 13 th to the 23 3 enigma, in all the MSS.; the 
break being indicated in He by a blank quarter of a line, in K20 K^g by a triple 
stop, and in H7 by the Persian note: aJl^^^j JwaoI iajLiax» <^:j^mj\ (jO-i'Li L^^Ajvf 
tX.^ . It is not, however, absolutely certain that there is any omission; for the 
13 th enigma contains ten questions which, if counted separately, would exactly cor- 
respond with the missing number; on the other hand, it must be admitted that 
some of the other enigmas contain several questions , which are not counted sepa- 
rately as here suggested.) 

II. 68, 5. H7 ^-<i^s . 69, 7. K20 omits final ) . 70, 9. H7 JiLCot 'a camel', Pers. 
SsLa^ 'a star'. 71,1. He om. 71,3-4. H7 XfUJ ; K^o has ) for i ; J 
ought to be added, 72, 1. He om. 72, 4. H7 om. ; Kje omits ^-^^ ] all 
others omit J . 74, 3—4. H7 &-;iuwi» ; ^J^'JJ,^\ . 75, 1. K.o om. 75, 6. 
Kjo omits J. 76,6. He, L15 omit J. 76,7. K20, K26 omit final ). 

224 Gfisht-i Fryano III. 1—7. 

Chapter III. 
0% V^-*^ ;ff tin SO^De) T^)* )>H5JeJ ^ ) -^^ 1 

^^oV ^^^ ) ^OM)>^ ej)5 .^ jV^^ ^e)) tin -ij-u^r 
j^oc V tiil 1^)^ >*oo^) -\)^ '• ® X^^^ i^ot'-f -^ hy^ 

Chapter III. 

1 XX t;a Ilium frasbno deuman puvsid aigh: Maman sardtar? 

2 G6sht-i Fryano gui't aigli: Zivandakan pavan shekona yehe- 
vunash, mar-i darvand sastar, va yemituntakan val dusliahu avapat; 
3 maman la actwi chigun lak andesbili, bard actun chujun U khavi- 
tunam ; 4 va lak actun andcshih, aigli vafar sardtai-i madam kof 
yetibuned, va akaraz khuislied aubasli la taved ; 5 bara la aetun cbigun 
lak andeshih, maman darvand gabra minishn sardtar. 6 Afasli riishdn 
denman , atgh lak, Akht-i yatuk, rat akh-I ait darvand ; 7 afash zdhar 
pavan libbemman chand mustih yin yekavimuned, lak la pavan kburshed, 
va la pavan atasb 

111. 1,2. K,o om. 3,3,8. 4,3. K^o adds final ). 3,7.-4,4. He, L,s om. 4,7. 
Kso adds )J^ to jj L15 omits J. 5,3. K,,o adds final ). 6,2. K^o , ^a 
add fiual ). 6,4. Kjo Jj^. 7,0. K,o, K^e liave au for ^. 

Cioslit-i FryAiio IIT. 8-15. 225 

)mr^-H^ -^^ ,^e)) ■»?e>3 ^T^^ vw^ ■'^o' ■^•^c ) " 

<?o ^O^^) -1^ -H^^ ^))b) ^le) TtDi^ |0 

<?o V-^^* ;ff tiil sortie) fy )r<y^ £v^ ) ^^ ''^ 

vadakhtano lc\ tuban ; 8 va li amat pavan must vakhdunam, bara 

9 Ya akhar, Akht-i yatiik farmud brad-i nafshmaii rai yaifcyilntano, 
'/ekteluntano, va zahav inin libbemmaii bara yansegiintano ; 10 la pavan 
khurshed, t'rt la pavan afasli vadakhlano la tubano bffd] li va Cxosht-i 
Fryano yin must fraz vakhdund, at'asli bara vadaklit. 

12 XX va IVum frashno denmau pursid aigli : Maman garmtar ? 

13 G6sht-i Fryano guft aigh: Zivandakan pavan shekona yelie- 
viinash, mar-i darvand sastar, va yemituntakan val dushahu avapat; 
14 maman yasharuho gabra must garmtar; lo va afat ntshdn denman, 
aigh zak-^■ Jak akh zaliar la pavan khurshed^ va la pavan dtdsh . la 
tiibano yehevund vadaklitano; 

III. 8,3. Lis )^, 8,8. K20 omits ). ii, 11. 10,4. K,o om. 10,11. l.,3 om. 

12.2. K.JO om. 14,2. K,o lias ) foi- i. 15,1. Koc om. 15,2. H; j;- f . 

15.3. K.o adds final J. 15,6. K.o, l-ii omil" J. IfJ, 7. K^^o adds JCP)<y 
^)^00 • ^^' ^"-' ^''- ^'^-0 reverses ilie order of these two words. 15, I'J. 
K20 yO) joined to |)receding word, 


22G (Tf*,8ht-i Fryanu III. 1(>-21. 

io ^ej-o 

J^a-O -0^90^ ^),^^-*^ ^^^ rff ) ^^-K3 -K^^ s^)y-^) ^ve 
J ^3^o» -»*^ -x^^^ ) ^)y-^) -^ ^Pe) -\j-f ^ rff 20 

16 va li, amat pavan jnust fraz vakhdund, hard vadakht. 

IT XX va Vum frashno denman pursid aigli : Frod vazliintM], 
maman sliapir ? va bara afsiird yekavimuned, mamnii shapir? va inuii 
bara yeniitiined, maman sliapir ? 

18 Ciroslit-i Fryano guft atgli : Zivandakaii pavan shekona yche- 
vdncisJi, mai'-i darvand sastar, va ycmituntakaii val dAslialiu avapat ; 
111 maman mim frod vazlunAd, mayd shapir; va maman ai'surd yekavi- 
nuuit'd, atasli shapir; va mini bara ycmituued, mar-i darvand sastar-i 
cliigun lak shapir. 20 Maman hat niaya frod la vazlAned, va atash la 
afsured , va mar-i darvand sastar-^ chignn lak la yemituned, 21 ad mask 

ITT. Ifi, 3. K,o om.; Li5 ^, 16, 8. II7 om. 17, 2. K20 om. 17, 3, K,o OJLU . 

18, 8. Hr„ In:, -1(JJ>1 • 19, '•^- Klo om. 19,5. K^r, omits from this to 20, G. 

19, 6. Koo om. 19, 8. so in all, but ^^ would be better. 19, 19. J only in 
H«. 2(1,7. Ilr \i^. 20,14. j only in lie, K.g. 21,1. H7 ji\l. 

G6sht-i Fryiino III. 22-31. 227 

a)^ 1^ Tff 29 ^a^« mo^^ -^j r^^i)^^ ) ^^^ro)^^ ^ip^ ^V 
'^)ey ^^\y)^ -^j ^Sti^ i j^o^ ))!»aV 1^ ) 3j Vo^ 

gehaiiu pur iiiin maya va atash, va pur min inar-i darvand sastar-i 
chigtin lak Jtojnanih^ va gelianu dashtano la sJidyast. 

22 XX va VIu7n fraslmo denman pursid aigh: Min kof mamaii 
girantar? 23 va min kard-i pulavdiuo manian tiztar ? 24 va miu anga- 
pino raaman sliirinotar? 2") va min durabak-i mesh maman charptar ? 
26 va min radan miin radtar ? 27 va min rdstuno mun rasttar ? 

28 Gosht-i Fryano guft aigh : Zivandakan pavan shekona yehe- 
vunash J mar-i darvand sastar, va yemituntakan val dushahu avapat ; 
29 maman min kof, zur va andst girantar; 30 va min kard-i piilavdino , 
huzvano-i mardumano tiztar; 31 va min angupino, abidar va amidar 
rai, fardand-i rojoih 

III. 21,17. K-o lias .Mi for «u . 21,22. H,, K,o )A»U^ • 22,2. K,o om. 22,3. 
Lj5 omits ^). 24.3. K.o )y^yy^ , 25,6. K^o has i for ^. 27,3, K^o 
omits final ) . 29, 5. K,.o om. 29, 6. K^o adds a J H7 cA^Lik . 31, 9. H7 

228 G6sht-i Kryunu 111. 32 — 36. 

shiiiuutar ; 32 vti miii dumbak-i mesh, Spendarmad zamik rffl vdrmio 
c'harptar ; 33 va min radau, Ti^htar yedato radtar; 34 va min rdstuno. 
Vdijo-i sliapir lasttar, inim hichih khadih azarm Id, va pdrak la yanse- 
guned, va khudai va l)6iidak rai , levatman khaduk dadigar, rdstih 

35 XX va Vlliim iVaslino denman pursid aigh: Ragelman kadam 
naduktar \a nadiiktiktar y 36 va maman kabed ragelman-i Yi khaditCincJ, 
adinash ragelinan zak uadiikuktav va iiaduktar-/ li khaditimd-e Iln- 
parsh-i lak akhtiiian-i li iieshiiiau. 

III. 32,7. K.JO 0111. 32, S. 31,3. K^o omits final ). 34,4. a variant, ot -^WV) . 
the tails of u , VA) , C^ ^ ^ -, etc. being oi'ten extended backwards by 
some writers; i\^ gloss ^ gJi \ If- .yjM^XA^H . 34.8. lig se(iins to strike out 
j^. 34, 11—13. so in K.o, Kj6 ; Ho, II7, L15 have -JU»3 for -w3 , but this 
wdiiM require either the omission ot r«, or the insertion of a few extra 
words ; the former might be effected by reading napahrak, Pers. 5*.Aaj 
'private', but this would 1)0 hazardous; II7 has SxLaaJ for A3jJgt ^ comi)are 
Mkh. 11. 121, 122, \X). 34, IG. K,o om. 34,24. K.f, omits JQ . 35,2. K,o 
om. 35, y. Kjo au^. 35,12, I'ers. j.jj.X-».J . 3G, (5. 11^, Lis have c^ lor 
^. 36, 10. Hfi, L,5 omit the se/ond A. 36, 12. 14. K,.o omits J. 36, 15. H7 

^s»yS^ twice , ^syS^ five times 

Oosht-i Yryhw 111. 37 — 44. , 229 

tin *^ -fii^r ^ )rOcs n^^ -^t -KJ-x^^V V ^rO(\^ ))^^ 

37 G6sht-i Fryanu guft aigli : Zivaiidakan pavan shekona yehe- 
vimash, mar-i darvand sastar, va yemttuntakan val dushahii avapat ; 
38 maman pdc-l Maijd nadukdktar va naduktar. ol> Afat nUhdno 
denman, aigh taiiiman aigh Maya ragelman hankhetiined , khavid baia 
rodcd ; 4U va tanmiau iiUjli Hii-parsh ragelman hanklietun^d khiishk 
bara yeheviined. 

41 XX va A'lllum iVashno denman ])Uisid aigh: Nc-ihinandno 
vazurg ramishno min maman? 

42 G6sht-i Fryano guft aigh : Zivandakan pavan shekona yehe- 
vunash, mar-i daivand sastar, va yemituntakan val dushahu avapat; 
43 maman la ai'tun chigun lak andeshih, bara actiin chigun li khav- 
itunam\ 44 aigh 

III. 38,1. K.,0 om. 38,2. perhaps pad_yo, compare Z. paidhya. 3^,3, H, ^\ 
38, 4. K,o om. 3S. 5. only in Hg, H7. 39, 2. K20 omits final f . 39, 12. He, L,, 

' om. 40,3. K..0 om. 41,2. K^o om. 41,8. K^o omits final ^5 H7 adds (^. 

41,9, K,o adds ^, '43,3,8. K,o, W. add final y -13,11. Hg, L15 ^^^^^. 

230 . Oosht-i Fryaiio III. 45-50. 

it^^ -^ ;ff 45 ^ijO-iO mO^^ 3iJ)^i»e55 JJ(j^jy^^^5 t 51? 
0% ,^e)) ■'^)^ A*P •'))^)))H5 i^ \)^^ '^\(5^ »h«,^^1 

■^tv-^) -jo^a^ ■>^^-^) -^ ^) ))W^ -^ s\') 47 ^iP^^-^ -»*y 
^ ^^^ -aO ^^ ^^^ j^^ , 48 ^^3^ 3 ^ T^^c 5^ -»oo* 

6*0 -f),^)-" -^ T^i •'Jt^)' lie) 1 ^111,^ -^ 
i^^v 51^00 -'^o* 1 ^11^5 -"ro^ iro^e) ^w^p ^o 
iWOo» 1 ^'0 V>^ ^\^^\ -K5Je)r -^-^^-^i 11a iro^d J^OO)* 

lak aciM?i andeshih aigli nhhmiindm vazurc) ramislino miii padinujano 
gunak giiuak, va hadak-hixmxMh-'i sazakvar, amatshan yakliseiiimd. 45 
Maman la actim; ncshmandno vaziirg ramishno min yehevuntaiu')-/ levat- 
man sliui-t nafshman. 

46 Akht-i yatuk giift aigli: Kadba ycmalelunc'd, a fat pavan den- 
man frashno bara •::eMdunam ; 47 kevan bara yatiin, vad baia nazdik-i 
HiVparsli vazlunam, afash. lak aklitman va li nCshman, 48 va afash 
akaraz kadba la guft va la yemaleluned , va pavan gubisJmd-i valman 
bara yekavimunam. 

49 Guslit-i Fiyiino ham-dina yclrevund ; va Akbt-i yatuk, Icvatman 
G6sht-i Fiyjmo, pavan nazdik-i' Hu-parsh vazlimd lioraand; 50 va afshdno 

III. 44, 3. K,o, Li5 iidd final ) . 44, 6. U^ adds U . 44, 7. K.q adds j^ . 44, 14. 
K20 omits the second a. 45,3. Kjo, L15 add final ^, 45,4. K20 omits final f j 
H7 adds K. 45,5. K20 adds ^.- 45,8,10. K,o omits J. 46,12. Hg, L,., 
.^))<|J^33 . 47,9. He prefixes ). 47,12. 48,7. K,o om. 48,12. K,.o omits 
final J. 48,15. H7 ^j^a.w ; it also adds, by mistake, a repetition of sen- 
tence 42. 50, 2. K20 omits final ) . 

(Josht-i Fryano til. :.l -55. 231 

^ »)*(5^ 3\^ e)K:f '^ ^)ro^ wo^^ 3a>,^^e35 -'-K35]rj5^5 

^) ^M^-oo -^ -^\ ^^^ ^)^oo j^^Tti)^^ hv^ ^V ■O'V 
^) j^\ -frt^^ -f)))!^ -*»3^5 9t>^ ,^ ) 'i ^)P^-5-^ -^ 
tin ^ej-H; ))^^ -^ » -^Dns -^ ^)P^ ^ ) ^)v^^-^ ^ 
•fn>*o -^ ^)P^ ,-^j)y -^M)^ :f)^5 ^ rff 1 "'"' ■^)n,4' rti)^^ 

Srw/'faigh: Bara yetibuu, denmaii /r«67i?Jo rastyish bara vajar. 51 G6sht-i 
Fryano guft aigh : ^cshmanano va/,urg ramislino, min padmujano-i 
gunak gunak, va /laf/a/t-liAuukih-i sazakvar, omatshan yakhsenund ? 
52 ayuf vazurg ramislino min yehcvuntano-i levatman shni-/ nat'shman? 
53 Va akliar, Hii-parsli andoshid aigh: 8hikiil'ticli val li mad, 
man mamlavnm mar-i darrand sastar-i yatuk, amatam bara la slied- 
kuned vad bara zekteluned ; 54 va njaman hat kadba yernalelunam, 
adinam bradar rai bara zektelnned, va li darvand bara yehevnnam, va 
bara aetun shapir aigh rast yenialeliiiiam ; 55 va mamaii hat kadba 
yernalelunam^ benafshman darvand bara yehevunam, 

III. 50,3. K,o ^^^)^* yO, 8. lis, K,,o ) J)*0^^ 7 ^^''^ -'J^^O^fiJ 7 '''^ ^'' s°"*" 
words were omitted. 51,5. K.,o omits final jj H? adds L. 51, 13. K.q omits 
second ^« 52,5 Hg, L13 J^^Mji. 52,7. K,,o omits J. 53,11. compare 70, 
10—12; K,o adds ^, and K,g ), 53,13. He, K,o, K,,, add J. 53, 16. L,-, 
prefixes t^, wliich might be substituted for ^W with advantage. 55. 5. 
all but K.,, \\n\e u for ^, 

232 G6sht-i Fryann III. 56-60. 

\ \ AS 

) ^5 -u)j ^P i>S J)H^^ o^y^ ) ^-^^j) ) ^5 ))^ 

m WOK?" so^ !^^P n^))^^-»^ )Wo<;^ ) vj ^oJ^mo)* 

^iii ^)yi^ii ,yA)i5 ii ^^^ ^)^0 ■>^0» ■^•*0' ) •^" 

va diul va dino va khaduino bara vashupcd] va hard amat /<! pavan 
rastili zekteluned , yasharuhotar bara yelievimam. 56 Afash chddur 
madam sar nihufto^ va bara guft 57 aigh : Neshmand?id vaziirg rdmishm 
mia padmujanu-/ guiiak gunak, va /v«r/«fc-btinukili-i sazakvar; 58 bara 
amatshdno sarHuntano levatman loit, pavan dard va dusli-ramili, va 
mandavamicli rdtnishn-i zak loit bara dard va dush-khviirih; ol) va amat- 
shdno sariluntano levatman ait, adinslian pavan ramislmiktav yebeviind. 
00 Ya akbar, Akbt-i yatuk, amatash zak sakhun asbniid, khosbm 

III. 55, 14. K.20 om. 55, 15. hhada substituted for di/, 55, 17—19. K-.o C^^^'O 
PPy — WU» 55,21. H7 adds L. 55,25. K^o omits I. 5G, 2. compare Peis. 
vjLca. and fcAis. . 56,4. Hg, L,5 om. 56.5. final J only in lie; H? v.::^i*f, 
Vc\». tX^Xlsf. 57,2. H7 adds L, 57,4. Jv.q omits final ). 57. 6. K.o omits 
J . 57, 10. Koo omits the second A , 58, 2. Kjo omits final ^ . 58, 3. K...0, 
K2B liave S^ for ^ j II7 ^Xmj^ , 58,8. K20 om. 58,10. II7 Xis. . 5S, 12. 
K.^0 adds final ^. 59,1. K^.o oni. 59,2. K-n omits final ^, 59,3. K-2o, K^e 
liave Ptf» for ^, as in 58, H ; H^ writes P^ over ^, and I 15 writes it 
after ^jeo | tlie suffix ))Pf) would lie con-ect (as tlie Paz. may be (JcXajIJ 
as \,eil a^ ^jOlJ ) but j)^ is more usual; II7 ^a^. . 60,1. Koq om. 

Oo8ht-i Fryano III. 61 — 65. 233 

ViL ^)^ V) -^^^ '•- ^)r-^» )>*>^^P^ -^i )^j^^ Me) 'Jo^d)h« 

^)f )_j^J}^r >^^J^ ^f ^,J*!r ^\ >^J^ i-W5^>^ 1-3 
^^^ ) r w^)e) »_)^ jijv^ ) r ^y) )_j ,tp ' r 

-X5^M)*o -"M^-xj Me) ^^)>»-^ t^ ^e))» M*oJe) -^^oo? 65 

vdkhdund^ va Hu-parsh rat, pavan ham-zamano, bara zektelund. 61 
Va rAbano-i Hu-parsli, pavan ham-samano, val Garodmdno vazlund ; 
62 afash vang kard aigh : Naduk li ; vad kevan yasharubo yehevilnd 
homanam , va kevanich yasharubotar homanam ; 63 hard anak lak, 
Akht-i yatuk ; vad kevan darvand yebevimd homanyth , va kevanich 
darvandtar vazlund. 

64 XX va IXiim frashno denman pursid aigh : 3Iaman zak-\ ragel- 
man X, va roeshnian III, va chashm YI, va gosh VI, va dumho 11, 
va gund III, va yadman II, va vinik III, va sriibo IV, va posht III, 
va haniak gehano zivishn va yahhsenunishn min valman ? 

65 Gosht-i Fryano guft aigh: Zivandakan pavan shekona yehe- 
vAnash , 

III. 60,10. Kio ^tMy|* 61, 5. K.o omits final )* 61, 7. K20 omits final |. 
62, 6. H7 adds j^jfc) , 03, 1. Ha leaves a blank space for this word ; Lu om. 
G3, 7. H7, K20 om. 63,10. K.q -^ffi* 64,2. Kjo om. 64,9; K20 omits 
a3» 64,22. K20 omitsJi« 64,25, li, ^55 J . 64,44. K^o om. 



234 G6sht-i Fryano III. G6 - 70. 

^)P^i-J -jMj ^t st5)»^-oo -**^ t,^ ) y^ro)^^ ^)y^ ^V 1^)* )^ 

mar-i daivancl sastar, va yemituntaknn val clAshahu avapat ; GO maman 
min diiK) dngun p^clak aigli : mun pcshMr ydtuned, frashno pilrscnd 
Id khadutno vajardano. 

67 Va Aklit-i yatiik guft aigh : Vazluii, va pavan nazdik jinak 
baia yctibiin, va pcshkdr bara vjidilno, va ziid bara yatun, va frashno 
vast bara vajar ; 68 maman hat kadba yemalehmed, ayuf yemaleluned 
atgh : La khavitunam, adinat pavan ham-zumdno bara zeMclimam. 

69 Va G6sht-i Fryano baravazlund, va madam magh bara nishast; 
70 afash pavan minishn andeshid aigh: ShikAftich val li mad yekavi- 
mdned, mun denman mar-i darvand sastar, va mun la shedkCined vad 
hard zekteluned; 

III. 6G, 4. KoQ om. 66, 7. J^ in nil but H7 which has x^; rgui would be 
better, 66, 8— 9. H7 Pers. tXj( J^ . 66, 11. H7 *.a«jJ» , 66,13. hhadn 
subetituted for r?// ; Hr, omits final j. 67,7,13. Koq era. 67,14. Koq '^■^'^^7 
\l^ Pers. J^j . 68> 12. K.,o )>*'A*' • ^'>^,'^^- Kjo baa ^ for ^, 70,14. Hg, 
K,o, Kse add d, 70,21, K^c om. 

Goslit-i Fryauo IIJ. 71-70. 235 

^)))Hi A))^i 3^^3 ^^^ j:>5 ^ ) ^)yS JiS ^ ^ 71 

VtVi^^ )j^)^ -^ n^^fi) ))-o^e) fy 

jiy^ }^^d ^r<y6 tit ^^y -^^ ' '"^ 9e)^W5 i)*o^e) jnx>o? 
^OJ^yi ^) ) ^^^ »i^ -jM;* A*v •'^^ ^y -^))^ T^i' iiT 

-ujj 3 ^ ^^ ^-j ) fQ)ijio» moo» ) V^ ^mooo ) w-^ 

3-f ^rt)^ .fj)^ ^A5e) ^)|j^ )>*oJe) tT)* ^ 9ey 1 ''• hy^^-^ 

0% so^v^-^-^ -^ ^^ro)^-*^ ^)y^ jj-^ 

71 mamcm hat zak-i zivandak, va maman zak-i murdak lakhvar zivan- 
dak yehcvuncd , deainan f'raslino vajardano la tvibano homanud. 

72 Akhar, Auharmazd-i klmdai !N6ry6sang iytJa^o, pavan petkham, 
val G6sht-i Fryano shecJCinecJ, 73 va afash gfift aigh : Frashno pasukho 
yehabun, mim dennian : lord dead ait-i levatman gabra niiin kar va 
varz vaduned. 74 Va G6sht-i Fryano chigiin vang ashnud, va adinash 
khadih la khaditund, guman yehevund ; 75 afash pavan mrnishno an- 
deshid aigh : Al hat Akharman va shedaano honiand , va a%shdn ava- 
yast va kdmaJc dennian, aigh li baia zektelimd ; 7ii va hat li denman 
frashno ham-giinak pasukho ychabiinani, adinam zak niar-i darvand 
sastar bara zekteluued. 

III. 71, 1. L,5 ti^. 71,11. K,o ^)y5». 71,17. He, Lj., ^)^>^ J H, om. 
72,5. Kjo omits final ). 72,11.-73,3. K20 ^)^^V • 73,10. perhaps tdrdh; 
K20, Li5 ^tf))^> 73,11. II7 ^^lyJiLftifc . 73,17. Koq 0111. 75,3. K.-o omits 
final ). 75,0—7. H7 om. 75, 13. or a/s^aw. 75,15—16. H7 *j(i^; K20 omits 
y 76,12. He, K26 acid J. 

236 G6sht-i Fryano III. 77 - 83. 

^))^w >y*<y^ "'^ooi' -"^^-^^ ^^ ^w^ ^W^j ■^■'(y t ^^ 

«>^)^» ^) )T^_J-jM)> A*P -^^^ 9tVK -^M^ i^^li^^ rff JD^ 

^r<i^ m ^^ )K3^ ^)>*o^ r^^ ^^ <s^ t)*o^e) jsoo)* s so 
^e)>> ^)P-J» 5)^00 J^o' -'■^^-^t -^1 ^j^^ i)e) 81 ^)),-(5 
rff ^^ ^Y )**^e) )wa 1^)* J^rei)^-*^ ^)y^ ^V -»>*» ti^ 83 

)Yij^^ m ^))*o^ t**^ -^-^ -o^^ 5»W^ "^^O* 1 83 

77 Va akliar, Neryosang yedatd val nazdik-i G6slit-i Fryano ya- 
timd , 78 afash guft aigh : Al dekhlun I maman li homanam Neryosang 
y§dat6; val lak shecjund homanam, 79 afash giift-i Aiiharmazd-i khuddt 
aigh : Denman frashno pasukho yehabun ; maman frashno tora dvad ait-i 
levatman gabra-I miin varz vadimed. SO Va G6sht-i Fryano, amat zak 
sakhun ashnud, adhio sakht pavan ramishnik yehevund. 81 Pavan 
ham-zamdn^ val nazdik-i Akht-i yatiik vazlimd, guft 82 aigh: And 
mar-i darvand sastar, denman frashno pasukho denman ait: mnmnn 
denman tora I dvad ait-i levatman gabra-I mun kar-i varz vaduned. 

83 Va Akht-i yatuk, amatash zak sakhun ashnud, pavan ham- 

III. 77,4. K,o omits final y 78,5. K,o adds final ). 78, 13. Koo ^^\ H, tXvof ; 
but compare 72,8 — 11. 79,2. J is inserted here; IQe substitutes 4JJU f and 
all others omit it. 79, 4. Hr .U^WO . 79,5—6. K^e om. .^C 1. K20 om. 
80,8. Koo, (-15 omit final ^. 80,^. H, ^j.:S\a« . 81,2. K20 )^^^ * ^2, 2. 
or hand; Ih d^^sa ,, I'ers. ^X^^ , 82,4. He, K20, K26 Hdd J. i>2, 20, 
Li5 omits J . 83, 4. K^o luis Yfji^ lor J(j . 83, 5. H7 om. 83, 9. K.,, 
Li5 omit final t. 

Gosht-i Fryan6 III. 84-88. 237 

^))m ^^ti) )y^^-K^ ) ^y f* ) ^)^p-^ ^M)*o -^ ^rw 

<?o V^)*) ^^^ a^^ liil ;e^)ie) ^^k i>*oJe) -03^ se 

dared bara yehevund yekavimuuad, va III yom va shapano stared 
yehevimd yekavimunad. 84 Va akhar min III yom shapano, lakhvar 
val hush yatimd, val G6sht-i Frydno giift 85 aigh: Frashnoihd-l lak, 
G6sht-i Fryaao , mun aumed val Auharmazd-2 khuddi vakhdiind mun, 
pavan ham-zaman, val posht va aiyyaiih yamtimed. 

86 XXXiim frashno denman pursid aigh : Asp kadam naduktar ? 

87 G6sht-i Fiyano guft aigh : Zivandakan pavan shekona yehe- 
vunash, mar-i darvand sastar , va yemituntakan val dushahu avapat; 
88 maraan asp-i gushan-i farakhtak va pavan gohar naduk ; amatshdno 
yakhsenunishno levatman aspdn-i shahth shayad. 

III. 83, 10. ^^fO) in all, but see 83, 19. and II. 8, 7. 83, 17. K.,o om. 83, 19. 

^'<i ^)T0)' ^^''^- ^^ '^^''^^ ^.' ^4» 11- ^7 y^' ^i,^^- H7 adds K. 
85,2. He, Li5 have yo for ^^ J K20, Kog omit ) J Hj ^L^Lj, Pars. 
^L§j^i»j.i , 85, 9. K,o, L^ omit J . 85, 10. He, K>6 -Al^^ • 88, 5. K,o 
ora. 88, 9. final ) only in Hr. 88, 12—13. Hg gloss yxL^^lx^f : Ht 
^Xiwjl.^j cLa^vL, Pers. ^oL.^ pKJ. SB, Vd. or sii/dth. 

238 G6slit-i Fryano III. 89 — 94. 

o%^(2KJ :^ ^^ -'^^ ^\^ ) ^(src -^ ^-X))** )^ -'^^ 

89 A'^YA va khaduk fraslino clenmaQ pursid aigli : Maman zak-i 
khushk htti'd la sojed ? va maman zak-i khavtcl bara sojed ? 

90 G6sht-i Fryano guft aigh : Zivandakan pavan sliekona yehe- 
vAnash, mar-i darvand sastar, va yemituntakan val diishahii avapat ; 
91 maman zak khak ait-i inim kliuslik la sojed, va tarba att-i khavid 
bara sojed. 

92 XXX va Hum frashuo dcnnian pursid aigh : Pddakhshah ka- 
dam shapir ? 

9 ) Gosht-i Fryano guft aigh : Zivandakan pavan shekona yehe- 
vunash, mar-i darvand sastar, va yemituntakan val dushahu avapat; 
91 maman padakhshah zak naduktar-i amuizidaitar, va khirad va dd- 
nishno naduk, afash dalushn aiyydnJi levatman. 

III. 89,1-3. K.o '^)'))iy ^)^' ^-'ll- ll" ^^. ^'^'^5- ' J-^ '^™- ^^« 1'' ^■' 
iidds x5^. !M,5. so in all, but perhaps ^W would be better. 91,11. H7 
adds af, 92,8. K,o adds JQ . 91,9-10. Hg, K20, K26, L15 ^y)) ><01>H>* 
94,12. H7 ijL.&x5^; it might be read pasdn. 94,13. L15 omits -^. 

G68ht-i Fryano III. 95. -IV. 2. 239 

) ^)(^^6 -^^-^ w ) -^ii^w^) -'^-^ w ^^ )^ ^re2)^r 

Chapter IV. 

95 XXX va Ilium frashno denman puisid aigli : Lak, G6slit-i 
Fryano, rat klivastak cband alt? 

96 G6sht-i Fryano guft aigli : Zivandakaii pavan shekona yehe- 
vAnash, mar-i darvand sasrar, va yemituntakan val diishahA avapat ; 
9? maman li rcn khvastak III aU: khaduk, zak-i vashtamunam ; va 
khadiik, zak-i padmujom ; va khaduk, zak-i val daregiishau va ar- 
janikan yehabunam. 

Chapter IV. 

1 Akhar, G6sht-i Fryano guft aigh : XXX va III frashno, lak 
min li pursM, hamak rastyish vajdrd ; 2 kevan li min lak III frashno 

III. 95,11. K:o om. 95.14. 11, ftt)"" 5 ^-o °™- 9^' 3- ^"^o ®'"- ^'^>^- ^«' ^' 

I^JJ. 97, 16— 17. H7 omits ^^3 J K.>o omits h) J, 
IV. 1,7,10. K,o om. 1,13, Kjo adds OU^yA* . 1.16. K,o adds final ), 2,; 

240 G68ht.i Fryano IV. 3-9. 

T^V X^rei) » B ^)(2 S^ 5^^) ^-"))^ tin vcj^Me) ^y ^h^ 

^ fff 9 ^^^» -^ ^t!)^^ tro^e) r ^r ) n^o -^ ^^ ) 

<?o -^jp^^-^ -^ )r^^ m ^K5^ ■^))^)*' -^ tin ^'»^^ 

hat pasukho la yehabimili, pavan ham - zamdnd bara zektelunam. 
3 Va Akht-i yatuk guft aigh : Purs, vacl vajarom, 

4 Ya G6sht-i Fryano guft aigh : Zamik I clast tokhm arj cliand ? 
5 Va dadigar denman piirsid aigh: T6ra-J varzuk arj chand ? 6 Va 
sadigar dcmnan piirsid aigh : Khvetuk-das-I kar va kirfak arj chand ? 

7 Akht-i yatiik la khavitunast, afash gAft aigh : Pcshkdr ydtuned^ 
frashno purscad la hhaduino vajardano. 8 G6sht-i Fryano guft aigh : 
Vazliin^ va pavan nazdik jtnak bara yetibun, va pcshkdr bara vdddno, 
va zM bara yatun, va denman III frashno rast bara vajar ; 9 maman 
hat yemalelAned aigh : La khavitunam, adinat pavan hom-zamdno bara 


IV. 2,13. K2„ omits final ), 4,6. K^o has A) for j^. 4,7. Lis om. 5,6. Hj, 
Lis omit K, 5,7. K20 fmits a. 6,1. all om. 7,8—9. H* Pers. k_}f 

tXjT ^xi».Lj. 7, 11. Hy jv-wwwj. 7, 13. Kaohas^ for final j. 8, 5. K20 
ncUls tiiK.l ^. 8,13. H7 Pers. J^j . 8,15. Koo omits final y 8,20. all 
om. 8. 2t; He, L15 oni, 9,9. K20 omits final )* 

Gosht-i Fryan6 IV. 10-18. 241 

-)^^d tO* ^ tiil ^^^^ 51^00 -^^o* -^i ^-^ ^ro)^o 14 
•fMi,^ ^ ^ r^ 1^ ))^)^ ^)j^)^ -^ ^^e) -*"^ y ■»-*oo» 

10 Akht-i yatuk, pavan yatukih, ym dushaliu clubarast ; 11 afash 
val Akharman drayid aigh: Grajestak! zamtk ae dast tokhm arj chand? 
12 va dadigar aigh: tora-J varzak arj chand? 13 va sadigar, khvetuk- 
das kar va kirfak arj chand ? 

14 Gajestak Akharman val Akht-i yatuk draid aigh : Li denman 
£rashn6iha-2 lak rai, pasukho hi tiihdnom kardano ; J 5 maman hat baxA, 
yemalelunam, dam-i li hamdk buuno vazluned, levatraan shedaan va 
drujan va parikan; 16 va li lak rat dosttar la yakhsenimam aigh dam-i 
benafshman rui. 17 Denman frashnollui-i lak min li pursicld homanyth, 
afat pasukho yehabunam, 18 hamdk dam-i li akar bara yehevuued, va 
patty drak mandavamich bara la 

IV. 10, 1. Kjo, K,6 prefix ), 11, 7. K.q ^ A> . 12, 4. H7, K20 omit \, 13,5. 
H7, Koo 0111. 14, 10. Kjo omits J. U, 15. K,o •^)C^)A}', Kog ^^)^ . 
15,7. K20 -JMOf. 15,12. Koo om. 17,2. medial ) only in Koq. 17,6. K20 
omitB final f . 17, 7. Koq -^i^tA) . 18, 1. K20 adds J . 18, 8. He, L15 have 


242 G6sht-i Fryano IV. 19 — 25. 

^■f o»)dJ »)*'j|^ <;?^ 1 2i ^)K)-^ 5^)^ ^^ -^ -K^G^h)^^ 

ketrunM, 19 miu madam dam-i Auharmazd bara kar ydtuned] va 
pavan ham-'^a»?«?«(> r?sf-akliez tJCt tanu-2 pasino yeheviined. 20 Vazlun^ 
va gardaiio levino vdduno ; mitro-drujili Z«, amat kirdak yakhsenuned ; 
21 va amat zamdno fraz mad , vardinidano la tiibano ; 22 maman 
jinak-i lak diishaliii, va padafras-^■ lak sakhttar aigh bamak darvandan. 
23 Va Akht-i yatuk madam diibarast min dushahu anaumed, va 
aush-i vabiian rai hamai yaityund vad levin-? G6sht-i Fryano. 24 Va 
Akht-i ydtuk val G6sht-i Fryano guft 25 aigb : Frashnothd-i lak, G6sbt-i 

IV, 18, 12. Koo C^))^^ . 19,7. Li5 C^)))<(5» 19, 10. K20 omits final ). 19, 11. 
K20 inserts ^ after J . 19, 12. Koq om. 19, 13. Koq omits J . 20, 1. H7 
prefixes y>. 20,2. K.o, Kog om. 20,5. K20, K..6 omit final ), 20,7. H7, 
Koo, K26 ao3 . 20, 8. H7 om. 20, 9. compare Pers. (J Jj.^. 21, 3. K20 
)y>»H* 21, G. Hr ^^b ^) . 22,6. K20, K26 omit J. 23,10. H; ji^ , 
Pers. >La*so ; K20 omits J . 23, 16. K20 has t for J j the rest of K^s is 
missing. 24,1—6. L15 om. 24, 4. H7 xj . Joof . 25,2. He, L15 have yn 
lor ,^; H7 *U ^f^., Pers. ^^ . 

Gusht-i FryanC IV. 2G-27. 243 

-u3 j^5 5^^ ^))^ ^3 ^^p >*o)a^>H3^ 1 -"-f^)^ ii^ )>*bJe) 

\Y»§)^ lie) -^J 5)W5 ■'^o' sr^^ •'^oo^ -^-^c -x^v 27 
!^ (2p^ ) ^15 -jMj J^5^ -^iro ■'^V^i ne) )Y^^iiy^ -»iti^^ 

Fiyano, mim Auharmazd va ameshospendcin levatman lak yehevund 
homand ; zak-i la danisfc homanih, lak rai bara guft homand ; 26 va li 
miin aiimed hard val Akharman va shedaan yekavimunad, HI frashno 
mill Akharman va shcdddno pursid, li rai pasukhu la dad homand. 

'27 Afash akhar, G6sht-i Fryano, Akht-i ydtiik rai, pavan ham- 
zamano, kdrcl-'\ haresom-chind pavan nirang-i dinoik, akar bara kard ; 
va druj, yin tanu-i val, akar bara kard. 

IV. 25,9. K,n has U> for ^((j. 25,10. Lis om. 26,1. only in K20. 26,5. Kao 
om. 26, 6. H7 om. 26, 8. Koq om. 26, 14. Hg adds final ) . 26, 16. K20 
omits final ), 26,20. He, K20, Lis add final ). 27,5—6. K20 om. 27,10. 
H, prefixes xj. 27,11. K20 <>>qW A • 27,22, for ^), 27,25. H7 adds 

, , and then ends. 

244 Gosht-i Fryano V. 1 — 6. 

V, Postscript 

^))jHi ^M^^-f 6 o )^^ ) -0^00 "0^ tie) ^awa 5 

V. Postscript. 

1 Denman madikano mun padvandido handakthd bara karituned, 
va pavan sar yat-dhiik-vcryoh-l bara yemaleluned, 2 pavan rubaiio-i 
valman, kirfak actun yeheYuned, chigim mar-I pavan nirang-i avistak 
bara zekteltind ; 3 ahvo pavan ruhdn6-\ vahnan aclwi ycheviined^ cliigun 
amat III shanat yeslit-i avsrud gasan yezbekliiined ; 4 va yehevunrj 
dastobar mun guft aigh: Alivo shanat-I vanas-i ayazishnih val bun la 

T) Frajaft pavan shlam, sliddih va rdmishnd. 6 Makhitimd 
ijehevundd Akht-i ydtuk, levatman hamdk shedddn va drujdn va 
ydtukdn va parikdno. 

V. This postscript occurs only in lie and K20. 1,3. ^ in both. 1,4. Kjo omits 
final ). 1,5. K20 lias ^^ for ^ . 1, 11. Z. yathd aim vairyo ; K.o omits 
medial a^ . 2, 5. K20 adds final f . 3, 3. K20 omits final ) . 3, 5. K20 adds 
final ). 3,6. K20 om. 4, 1. K20 om. 5, 1.— 6, 13. only in He. 

068ht-i Fry&nd VI. 1 - 4, 245 

VI. Colophons. 

I j^wa^-^ ■>)*'«y)i^-^ j^reDv -^^ ih3 ^ 2 j^^Jij^j ,_>i»>»M3 

VI. Colophons. 

1 Frajaft farjaminid denman madikan-i G6sht-i Fryano, levatman 
denman Arda-Viraf, yin yom-i Amerodad^ bidana Shatvcro^ shanat-i 
DC va XVIII Pdrstk; 2 1i, dino bondak, IJws/dm-i Mitro-apan-i Marz- 
pan-^■ Dahishn-aiyyar-i aerpat, min yadman niptk aerpat Mitv6-pandhk-i 
Srosh-yar-i I^isbapur-i aerpat nipisht. 3 Pavan Yadadan kamak yelie- 

4 Frajaft farjammid denman Arda-Viraf, va denman madikan-i 

VI. The first colojilion occurs both in He and K20, though the date and names 
differ ; but the second colophon occurs only in He- 1, 4, 12. Kjo omits J . 
1, 13. K,o ) )yiy Sashnil va. 1, 15. K20 )f(^ Dmo. l, 18—20. Kjo 
■^^H''0 _3"0"^ -^^ YazdaJcardiJc. 2, 4. corrected from H'^y to agree 
with 5, 29 ; K,o has ^^))^.f J«))i5^^ ^^^^^.f ^3 ^^J^M 
jp^^^^i) aerpat sad Mitro-dpdn Kat-Khusroho-i ^litro-dpmi Spen-ddd-i. 
2,6. K20 omits J. 2,7—8. Koo om. 2,11. the idhafat J must be under- 
stood here , and elsewhere , in the colophons. 2, 13. the a is superfluous. 
4, 6. J^'^y substituted in the margin. 

246 G6sht-i Fryano VI. 5-6. 

5Vty-^ ^e)J-o» ^ »h3 ^ 5 )>*o^-f^)^ -"V-f yv*y^ ^)5-^ 

Fryano, yin yom-i Fravardtno , bidana Vohuman, shanat-i DCCLXYI 
Yazdakard malkaan malka Aiiliarmazdakano ; 5 li, diiio bondak, 
aerpat zadak, austad, Peshyotanu Ram Kam-dino Shatro-yar va Ner- 
yosang' Gdyomat'd va Shatro-aiyyar va Bahrain va niagopat Hormazd- 
yar va aerpat Ram-yar; va niin yadman nipik aerpat Rustam-i Mitro- 
apan-« nipisht. 6 Pavan Yadadan kamak yehevunad ; va min shatrostan 

VI. 5, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21. the conjunction t used instead of the idhafat J, and omitted 
between some of the other names in this genealogy. 5, 13. commonly written 
fty^^(Wj . 5, 30, J is probably superfluous , the writer having copied it 
from 2, 5, without observing that the omission of the succeeding names, ren- 
ders it unnecessary here. 6,8. Pers. -,»y^^'^ Guirkti BharucJl ; this name 

is supplied from another colophon in He ; the folio here being moth-eaten. 

60 as to leave nothing legible but fragments of the letters i and 3. 

The tale of 

GrOsht-i Fryanfi. 

English translation 

E. W. West, Ph. D. 


The same remarks apply to the text ai this translation, as those prefixed to 
that of the book of Arda Virftf. 

Chapter 1. 

1 ^Fny this tale of G6sht-i Fryanu i be fortunate through the 
assistance^ of God. 

2 They say that, at the time when Akht, the sorcerer, with an 
army of seven myriads, went to the city of Enigma-expounders, 3 he 
also shouted thus: I will make the city of Enigma-expounders a beaten 
track for elephants. 4 And when he came thither, he also demanded 
a man that had not been negligent of the law of God from fifteen 
years of age; 5 and he asked him an enigma. G Everyone who was 
not able to solve it, was also seized and slain by him. 

7 And afterwards, in that city of Enigma-expounders, was a man, 
Marspend by name, 8 and he said to Akht, the sorcerer, thus: Make 
not the city of Enigma-expounders a beaten track for elephants , and 
slay not these innocent people; for 2 in this city of Enigma-expoun- 

1 The identity of this person with the YuisJito yd Fryananum of the Aban 
V'asht 81, is well known to the Parsi priests, and was mentioned in Haug's 'Account 
of a tour in Gujai-at, in 1863 — 64', p. 5, note. The passage, referring to him, in 
the Aban Yasht 81—83, may be translated as follows: 'Yuishta, who was of the 
'Fryanas, offered her the worship (contained) in a hundred of male horses, a thous- 
♦and of cattle, a myriad of new-born animals, on the shore (or island) of Eanha. 
'Then he begged this favor of her: 'Glrant me, good and most gracious Ard* 
"visiira Anahita, that I may be victorious over the evil Akhtya, the gloomy, and 
"that I may answer his questions, ninety and nine of the hard and maliciously 
"hurtful which the evil Akhtya, the gloomy, asked me". He is also mentioned in 
the Fravardin Yasht 120, thus: 'We honor the fravasM of Yoishta of the Fryanas'. 

2 Or 'who are in this city of Enigma 'expounders. There i^ a man', etc.; 
according to the reading of the MSS. 


250 Uuslit-i Fryaiio I. 10 — 25. 

(.lers, there is a man, Gusht-i Fryanu by name, who has not been 
negligent of the law from fifteen years of age; 10 and each enigma 
of those which thou askest him , he will explain to thee. 

11 Then Akht, the sorcerer, sent a message to G6sht-i Fryano, 
12 thus: Come up to my residence, so that I may ask thee thirty and 
three i enigmas; 13 and if thou givest no answer, or you say thus: 
'I know not', then I^will slay thee immediately. 

14 And G6slit-i Fryano came to the residence of Akht, the sor- 
cerer; IT) and because Akht, the sorcerer, had the dead matter 2 of 
men under the carpet, he went not in. Ki And he sent a message to 
Akht, the sorcerer, 17 thus: You have the dead matter of men under 
the carpet; 18 and when I come in, the archangels » are wdth me, in 
that place where the dead matter of men exists, and into which I 
come; lil then my archangels withdraw from protecting me, 2(J and 
afterwards I shall not be able to explain those enigmas which thou 
askest me. 

21 Then Akht, the sorcerer, ordered them to carry away that 
carpet and covering , and to bring and lay * a new carpet ; 22 and he 
also spoke, in his request to Gosht-i Fryano, 23 thus: Gome, sit upon 
this covering and cushion, and truly explain the enigma which I 
ask thee. 

24 G6sht-i Fryano said thus : Felon and & wicked tyrant ! I sit 
not upon this cushion; for in this cushion is the dead matter of men; 
25 and with me are the angels'"' and archangels; they are my pro- 

• Ninety-nine are mentioned in the AhAn Yasht, 82, 

'•^ Eithef some part of a dead body, or some refuse of a living one, such an'. 
liari', nail-parings, etc., by contact with which the 'pious' arQ defiled. 

3 The seven amesh&spends. 

•• Literally 'throw'. 

^ Literally 'felon of a wicked tyrant', which is precisely the Common I'nglish 
w^y of putting epithets in apposition, as in the colloquial phrases; 'fool of a ser- 
vaiif, 'rascal of a lawyer', 'knave of a priest', 'angel of a woman', etc. 

" The yazada. 

GOsht-i Fryuiiu I. 20. -II. 10. 251 

tection ; 26 and if I sluill sit upon this cusliion, then my spirits with- 
draw from protecting me; '21 consequently it will not be possible for 
me to explain the enigmas which thou askest me. 

28 And after Akht, the sorcerer, ordered them to carry away 
that cushion, and bring a new one, 2;> Gosht-i Fryano sat uj)on that 
new cushion. 

Chapter II. 

1 Thq first enigma Akht, the sorcerer, asked G6sht-i Fryano, was 
this: 2 Is the paradise in the world good, or that which is in heaven? 

3 G6sht-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living", felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to hell when dead 2 1 4 for 
the paradise which is in the world, is better than that which is in 
heaven. 5 And a token of it is this , that anyone who performs no 
duty, nor good work, in the world, meets not there with censure there- 
from. G And a second token for thee is this, that if thou shalt do, in 
the world, anything which is not virtuous , then thou comest not, 
through it, to the good paradise. 

7 And Akht, the sorcerer, as soon as he heard those words, be- 
came confounded, 8 as though a man who performs a yesht^, had 
become stupified. 9 And so he said thus : It is a misfortune for me, 
Akht the sorcerer, owing to thee, Gosht-i Fryano, that thou art vic- 
torious over me. 10 As a strong man over the strongest man, and a 
strong horse over the strongest horse, and a strong bull over the 
strongest bull, as the sky over the earth, thou art predominant*. 

' Literally 'in the misery of the living', 

- Literally 'to the hell of the dead'. 

^ A thanksgiving, with invocation and praise of some particular angel, or 
archangel; the recitation of -which, in an unknown tongue, if long conMnued , is 
very apt to deaden the faculties. 

* That is, merely through accident, or circumstances: not through natural 
strength, or intellect. 

252 Gosht-i Fryano II. 11—26, 

11 For I have slain, through this enigma, nine hundred Magian men, 

12 who had so much performed their worship of God, that on account 
of drinking so much horn -juice, all their bodies had become yellow, 

13 I also slew the nine daughters of Spitama ', although through 
glorifying the religion, .they obtained a crown, inlaid with gold and 
pearls, from the rulers. 14 When I asked them, and they said that 
the paradise which is in heaven is good, 15 I said thus : As you deem 
it good, so also it is well that you go to that good paradise. 16 And 
1 took and slew them. 

17 The second enigma he asked, was this: What is that thing, 
of the creatures of Auharmazd, which sits on its posteriors higher than 
it stands on foot 'i 

18 G6sht-i Fryano said thus: Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to hell when dead; 19 for 
that is a dog. 

20 The third enigma he asked, was this: What is that, of the 
creatures of Auharmazd, wliich walks and plants no footstep ? 

21 G6sht-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living , felon and wicked tyrant ! and fall to hell when dead ; 22 for 
that is a sparrow which walks and plants no footstep '-. 

23 The fourth enigma he asked, was this : What is that thing, of 
the creatures of Auharmazd, whose tooth is horny, and horn fleshy ? 

24 G6sht-i Fryano said thus: Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant ! and fall to hell when dead ; 25 for 
they call that a cock, the bird of Srosh the pious; 26 and when 
it crows, it keeps away the misfortunes of life from the creatures 
of Auharmazd. 

1 Spitaman in Palilavl , the usual orthography for Spitama , tlie ancestor of 
Zarathushtra; altliough it is also a patronymical adjective, meaning 'the Spitaman', 
or 'descendant of Spitama'. But as Zarathushtra had only three daughters, the 
name Spitaman cannot refer to him here. 

' That is, takes no stride, but merely hops. 

Gosht-i Fryiliio II. 27 — 43. 253 

27 The fifth enigma he asked, was this: Is a small knife good, 
or little eating ? 

'J8 G6sht-i Fryanu said thus : Mayst thou he in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant I and fall to hell when dead; 39 for a 
small knife is better than little eating; 30 since it is proper to cut 
and collect the baresom i with a small knife ; 31 and little eating 
reaches not to the belly, and if it reaches, it produces wind. 

32 The sixth enigma he asked, was this: What is full? and what 
is that which is half full ? and what is that which is never full ? 

33 Gosht-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to hell when dead; 34 for 
that which is full is fame which is powerful 2 here , and when it shall 
pass away, the soul is pious ; 35 that which is half full is indigent 
misery whose life is wretched, and when it shall die, the soul is pious; 
3G and that which is empty, which is never full, is that misery whose 
life is wretched, and when it shall die, the soul is wicked. 

37 The seventh enigma he asked, was this : What is that thing 
which men wish to conceal, and it is not possible for them to conceal it? 

38 Gosht-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
Uving, felon and wicked tyrant ! and fall to hell when dead ; 39 for 
that is old age which no one is able to conceal; 40 for old age is 

41 The eighth enigma he asked, was this: W^hich is that living 
man who sees Asti-vihad ^ and dies , and his wish is so that he may 
go back to the living; 42 and again also he sees Asti-vihad and will 
die, and it appears to him easy ? 

43 Gosht-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 

» The small twigs of the pomegranate, tamarisk, or date, tree which are tied 
together in a small bundle and have tq be present at all the sacrificial ceremonies 
of the Parsis. 

» 2 Or 'wealthy'. 

3 The demon of death. 

254 Gosht-i Fryano II. 44-57. 

living, felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to hell when dead; 44 for 
that is the man who has performed no worship i and has drunk no 
hom-juice ; 45 and a second is that man who has come to the time 
of marriage, and has not married a wife; 46 and a third is that man 
who has not honored a living soul, and has not given alms 2, and has 
not performed the worship of God, and of his alms to the good man 
he said thus: 'I give', and he has not given; 47 and iviien he dies, 
his wish is so that he may go back to the living ; 48 and again also 
he dies, and sees Asti-vlhad, and it appears to him easy. 

49 The ninth enigma he asked , was this : In how many months 
do the elephant and the horse and the camel and the ass and the 
cow and the sheep and woman and the dog and the pig and the cat 
give birth ? 

50 Grosht-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to hell when dead; 51 for 
the elephant gives birth in three years, and the horse and camel and 
ass give birth in twelve months, and the cow and woman give birth 
in nine months, and the sheep gives birth in five months, and the dog 
and pig give birth in four months, and the cat gives birth in forty days. 

52 The tenth enigma he asked, was this: Which man 3 lives in 
more pleasure and more comfort ? 

53 Gosht-i Fryano said thus: Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
Uving, felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to hell when dead; 54 for 
that man lives in more pleasure and more comfort, who is more un- 
alarmed and contented and more wealthy, 

55 The eleventh enigma he asked , was this : What is that thing 
which, in the world, is like unto Auharmazd and the archangels ? 

5<i Gosht-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to hell when dead; 57 fon 

1 Or 'thanksgiving'. 

- liiterally: 'a pious gift". 

^ Literally : 'Which of mankind" 

tlus1it-l FryAno II. 58 — C5. 255 

in the world, r rulev is like unto Auharmazd and tile archangels; 
■ )^ and the abode i of rulers is like the resplendent Garodmano - ; 
59 and the ministers of rulers are like unto the archangels, 60 and are 
in the residence of kings s, like unto that constellation which they 
call Parviz*; Gi other men, when they are industrious and skilful, are 
like unto the other small stars which are in the sky. 

62 The twelfth enigma he asked, was this : Of food, which is the 
more agreeable and more savory ? 

63 U6slit-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living , felon and wicked tyrant ! and fall to hell when dead ; 64 for 
of food, that is the more savory and more agreeable, which is acquired 
by means ^ of honest exertion , and duties and good works consume it 
again and possess it. 

6o The thirteenth enigtoa he asked , was this : Which is the one ? 
and which, the two ? and which, the three ? and which, tlie four ? and 
which, the five ? and which, the six ? and which, the seven ? and which, 
the eight ? and which, the nine ? and which are the ten ? 

1 Literally: 'place'. 

2 The highest paradise, or heaven of Auharmazd; literally: 'the abode of 
SOng' ; see Arda-Tiraf namak X. — XL 

3 Or 'kings in residence are', 

■* Generally identified with the Pleiades, which Were considered by the an- 
cients to be seven in number (although one of them had become invisible) and 
might, therefore, be readily compared with the heavenly council of the seven 
Ameshaspende. In the Bundehesh, I'arviz is the third lunar mansion which, allowing 
for the precession of the equinoxes, must have best corresponded with the Pleiades 
about 1800 years ago. Its Zand name is Paurvanya but the 'star-studded, spiwt- 
faehioned, Paurvanyan girdle' of Yas. IX. 26, may perhaps be a much older appli- 
cation of the name, to the more brilliant seven stars of Orion, which would have 
well represented the third lunar mansion, some 3500 years ago. It would be 
hazardous to assume that the introduction of the name Parviz into the text, Is any 
allusion to Khusro Parviz who reigned from A. D. 590 to 628; otherwise, this pas- 
sage might afford a means of estimating the age of the Pahlavi text, 

'" Literally : 'from the way'. 

256 OOsht-i Fry^nC II. f-6.- III. C, 

()G Gosht-i Fryanu said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to liell when dead; G7 for 
the One is the good sun, which keeps the whole world illumined; 
G8 and the Two are the inhaling and exhaling i of the breath; 09 and 
the Three are the good thoughts and good words and good deeds : 
70 and the Four are water and earth and trees and beasts ; 71 and 
the Five are the five good Kayanians '- ; 72 and the Six are the six 
times of the Gahanbars^; 73 and the Seven are the seven archangels ; 
74 and the Eight are the eight good celebrities ^ ; 75 and the Nine are 
the nine openings in the bodies of men; 76 and the Ten are the ten 
fingers on the hands of men. 

Chapter III. 

1 The twenty and third ■'• enigma he asked , was this : What is 
the colder? 

2 G6sht-i Fryano said thus: Mayst thou be in misery whilst living, 
felon and wicked tyrant ! and fall to hell when dead ; 3 for it is not 
so as thou thinkest, but so as I know; 4 and it is thus thou thinkest, 
that the snow is colder which remains on the mountain, and the sun 
never warms it; 5 but it is not so as thou thinkest, for the mind of 
a wicked man is colder. And a token of it is this, that thou, Akht 

' Literall) : 'fetching and carrying'. 

- Those five Persian kings were Kai-Kabiul, Kai-ICahus, Kai-Khiisruv, Kai- 
[.un'isp and Kai-Gushtasp. 

3 Tlie season festivals held respectively on the 45*'', 105<li, ISO'li, 2lOtl", 290111 
and 3C5tli days of the Parsi year, wliicli begins now on tlie 21st September, accord- 
ing to the reckoning of the Indian Parsis. 

•» Or 'stories'. It is nnecrtain what celebrated octade of notables, or legends, 
is here referred to. 

° With regard to the apparent omission of nine enigmas, between this and 
tlie tliirteenth, see the note in the transliteration of the Pahlavi text. 


G6sht-i Fntmu III. 7-22. 257 

the sorcerer, hast i a brother who is wicked ; 7 and as many haudfuls 
of poison - as reside in his heart, thou art not able to melt, not witli 
the sun and not with the fire; 8 and when I take it in the palm of 
my hand, it will melt. 

Then Akht, the sorcerer, ordered them to bring and slay his 
own brother, and to take away the poison from the heart; 10 hid he 
was not able to melt it, not with the sun and not with the fire; II and 
Goaht-i Fryano took it up in the palm of the hand, and melted it. 

12 The twenty and fourth enigma he asked, was this: What is 
the hotter r' 

13 G6sht-i Fryano said thus : 3Iayst thou be in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant ! and fall to hell when dead ; 14 for the 
palm of the hand of a pious man is the hotter; la and a token of it 
for thee is this, that it was not possible to melt thy brother's poison, 
not with the sun and not with the fire ; IG but when taken up in the 
palm of my hand, it melted away. 

17 The twenty and fifth enigma ho asked, was this : What is good 
when it goes down ? and what is good ivJtoi it is chilled ? and what is 
good when ^ it shall die ? 

18 Gosht-i Fryano said thus: Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living , felon and wicked tyrant ! and fall to hell when dead ; ID for 
water is good which goes down; and fire is good which is chilled; 
and a lelon and wicked tyrant, like thee, is good who shall die. 20 
Since, if water goes not down, and fire cools not, and a felon and 
wicked tyrant, like thee, dies not, 21 then so the whole world would 
be full of water and fire, and full of felons and wicked tyrants, like 
thee, and it would not be possible to preserve the world. 

22 The twenty and sixth enigma he asked , was this : What is 

' Literally : 'that for thee, Akht the soi'cerer, Is'. 
- Or perhaps 'gall', 

3 In the text 'which', but the Huzvaresh mun, 'wliicir, is ot'toii substituted for 
rtniaf, 'when'; the Pazand of both being ka, or ke. 


258 OnsliM KryAiiu III. 2:^—40. 

heavier than a moantain ? 23 and what is sharper than a steel knife ? 
24 and what is sweeter than honey? 25 and what is fatter than the 
tail of a sheep ? 1 26 and what is more liberal than the liberal ? 27 and 
what is juster than the just? 

28 G6sht-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living , felon and wicked tyrant ! and fall to hell when dead ; 29 for 
falsehood and irreverence are heavier - than a mountain ; 3() and the 
tongues of men are sharper than a steel knife ; 31 and a child of 
fortune 3 is sweeter than honey, for its father and mother; 32 and the 
earth and rain of Spendarmad * are fatter than the tail of a sheep ; 
33 and Tishtar, the angel, is more liberal than the liberal; 34 and 
juster than the just is Vayo ^ the good, who is no favorer of any per- 
son, and takes no bribe, and has justice for the lord and the slave, 
one with the other, 

35 The twenty and seventh enigma he asked, was this: Which 
foot is the better and handsomer ? 30 because of the many feet which 
I have seen, her foot is the handsomest and best which I have seen, 
who is Hii-parsh, thy sister and my wife. 

37 G6sht-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to hell when dead; 38 for the 
foot of Water <5 is handsomer and better. 39 And a token of it for 
thee is this, that there where Water places a foot, vegetation will 
grow; 40 and there where HA-parsh places a foot, will be dry. 

1 Referring to the fat-tailed species of sheep, common in some parts of Asia 
and Africa. 

2 That is, 'more burdensome'. 

^ Or 'affliction', if tlie Pahlavi be ranjo'ilt^ as seems likely. 

* The female archangel of the earth, 'the bountiful Armaiti' ; perhaps the rain 
is misplaced in the Pahlavi text, as it is the special gift of Tishtar, see Mkh. LXII. 

'^ The 'air', a name of the angel Ham ; but the actions here attributed to him, 
are rather those of Rashn, the just, the weigher of the actions of men. 

" The female angel of water, Ardvi-sCira Andhi^a ; see the Aban Yaslit. 

Goslit-i Fryiiiio III. 41-57. 259 

41 The twenty and eighth enigma he asked, was this: Whence is 
the great pleasure of women ? 

43 Goslit-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to hell when dead; 43 for it 
is not so as thou thinkest, but so as I know; 44 for it is thus thou 
thinkest, that the great pleasure of women is from various kinds of 
dress and seemly housewifery, when they have them. 45 However, it 
is not so ; the great pleasure of women is from being with their own 

4G Akht the sorcerer said thus: You speak false i, and through 
this enigma I will slay thee ; 47 now come along, I will go unto Hii- 
parsh , to her who is thy sister and my wife, 48 and she never told a 
lie, nor tells it, and by her word I will abide. 

49 G6sht-i Fryano was acquiescent; and Akht the sorcerer, with 
G6sht-i Fryano, went into the presence of Hii-parsh ; 50 and they also 
spoke thus: Sit down, and explain this enigma truly. 51 G6sht-i 
Fryano said thus : Is the great pleasure of women from dress of various 
kinds and seemly housewifery, when they have them? 5'i or is their 
great pleasure from being with their own husbands ? 

53 Then Hu-parsh thought thus: A dilemma indeed has come to 
me, which thing is the felon and wicked tyrant, the sorcerer, as he 
will not cease till he shall slay me ; 54 and since if I speak false, then 
he will slay my brother, and I shall become wicked, and so it will be 
well that I speak true; 55 and moreover, if I speak false, I shall be 
wicked myself, and he will destroy the law and rehgion and custom-'; 
but when he slays me through s truth, I shall be more pious. 56 And 
she covered over her head with a veil, and spoke out 57 thus: The 
great pleasure of women is from dress of various kinds and seemly 

1 Or 'he speaks false', or perhaps 'a lie is spoken', as the Huz. yemalelmed 
appears to be used for the past participle, as well as for the present tense. 
- By slaying her brother, who was their main support. 
^ That is, 'because of. 

260 Gosht-i Fryano III. 58 — 68, 

housewifery; 58 but when they are without cohabitation, they are in 
pain and uneasiness, and those pleasures are nothing whatever but 
pain and discomfort ; 59 and when they have cohabitation i , then they 
are in greater pleasure. 

60 And afterwards, Akht the sorcerer, when he heard those words, 
became angry 2, and slew Hu-parsh at once. Gl And the soul of Hu- 
parsh went, at once, to Garodmano^; G2 and it cried thus: Good am 
I; hitherto I have been pious, and now I am still more pious; 63 but 
evil art thou, Akht the sorcerer; hitherto thou hast been wicked, and 
now thou hast become still more wdcked. 

64 The twenty and ninth enigma he asked, was this: What is 
that which Jias ten feet 4, and three heads, and six eyes, and six ears, 
and two tails, and three pair of testicles, and two hands ^, and three 
noses, and four horns, and three backs, and the life and preservation 
of the whole world comes from it? 

65 G6sht-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to hell when dead; 66 for it 
is thus declared by the religion, that when the call of nature"^ arises, 
it is not the custom to explain the enigma they ask. 

67 And Akht, the sorcerer, said thus: Go and sit down ^ in a 
neighbouring place, and attend to the call of nature, and come again 
quickly, and truly explain the enigma; 68 for if you speak false, or if 
you say thus: 'I know not', then 1 will slay thee at once. 

» liiterally : 'when cohabitation is with them'. 

-' Literally ; 'seized anger' ; the usual Persian idiom. 

' The highest paradise. 

* Or 'legs'. 

5 Or 'arms'. 

" According to the explanation in the Persian text, which seems probable; 
peshkdr is a euphemism analogous to pesJvjdr and peshdb. 

'' Europeans should bear in mind, that it is a sin for a Mazdayasnian to make 
water wliilsL standiiifr. , - . - , ■ 

Gosht-i Fryano III. 69-84. 261 

69 And Gusht-i Fryano wont ont, and sat down upon a stone i; 
70 and he thought, in his mind, thus : A dilemma indeed has come to 
me, which is this felon and wicked tyrant, and which ceases not till 
he shall slay; 71 for if those who are living, and moreover those who 
are dead, become living again, had to explain this enigma, they would 
not be able. 

72 Afterwards, Auharraazd the lord, sent Neryosang the angel, 
with a message to G6sht-i Fryano, 73 and he said to him thus: Give 
the answer of the enigma , which is this : ' It is a yoke of oxen , with 
'a man who performs ploughing and tillage'. 74 And Gosht-i Fi-yano, 
as he heard a voice and then saw no one, was doubtful; 75 and he 
thought, in his mind, thus: Nay but if they be Akharman and the 
demons, and their desire and wish be this, that they shall slay me; 
76 and if I give this enigma such an answer, then that felon and 
wicked tyrant will slay me. 

77 And afterwards, Neryosang, the angel, came near to Gosht-i 
Fryano, 78 and he said thus : Fear not, for I am Neryosang the angel, 
I am sent to thee, 70 and it is said by him who is Auharmazd, the 
lord, thus: 'Give the answer of this enigma; for the enigma is a yoke 
'of oxen, with a man who performs tillage'. 80 And Gosht-i Fryano, 
when he heard those words, then became extremely joyful 2. 81 Im- 
mediately, he went into the presence of Akht the sorcerer, and said 
82 thus : Lo ! 3 felon and wicked tyrant , the answer of this enigma is 
this: 'for this is a yoke of oxen, with a man who performs ploughing 
'for cultivation'. 

83 And Akht, the sorcerer, when he heard those words, at once 
became confounded, and remained confounded three days and nights. 
84 And after three days and nights, he returned to consciousness, and 

' That is, a stone used as a seat in the ceremony of purification. 
- Or 'the afflicted became joyful'. 
3 Or perhaps, 'this is it'. 

262 G6sht-i Fry&no III. 85 — 95. 

said to Gosht-i Fryano, 85 thus: The enigmas are thine i, Gosht-i 
Fryano, who puttedst trust in 2 Auharmazd, the lord, who comes imme- 
diately to thy support and assistance. 

80 The thirtieth enigma he asked , was this : Which horse is the 
better ? 

87 G6sht-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to hell when dead; 88 for the 
male horse which is extolled 3, and with a pedigree, is good; when 
they ought to keep it with the horses of royalty *. 

89 The thirty and first enigma he asked, was this : What is that 
which is dry and will not burn? & and what is that which is damp and 
will burn ? e 

90 Gosht-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to hell when dead; 91 for that 
is dust which is dry and burns not, and it is grease which is damp 
and will burn «. 

92 The thirty and second enigma he asked, was this : Which king 
is good ? 

93 Gosht-i Fryano said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to hell when dead; 94 for 
that king is the better who is the more merciful, and is excellent in 
wisdom and knowledge, and he is fond of the creation 7. 

95 The thirty and third enigma he asked, was this: How many 
riches are there for thee , Gosht-i Fryano ? 

1 Or 'happily is it for thee', according to some MSS. 
- Literally : 'whose trust clung to'. 
3 Or perhaps, 'swift'. 

^ Or perhaps, 'blackness', an epithet of the Arabs; but both the text and 
translation of this sentence, are doubtful. 
* Or 'but burns not'. 
« Or 'but burns'. 
^ Literally : 'and kindness for the creation is with him'. 

Gosht-i FryAno III. %. - IV. 18. 263 

96 Gosht-i Fryanu said thus : Mayst thou be in misery whilst 
living, felon and wicked tyrant! and fall to hell when dead; 1J7 for 
there are three riches for me: one is that which I eat; and one, that 
which I wear ; and one, that which I give to the poor and worthy. 

Chapter IV. 

1 Afterwards, G6sht-i Fryano said thus: The thirty and three 
enigmas, asked me by thee, are all truly explained ; 2 now 1 ask thee 
three enigmas ; if thou givest no answer, I will slay thee immediately. 

And Akht, the sorcerer, said thus: Ask, so that I may explain. 

4 And G6sht-i Fryano said thus : How much is the value of the 
seed of one cubit of land? 5 And the second he asked, was this: How 
much is the value of the ploughing of one ox? 6 And the third he 
asked, was this: How much is the value of the duty and good work 
of one next-of-kin marriage ? 

7 Akht, the sorcerer, knew not, and he said thus: The call of 
nature arises, and it is not the custom to explain the enigma they ask. 
8 Gosht-i Fryano said thus: Go and sit down in a neighbouring place, 
and attend to the call of nature, and come again quickly, and truly 
explain these three enigmas ; 9 for if you say thus : 'I know not', then 

1 will slay thee immediately. 

10 Akht, the sorcerer, through sorcery, rushed into hell; li and 
he shouted to Akharman, thus : Accursed ! how much is the value of 
the seed of one cubit of land? 12 and second, thus: how much is the 
value of the ploughing of one ox? 13 and third, how much is the 
value of the duty and good w^ork of a next-of-kin marriage ? 

14 The accursed Akharman shouted to Akht, the sorcerer, thus: 
I am not able to answer these enigmas of thine; 1") for, if I shall 
speak, my creatures ivill all depart, with the demons and demonesses 
and witches ; IG and I have not more friendship for thee than for my 
own creatures. 17 Should I give thee the answer of these enigmas which 
thou hnst asked me, 18 all my creatures will become inefficient, and 

264 Gosht-i Fryano IT. 19 — 27. 

nothing whatever of opposition will remain, 19 owing to the efficiency 
which will come upon the creatures of Auharmazd i ; and the resur- 
rection of the dead and the future body would occur - immediately. 
20 Go and put forth thy neck; it is not a breach of promise, though 
he preserves the enigma ; 21 and when the time has arrived , it is not 
possible to avert it ; 22 for thy place is hell , and thy punishment is 
more severe than that of all the wicked. 

23 And Akht, the sorcerer, rushed up from hell hopeless, and 
was brought, for his destruction, into the presence of G6sht-i Fryano. 
24 And Akht, the sorcerer, said to G6sht-i Fryano 25 thus: The enig- 
mas are thine s, G6sht-i Fryano, with whom have been Auharmazd 
and the archangels; that which thou hast not known, they have said 
for thee; 20 but I, whose trust rested on Akharman and the demons, 
asked three enigmas of Akharman and the demons, and for me they 
have given no answer. 

27 And after that, Gosht-i Fryano destroyed * Akht the sorcerer, 
at once, with the nirang {religious formula) of the baresom- gathering 
knife, and destroyed * the demoness in his body. 

' Such appears to be the meaning of the Pahlavi text. 

2 Literally : 'would be', or 'is'. 

3 Or 'happily is it for thee', according to some MSS. 
* Literally : 'rendered useless'. 


Gosht-i Fryano V. 1.— VI. 1. 265 

V. Postscript. 

J Whoever shall read this tale together with his servants', and 
shall say one Yatha-ahu-vairyo ^ at the end, 2 the good work, in his 
soul, is such as though they should kill a snake with the nirang * of 
the Avesta; 3 the spiritual life, in his soul, is such as when he offers 
up the prayers ^ of the recited Gathas for three years ; 4 and there 
was a destur who said , that there is no spiritual life at the end of ^ 
one year's sin of non-worship. 

Completed in health, pleasure and joy. (5 May Akht, the sor- 
cerer, he destroyed, wath all the demons and demonesses and sorcerers 
and witches. 

VT. Colophons.^ 

1 Completed and ended this tale of G6sht-i Fryano, with this 
Arda Viraf, on the day of Amcrdad, the month Shahriwar, the Parsi 

' The first paragraph of this postscript, may have been written by the author 
of the tale, as it occurs in botli tho old MSS.; but the second paragraph is found 
in only one MS. 

- Or perhaps, 'to his kindred and, servants'. 

3 One of the most sacred religious formulas of the Parsis, which ought to be 
recited before and after any act of importance ; in some cases, several times. 

» A religious formula used in such cases as a charm, or exorcism. 

^ Or 'praise'. 

« That is, 'after'. 

' These colophons are given as they stand in He ; the first one also occurs 
in Kjo, with variations merely in the date and name of the copyist; so that both 
of these old MS8. are traced baci< to the same original, the MS. of Mihrpanah 
Sroshyar of Nishapiir, which was existing in the first half of the thirteenth century 
A. D. The names are translated into their Persian form. 


■266 C46sht-i Fryanu VI. 2—6. 

year 618 i; 2 written by me, the servant of the religion, Rustam son 
of Mihrban, son of Marzaban^, son of Dahishyar, the herbacl, from 
the handwriting » of herbad ]\Iihrpanah , son of Srushyar of Nishapur, 
the herbad. 3 May it be with the will of God. 

4 Completed and ended this Ai'da Yiraf, and this talc of (losht-i 
Fryano, on the day of Fravardin, the month Bahman, the year Ttili of 
Yazdagard^j king of kings, son of Aiiharmazd ; 5 written by me, the 
servant of the religion, the herbad's son, the teacher Peshyotan, so7i of 
Ram, S071 of Kamdin, so7i of Shahriyar, son of Bahram , son of the 
mobad Hormazdyar, son of the herbad Ramyar ; and from the hand- 
writing of the herbad Rustam, son of Mihrban, 6 May it be with the 
will of God; and it is from the city of Bhrckdi, 

I Coirespoiiding to tliu l«tli July A.D. 1249, if written in Indiii , where the 
Raanii computation would be used. 

-' The copyist named in K20, i« 'the herhad's son Mihrban, so)l of Kai-Klu'isro, 
sou 0/ Mihrban, son 0/" Spendad (elsewhere, Spend-ddd), son 0/" Mihrban, so)( of 
Marzaban' ; identifying the last two names with the same names in He , we may 
conclude that the Si)endad of K^,, was a brotlier of the Txustam of Ho. and there- 
fore, Mihrban, the copyist mentioned in K.c ^^"s a great grand-nejihev. of lUistam. 
the copyist mentioned in lie ; this conclusion is confirmed by the date mentioned 
in K.,0, wliich corresi)onds to the Sth ^'ovember A.D. 1321, or 7-2 years later than 
the date given in llg, which interval would be necessary for tlie three generations 
inferred from the gene.ilogy. 

3 That is, MS. 

' Corresponding to the 2Utli JS'ovcniber A.D. lo'JT; tlie year in whicli the MS, 
Hr was written. 

Appendix IL 

Tlie three Faroards 

Hadokht lask 

which are still extant. 


The Zand and Palilavi Texts, 

with a transliteration of tlie Pahlavi, 
and various roadiiigs. 

(Westergaanl's Yasht Fraomenrs XXI. 1. — XXII. 36.) 
Kdited by 

M. Hang, Ph. D. 


The same remarks apply to tliis text as to the foregoing. The Zand and 
Pahlavi versions alternate as they are found in the MSS,, and the sentences are 
numbered in accordance with those altei-nations ; but the nujnbers of Westergaard's 
sections are also given, in the margin, for the convenience of the student. Addi- 
tional sentences in the Pahlavi version are marked a), as supplementary to the 
preceding sentence. 

The transliteration applies only to the Pahlavi text, and phrases which are 
merely explanatory of the preceding words, are marked as parentheses, when 

In the various readings, all references marked Z. , relate to the Zand text, in 
which the words alluded to, are marked with an asterisk *, and the components 
of compound words are counted separately. Besides the MSS. He and Koq, which 
have been previously described , some references are made to the following : 

K21 - the Kopenhagen MS. No. 21, which is a careless and modern copy of K.,o. 

P7 — the Paris MS. No. 7 of Anquetil's collection, which is a somewhat 
older copy of K20. 

The variations of the Zand version in Kooi ^n 'ind P7 are taken from 
Westergaard's published text, which is very correct, but does not notice some of 
the minor variations in orthography. Some variations, indicated by (i., have been 
taken from a Oujarati transliteration of the Zand text, contained in the Farjiat-e 
Jaratoshti, Bombay, A.Y. 1207 (A.D. 1838), which may have been derived from 
other MSS, The Pahlavi version, however, lias been settled from a collation of 
the two old MSS. Hg and K,n. 

Chapter I. 

I Westergaanl's Yasht Fragment XXI. 1 — 17.| 

. (o^ .'-ujj£^^ 2 ajP-^c -'>*0i^^rQ)^ -'>*oo^ j^>*^ ^^)r^v 

Chapter I. 

[PaMavi.] i Pursid Zaratuhasht min Auharraazd aigh: Auhar- 
niazd, nimavad-i afziinik, dadar-e gehan-i ast-li6mandan-i yasharubo, 
J kadar lak min valmansliaii gubisJmdnd mun pavan guhishno harvisp 
dvddih va harvisp yasharaish pedakih hamak 

I. Z. 1,7. Hfi has > for >. Z. 1,8. K.q has UJA* for i, 

here and elsevrhere. 1,9, both omit i. 1,11. Koq has ) for j, Z. 2,1. 
compare Z. ahmya and yahnya ; all the MSS. have ,}iii for -jujj , which is 
a blunder easily made. Z. 2, 6, 8. He has j for ^ , here and elsewhere. 
2, 5, 8. Kjo omits final ^ . 2, 10. or perhaps dscldih. 

270 Hadokht Nask I. 3- G. 

tat ^^y ^-^ ^^4*'^^ w3 /v)y"^e) tin ^^^d) 3 '3 

bun va hixv-i pedAk aigli f'ranniih dad y(>kavimuued, zyani guft aigli : 
Nafsliman glial yehevimed? 

'■\ Pasukhoih val valmaii guft Auhannazd, aigh : Yasharaisli-sta- 
yisiinih Zaratuiiasht , ashcni-volifdv. 4 jMuii yashavaisli stayT'd pavan 
iVaiianiisliiiu-i kabed (aigh kabed l)ai') va doniiiau kav frOpatcd-i madani 
iniidshno minisliiiik iitun v\i\\nk-da}iisJimh miu (ilirn. ') Zak-i li stayad 
mun Auharmazd-oin , 

I. 2,17. Ilfi om. 2, IS. K,o omits J. Z. a, 7. all but Ilr, liavo > for a. Z. 
4, 4-.5. K.-o J|<OiJ/^ . »j)j4-"'^' ^- ■^' f'- -"»•»* '" "") ''"*^ ^^^" ^'^^V- 
XIV. 2. Z. 4,8. all omit tho sccoinl jj . 4,10. i) in Visp. XIV. 2. 4,13 
— 14. ))^ ^ -f^^Vd '" '^''^'l^- >^JV.2. 4,19. K.o omits ^^ . 4,21. 
Visp. XIV. 2. adds )yi^f^ ^^ > ^. ^5, H- <"• '"is iJi. f'"' f»»» . Z. G, 15. 
lie lias > lor ». 

Harloklit Xask T. 7-9. 271 

^^ro) ^^.^ -i5tiil so**rtJ) ^^^a -<)-^^^-H^ iC ItT soo-^-^y**^ 

• -u^^)>;> . -u^)02x)*lt^c4j/^^ • -"^>oe)o*€^ '^ 0*0 j)ro)^ m 
/vro^^rcD -xj-^^W '))0 )^wm^ )Y»^^^ ^^^ 0*0 Gj) 

li zak-'/ maya stayad, vu zak-< clamik stayad, va zak-?' gospeiul stayarl, 
va zak-^ aurvar stayad, va zak-« hanisp «^;af//'/i-^ Auliannazd-dad, iniui 
iiiin yasharaisb pedak stayad (fa///<a,s/< hamak stayad yehevimd). 7 3Iaman 
zak-« giibislino-? Zaratuhaslit-i arshukht fraz guft, va fraz giift-z rast-/ 
fVariino, amat pavan zak giibishiio-? valman-^■ Aliu-ver fraz yeiiialeluni-air 
pavan dastobar; 8 amavandih va piriizkarib va riiban va dino l)ara afza- 
vad. '.t Aijed , SpUdmdno Zaratuhasbtar; khadiik yasbaraisb-stayisbnih, 

I, fi, 1. both omit J. 0, 4, «. Kjo omits ^. 0,5,9,13. Hf, omit- J . 0,17. liotli 
omit J. 0,19. or dzihUh-i ; Ifn omits J. 6,26. Kjo omits ,J^ . Z.'?, 6, 
Mil but Hfi have JM for JUJ . 7.2. l\,o omit< J. 7.3. Ho omits J . 7,8. Hn 
omits p 7. 10. Koo omits J. 7.11. K-.q has ^ for J. 7,16. He omits J. 
7,17. K,o omits J. Z. s 2. -U^ only in lis. Z. 8,5. G. lias fij for J. 
Z. 9, 8. C>j3 in all but lie. 9, 2. K.,o omits final j . 

272 Had6kht Nask I. 10-11. 

ashem-vohuk ae, khaduf khaduk yasharuhdn simdyaddrih, 10 C khvdp, 
va M bisraya-khurislinih, va bevar mayud cliigun mCm C khvdp bara 
khelmuned, va M bar bisraya bara vashtaniuned, va bevar bar mayud 
bara vajared, kadarcliai min taniian , amatash bara mill tanu rasishno 
khaijd yamtiined ; zak and arjed. 

I i Kadar yasharaish-stayishnib, ashem volm, I mtin min X zak-i 
zakdi yashardish-stdyishnth mas va 

I. 9,9. Miad substituted for aij. !>, 11. K.y has U)) for U) . 9,12. so in both, 
but more commonly -^^^ji^^yii > Z. lU, 1. G, condenses the remainder 
of the chapter into the following words: dasa gmsh qareitinam , satem 
pascha franharetanam , hazanrem qafnanum, baevare te qafndd fraghri- 
semnandm kaiihdoscMd taminum paro-asti jasoifhydo ; omitting further de- 
tails. Z. 10,3. He inserts ^ after J. Z. 10,5. K.q, P? have JJ for last j. 
10,2,13. jJfor^, or 4JJ , here and elsewhere. 10, 11. K,>o oni. 10,33. 
K20 om. 10, 35-36. K30 J(j)^)«0i5J . Z. 11, 9. He G^|-"^J<?rti> 5 K'" 
€#)""^'f ttJ) 5 ''"* ^^^ 1^'9- ""'^ 21,9. 11,4—13. K20 oni. 

lir-dokht Nask I. 12-10. 273 

• e^^^jii j^-> ^^rei) -x^^^W i ^\^ » ^ty^ j/x^n^V vie) 
rcD^W 14 c% v^ii^'fOO) ))^^ -K^y^ i-^c ) ^))),^ ^i • f^-^^ 

. 4|^CjAojel3j| 1., ^Oq ^)j)*o ^^rei) tin )W^^^ ) vevr* 1 ^-^^^ 

shnpir t'(( naduktum kai^ji ':' 

12 Pamkholh avo valinaii guft Auhaiiiiazd ati>li : Zakicli, yaslia- 
iLibo Zniatuliaslit, !•) amir galu'a iVaz-kliiiiishnili-/ llorvaihu] va Ameru- 
tlarl, va yasliavaiali stayad. /.ak-t Ashom-Yohu valman ycmahlimcif ; va 
akhar i^rosh druiio vashraiiiunei], 14 f'vaz stiiyad liuinat va bukht va 
huvarshtu. aigli stayad yeftevunecl , l.jbara yedruned dushmat i;« dush- 
liuklit va dusli-liAvarshto, aio'hasli Kara yedruiid ychcvCnial. 

I. ll,17,K,o om. Z. 12,(;. He ^^. 12. 1. K,o adds ) to u> . Z. 13. 1. He omits g, 
Z. 13.2. K,.o 0111. 13,4. K.n omits j. 13, s. K,,o om. i:t, II. H^ <imit> J, 
13,15. both omir u , 13, H;. ^i..^^ om. 13,18. K,.o y^. U. :. K,,u omits 
final ^. 14.10. K,o om. Z. 1.'., 1. last JJ onlv in 11,,. l.'),4. Hg om. 
15,11. Ho ^; K,„ ^)))H^. Z. 1(;,4. 9. He has > for a. 


274 Hadoldit Nask I. 17 — 20. 

i(j Kadar khadiik yashariiisli-6'f«y//&7^?«//( , Ashein-voliiik «c, inuii 
iiiin (J valmiinshan-i zakai yiislmraish-stayislmth asli i)ias va sliajur va 
naduktuni arj-i? 

17 Pasukhoih avo valman gut't AuJuii'inazd aigli: Zakich, yasliavubo 
Zaratdfiaslit, 18 aniat gabra, akliar iiiiii fVaz-khiirishnih-i hom-i liunid, 
yasliaraish stayad, zak-i Asliem-voliiik ao bara yemaleluned , va paia- 
hom vashtamiined ; 19 fraz stayad hiiniat va liukht va huvarsht^ 20 
bara ycdiunod 

I. 16, 4. K.o tkm C^JJfQ) . IC, (i. K,o \. Kl, 14, K,o oni. IG, 20. Koq 

omits J. 17,1. Kou adds J to ya , 17,9. K,a ^^^O)^-^ * ^- ^*^' ^• 

all omit g. Z. 18,5. Ho lias -JU For final j. 18,11. Us omits J. 18,15. 

K20 C^)hV' ^'^''^- ^^20 "'^'^^ *^"''' )• '^^ 20,1- last ii only in He. 

Hftdokht Nask I. 2] —25. 275 

L J^IT^-" -JMj ^ ^^ 0*0 J^i^fQ) • 6i^^ . 4|Cj^j^gy>)^»^ 

^0 [continue as in I'.l — ■iU.] J^e))* iKJc/ ^o ■^^■"^OO 

duslimat va dusli-huklit va dusli-liuvarsht. 

21 Kadar Jihadulc yciHhdViiUh-stuijisJinih-i niiii M valmanshan-/ 
/akai yashavaisli-^Mv/is/*?^?/? mas va shapir va uaduktar kasp ? 

22 Pasitkhuih avo valman giift Auliarniazd aigh: Zakioh, yasha- 
lubu /jciratfihasht^ 2;) a mat gabra bara khelmuned-i pavan khvdp lala- 
idpimishmh va bara-klielmiinishnih, yasliaraish sfayad, Ashem-vohuk-I: 
24—2.-) [chigun fiafto: hcc V.)—2i)\. 

I. in, S. K.o ^.^OH* ^'- "-^'•'- ^^-0 '^^^^ "** ^'oil'^stj. 21,2. K,o om. 21,4. 
10. K,„ adds ^ to ^. 21,7. K.JO lias ^ for J. 22,1. K-o adds ^ to ^ . 

-'•^••'- K-o I^OO)^-^' '^'^ -^''- "" «'"•' C- 2:i(i. K.,0 ))*>; i) for 
^, or I JJ . 23, 8. a doubtful roading. 23, 9. ouiy in K,o. 24, 2. K,„ 
ninits final y^ tlio remaining' text of 24 — 2-5 is omitted in the MSS., being 
rlie same as that of 19 — 20. 


276 HMokht Nask I. 26-30. 

'k\^»^Ki)^'d 29 — 30 0% ^),4't3"^ -"^^^ > ^))\^ -^ )^^ 

^0 Icoiitiiiue as ill ly — 20.| ^^f ))0(2 o ■■-u^uiJ^A»G>0» 


2t) KaUt'ir kluiduk y;\s\ydvius]\-stdyisliitih mnn min zak-i bevar val- 
manshaii zakai yasharaish-.stayislmih i(),()00 Ashem-vohuk asli mas va 
shaptr va iiaduktar aij 'r' 

I'i P((sukh6th val valman jj,utt Auliavniazd aigh : Zakich, yasha- 
rubo Z((r(ituha'<ht, 28 amat gabra min khvcip tVaz-virayishnili va tVaz- 
buyishnih yasharaish stayarl Ashem-voliiik-I bara yemalcliined, va lala 
yekavimiinod ; 29—30 [chiguii guft, see 10—20.] 

I. Z. 2(), 9. .Kao liax a for last J . '_*(;, 2. K,,,, oin. 26, 4. K-.o CP)-MfC2) * 
2(5,17—18, Hr, ^) . 26, 19. K,,o oni. Z. 27,(1. He ^^ . 27,1. Hg adds 
) to ^. 27,2. Hb ))A). 27,9. K „ ^^^>0t^-^ • '^'- '^- '■ "" °""^ 6* 
Z. 28,4. K,,o has / for |. Z. 2S, (;. ;.ll hni II, liavo >| for JJ . 28,4. K.,o 
-U^ ) y for ^, or IJJ. 28, 12-. K.,, omits V. Z. 29,2. tlie remain- 
ing text of 29—30 is omitted in the M.SS,. being the same as that of 19—20- 

I. Z.Sl, 10. Hr, lias a fur j. Z. 31, 11—14. in tht- margin of Hg; the other MSS. 
prefix eo to this phrase ; this may stand for .ji^ fa, the Paz. of tlie Huz. 
5l vad, which is the usual sign of abbreviation, as "Westergaard suggests: 
but it is more probably the cypher ^, which is often attached to marginal 
insertions in I'arsi MSS., and may indicate that these words were in the 
margin of some former MS., as they now are in that of lie. Z. 31, 14. P7 
has J*0^ tor J. 31,9. K.,o J., 31,10. He omits i. 151, 24. He om. 
ol,2G. K,o om. 3:>. 9. K.,o ^^OO)^-^ • '^^ ^•'' '■ "" "'"'^ C* ^''^^'^- ^«" 
JJ^%.o . 33, 12. 17. K.,„ c^^^yVu . 


Hadokht Nask I. 31-33. 277 

31 Racial' khaduk yasharaish-stayishnih mim, min haivist dennian 
kcshvar-i Khvanlras levatman raiiiak va levatman las, bara min Tir, 
javicl min anshuta, ash mas va shapir va naduktar kasp ^ 

o'i Pasuklivoih avo valman gaft Aubarmazd aigh: Zakich, yasha- 
rubo ZaratuhasJit, 33 amat gabra, pavan zak-i afadum vardishn-i khayd, 
yasharaish stayad Asheiii-vohuk-I bara yemalelimed , va akhar 

>o(j^. 33,12.1,. K.,0 ^)ylJ^ 


278 Hadokht Kask I. 34-36. 

0% er^ V^^*) 1 ^6-^ 

milaya la yemaleUmed ; 34 — 3") [clitijun uzuar nipisht, sec 19 — 20.] 
(i) HomamI le-denman vaiias va kirfak rast hamistakanu zakai Ashem- 
vohiik-I bara yemahiiincd, bara pavan zak pdlilum ahvaii yamtuned. 

30 Kadar kliaduk yasharaisli-stayishnih miin miii harvisp deninan-?" 
yin andarg damik va andarg a<man v(i deninan daniik va zak roshanib 
va bai'visp dvddih-i Aiiharmazd-dad. mim min yasbaraisb podakih, asb 
mas va sbapir va naduktar kas]) 'f 

I. Z. 34,3.-35,5. He omits tlieso words, as in 2!)— 30. /. 35,1. tlie last JJ 
is supi^lied in accordance with 15,1. iiiid 'Jn, 1. in He- 35,1—3. K..,o om. 
:55 a, 1. ^^yo in botli, l.iit sec 3,sr,, 1. 35^,2. Hg cm. 35 a. 4. K,,o om. 
35rt, 11. K,o ^)]5V- 35rf. 13. Ilr, inn .35 «, 15. He ^;^.M^. 3(>, 8. 
Kjo omits J. 36,10,13. so in M(,, K.20 ; but jierhaps an old misreading for 
andar-i. 36, 15. He om. 36. 17. lis JD_^. 'M\, 18, 21. K-.q om. 36,23. or ctsddih-.i 

IIAdokht Nask 1. 37. -II. 1. 279 

^-^ ^^mo^^ 5^))^ tiii -^^^ -o^n iT^'J ^i^h^ " c°o )^oo\mo>'' 
Chapter 11. 

[Westergaard's Yaslit Fragment XXII. 1 — is. J 

37 Pasukhidh ?•«? valnmii uiift Auliarmazd aigli: Zakich, yashavubu 
Zarattihasht 3i-i mini Viilmmi trod varded bara min diisliiiiat va dush- 
liiikht va dusli-huvaishto. a) lloiiiand le-denman vanas vesh aigh 
kirfak dushahuik zak Asliom-voliuk-I bara ycmaMimctf ash vahishtik 
bava yelievuned. 

Chapter II. 
Pavmi sJiam-i Yedato. 

1. 37.1. He adds ) to ^. 37,2. Ho ))A) . 37,9.'K2o t^OOIiti-^' 2- ^^' 2- 
P? JWJ^J(j>/>/ft) . 38, 8, 10. K,a om. 38 ff. 9. Kjo omits \. 38 a. U. 

II. 0, 1—3. tLis invocation is only in Ha. Z. 1,3—11. Ho abbreviates the sentence 
by writing i\ {vacl, "to') in place of these words. 

280 Had6kht Nask 11. 2-5. 

. -u»i*^A* , i^ij^ i o\jjP"*iy Y^^Y^^^^ ->wo^ jj^^h5 ^^)t^o» 

^x)»5 . -ju«^oo> ♦ j-^cv^Hj • -»■*"£;; • -^^oo> • 4)G-i>Jcj| • sj^-^^ 
3 -wojy ^^'f ) so))),^ ^^^ tin ^^^^ -o-o ^nw^)** 

[Pahlavi.] 1 PursUl ZaratuJiasht miu Aiiharmazd , aiglt : AuJiar- 
mazcl , minavad-i afzumky ddddr-i gchdn-i ast-homaiiddn , yashai'ubo^ 
2 amat yasharubo bara vadired, aigli vahiiaii pavan ::nl' Iclyd zak-i 
nafshni an vuban vajared ? (aigliasli gas aigh ?) 

;} Afash guft Aiiharmazd 4 aigh: Pavan uazdik-i vaghdaii yeti- 
buned, zak jinak aigh, amatash jan bara vazluned, ash roeshman yeka- 
vimiiiuid; o Aushtuvat gas srayad (aigh zand yeiiialeluned), va naduk- 
rubisliiiih bava 

II. 1,1. bofli tiiUl -J{j . 1.2. K20 omits it. 1,5—11. He ^\ >) as an abbrevia- 
tion, Kjo oni. ; but the sentence is corrected according- to I. 1. 1,7 — 8. 
K,o y^)i)^. 1,10. K..„ omits J. Z. 2, 3. all prefix jj . Z. 2, 5. Hb 
-A)»JJA. Z. 2,10. iilways so in llg ; but Koq has j twice for Mj . 2,8—9. 
K,.o om. 2,15. Kao om. Z. 4,2. Hu omits last ii . " Z. 5,1,10. lie bas j 
lor ^, Z. 5,11. Ho has ^ for c, 5,1. 11^ ^^M^OO^^ • 

Hadoklit Nask TI. G-10. 281 

/\3iy) ^) ->^-5" ^ ,^ ^, ^y, ^ ^,)^ ^,^^^) Oil ^)),^^ 

^^i3^ ^^ :^5 j(^u -j(^h> :>S ))^ ^) ^ §^ M^>m^ ♦ 4J'»(^ 

-o-" -xj^-^^ ^-^ ))6 ^1 tin '^^ >^ «?o XJ^j^cyj^^ • -"»'> 
?o till -o-xS -<5«>* ^^^e/) )r^y ,^ej) ->^-^ 

^Q ftM^-uC • y>ft)0* • yJ-tv G . ja^ 6—1(1 4 


rontinue as in 3 — J 

ijcmaleliliiicd, at naduhtum ycheviiiK] aigli : 'XadAk valman niun, miii 
/ak-i valman nadiikib, kadarcliai nadukih ; afash pavan kaiiiak pdclakh- 
shaluh dad Auharniazd, pavan avayast-« nafslmian', (1 jNladain valman, 
pavan zak lelya, ash zak and asanih, va ruhdno bavihunt-ait, chand 
liarvisp zak zyash, pavan zivandakili, yin ahvan khadituncf. 

7 Miin dadigar aigli valman pavan zak lelya ash zak-i nafshman 
lubdno vajared ? (afash gas aigh '0 

.^—10 [see 3 — 5; vad] 'pavan kamak pdi/dkhshdJuh ddd Auhar- 
mazd pavan avuijasf-\ nafshman". 

II. ."), 11. K.JO C^)>>*V* ^' ^•'- '^"^'' """' ^* '''^^- ^^ '^'"^ "00 '"'■ ^KX)' 

5,29. He ^. 5.32. both omit J liere, Vmt see 10,7. Z. 6,7. Kjo lias j for 
M^ . Z. G, 11. only in Hf,. 0,11. K.o omits final ). 0,21. H,; )^5 . 

Z. 7,3, Hfi _u))JiA. Z. 7,8. K,o J^K3'"0»J'"t? * ^- ' ^- ^^« ^'^^ •* *'^'' 1* 
10,3. Kio has ^ for JI^XK? * ^*^' "^- ^ '" '^"'''' '^"^ ^^^ ^' ^^' ^^' "' ^-" 


its ^ 


282 HiVlokht Nask II. 11-18. 

0% ^^ )*i)V* (O /\i-^)y-^ m \^) continue as in (i| 

^hS ^3 ^)^ r^) ^ J^^rei) )]^ o®o >o^->-"o»5-"^ • -"»^> • i»^o» 

coutinuo as in 3— 5| §q Jama^ojC . y>4)0' • ^^^G • y^^ 13—1.') 

o°o ^))y^ }^)Ky H3 /X)-^)^'-^ ))e) [^) continue as in G] . J^^j^^iw^ 

. j^jjj^ . _o^>^iw;ii»j> . -u»/> . 4p-*00"" ♦ "^o^"") • ^y^ '* ^^^)o 

11 [st'c 6; vad] pavan ztvandakih, yin alivan di(l. 

12 Miin sadigar aigh valman pavan zak lelya ash zak-i n;it'sli- 
niau rubunC) vajared ? (afash gas aigh ?) 

13 — 15 [see o — .') ; vadj '■ pddaUhslidhih yehabuned'. Itl Madam 
valman pavanich zak kohl III h*lya, 17 [see 6%- vad] pavan zivandakih, 
yin ahvan yehabiind. 

18 Pavan zak-i 

II. 11,2. K,o liiiB yi for ^^. Z. 12, .3. Ho -U»JJa . /. 12, 4. only in Hu. 
Z. 12,8. K„, liiis J for Uj . 12,9. K,,„ oni. 12, 11, K,,, omits final y 

15, 1. H„ has JC(XX)0' ""'^ ^'^^"■*00' ^^''■■'OOC- 'I'st^-l^^ooni- ^.1^,3. 
Hfi, K,o, O. have -u/p^^Ajj/ci li'^''", but see III. Z. 17, 3. Z. 18,5. H, 
J^JU2JJJJiiajiJ.a9 . Z. 18,12. all omit lirst jj P; has iJ for second J. 

Hadoklit Nask II. 19 — 21. 283 

^-xjy^ Me) ^t^-^ /vyH3^-<5C2» m -\^^ ,^^v -^^^ ^^'^rei) 

.!^»iu/?_ '-ue)) . %^sx>l? .JJ^ . -I" JM 0% ,^e)) ->))^ ^^rf^"^ 

sa(ji<2,';iv lelya roesliman ash pavan dzdahlshnth medammunecl pavan 
aiishbam, man gabra-i yasharubu ruhclno aigh yiu aurvar madam va 
bod ash bara dasht medammiined tanii-i naf'shman. 10 Zak vahnan vad 
madam vayed medammim^d min I'apUvtntar nemak, min nemak-i Savak, 
min rapitvmotarikan nemakan , min iirmak-i Yadadau ; ~^0 hii-bod va 
hu-bodtum min zak ban vadau zyasli pavan stih yatiind, 2L Vahnan 
vad ash pavan bhuk hlla 

II. 18,8. ) for yo) Hfi omits )] see III. 17, 10. 18, 15. IC,o omits final ^. 
Z. 19, 4. K,o -iU^> . Z. 19, K. Ilg has a for (a. 19, 8. He, K,<o 3p^^^U^3 . 
Z. 21, 1-2. G. . gja . au . Z. 21, 5. Hg omits first {. Z. 21, 19. Ilg has j 
for first C . Z. 21, 20. so in He ; Westergaard has M for the obsolete JJ rf. 
21,5. Koo ^)y). 

284 TIAdokht Nask II. 22 — 21-!. 



vakluluiid inedamniiinetl miin gabra-i yasliariibo rubau ae yeniuleluned 
i\Vf^h: Mill aigh dabishno ana vad vayed , muiiam akaraz vad pavan 
bu-bodtar vakbdund ? 22 Yin zak vad vahnan asb fiavat't niedammiined 
zak-i nafshman dino kunisbno-'it nafshman, 2o pavan kanik kerp nadiik-i 
I'osban-i avavik tanii-i arus bazai-« amavand-i liu-rost-i labi astadak 
(aigb yudan) va biiland, va stik pestan-i 

II. 21, 14. K.,„ omits one ). Z. 22, 1. K,o has j for J^. Z. 22,3. so in He; JUU^ 
being almost illegible in K..,o, has been mistaken tor C by the copyists of 
K-'i, 1*7 ; <^*. C{^J^"^« -2^ 11- lb, omits J. Z. 23,1. He ]^^i\iiA. Z. 23.5. 
Hfi, K.o omit initial JJ . Z. 23, 0. Ho, Kjo omit ^ . Z. 23, 10. only in Ilg ; 
tlie Vishtasp Yasht (24, jr) has m for j. Z. 23,11. G. eredvd-frashnydo. 
Z. 23,12. Hf, adds A> to ). Z. 23, 1(!. Ho has o^ for J^ . Z. 23,19. Kg 
and Yt. 24, 50 have _M for ^ J G. srira. 23, 4. K.-o oni. 23. 9. K-.o has | ': 
for J. 

Haloklit Xiislv 1!. 21-25. 285 

nadiik taiiM , va azad (aigh rml), raye-liomand-tokhmak (aigliash tukli- 
mak mill Yadadun), XY salak . va hu-rudi'rflino , afasih keijt actimo 
nadiik chigun damau doshaktar^ iiikiiislin avayishniktar, 

'2-1 Y;dnuin ycmahluned ^ afash piiisid raun gabia-i yasharubo 
rCibdn , aigh: Mun lak charaitik homanih ? ao khaviiunam. aigh zak 
inuii lak iiafshmaii Jiomanih, mrin akavaz mi/i chardittkdfi pavaii kerp 
iiaduktiim khadifund, aighain akaraz kerp-ae avayishniktar khaditiind-i 
lak y 

11. 2:^,21). Kjo omits 4. 23,31. Kjo ffH^i . 23,3b. K.q omits final ^J both 
itild f tY<. 23,42. altered in Hg, by a later hand, to 3^A.jQ|jp Z. 24,2. 
ih, K,o CJQy* 24.2. K,o omits onf> ). 24,8. K,o adds final ). 24,15. K,„ 
^yo, 24.21. K,„ ^i^y^' 24,24-25. partly illegible in K,o. 24,32. 
Kjo has \ for _U). Z. 25,12. H. )/im. Z. 25,15. Hr omits first i) . 


2B6 Hatlokht Xask IT. 2fi-2T. 

V ^^Y^ tin )^ 1^^' ro\^ ^))t,^ )*»^e) T^) 0*0 \»\^^ 
)K>Y' j>«ot^^^ -»nyf')*' '^r^fr' -'ror' -fi^^ ,^a) v tin -^i^^^ 

[continue as in 20] o ''-u^jj)a»j.»Wjj ,^^jj)^^jd/? . _u^Ai|A»i3i»G • -*»»^ 

25 Yalinan pasuklio ijemalduncd iniinasli uafshinaii dinu aigh : 
Jl^nianani lak hornanam (aigh lak nafsliman huiiianam), yudan-i hii- 
minislin-i hii-gubishn-i hu-kunislin-i hu-dino, miinat nafsliman dino-i niin 
zak-i nafsliman tanu actund nadnk ijchevuncl yekavimnnad. 2(j Ana 
miin kamak kaito-i mini rai lak actunv mas va sJtaptf va naduk va 
hii-bod va piruzkar va avibosli chigvin li niedanimuned. 27 ]Min ana-i 
lak kamak yudan-i 

Tf. 25, :5. K.,0 omits one ^. 25,27. K,.o omits final ). 25,20. lig ^)l . Z. 26, 11. 
He lias I fur M*. 7.. 2(3,15. Kjo I>as u^ for J. 26,8. K...o omits final ^. 
2li, 10-12, 14. K.o uiii. 26, IS. both oni. Z, 27,4. (i. . 4>*(5 * '^'- -^' ^- ^^ '""'^^ 
first JJ ; K:o has 4 *'"'" '^""' -" * '''• -^' ^f*— ''2. K->o <^ -U^UAJJiJOJig J 
. 4 . is a sign of abbreviation, standing for Hiiz. jA ghaJ., 'to'. 

HmU'.klit .Xiisk II. 28 — 29. 287 

) j^a-x^ ) -0^ )))^^ ^r* ^n3r ->)*oM5^ ->n5)f'^ ->)*oKr 

liu-minishn-i hii-gubishii-i hu-kiuiishn-i hti-dino homau aetuno mas va 
sliapir va iiaduk va hu-bod va piruzkar va avibesli cliiguu lak niedani- 
mimcd. 2b Amal lak zak-i zah ana khadituufl liomand amatshan afsusi 
kard va Ijundak (aighshan sliedayazakili) karcl^ af'sban pavan kamak-i 
ntif'shman Icdinah bamkbakaii iiiakbitund (aigb mini mandavam bavi- 
hunast, ashan ht yebabuiid), afsbau aiirvar bal)aibich kard (aigbshau 
baba bara asrunast); 

27, 10. so in both, the personal suffix being omitted. 27, 25. K20 has ^ for ^o^ . 

Z. 28.3. all but Hg have ^iQ^Ji . Z. 28,4. He, K,o have J^^ for 4) •»*» 

being illegible in K^o, have been altered into ^U^ in H7. Z. 28,8. G. omits 

J) . 28, 4. only in Ho. 28, 15. K-o adds final ^ . 28, 19—20. only in H^. 

Z. 29,1. all but Hf, and G. add ^Jt^ by mistake. Z. 29,5. 0. srdvaydish . 

Z. 29,7. Ho has J for ^. Z. 29, 14. H^ omits first |, and G. substitutes 3a 

for it. Z. 29, 15. He -MMii(ail . .Mi\SiiU ] in rlie others -M^jdiJ . -Mi^Hiu . 

Z. 29,16-17. omitted in all, ))ut added from Vishtasp Yasht (24,^9) in ac- 
cordance with the Pahlavi, 

OC;g HAflokht N'ask TT. 30-81. 

^),^)-« -^i^y^ ^oo-o d^ t;!i -fi^^ ^))>*o ^o»Pe) iT^ ^ ro^ 

'-"J iuliu lak yetibiinast homanih, afat gasaii si'ud, afat mayaich-/ sliapir 
yezbekhaiidy va atashicli-i Auharmazd azat palirej kainl, va gabiaich-i 
yasliarubo at shinayinkl, nuui min nazdik mad, va munich miii rakhik. 
• )0 Adin li mini fravaft yeheviiiid homanani (aigh khup dasbt bomanam 
yekavimunad homanam)^ at fravdfttar hard homanam (ai<jluif khuptar 
ddsld homanam): va naduk yehevund homanam, afat naduktar dasht 
bomanam; va avjanik yebeviind homanam, afat aijaniktar daslit ho- 
manam avayishniktar ; oi ])avan zak-i fraztar gas yotibunast liumanam-i 
chashmak, afat 

ir. '29,;). H„ omits J. 21), 11. K\.„ C^){^^. 21), 2s. K,o adds J. 2<t, 30. so in 
both, and moi-e correct llian ar'ik. Ard. Vir. JV. 27, as has betm pointed out, 
in the notes on ^Midi. glo-i. p. 00, (IC. Z. :5(). 4,(.;,T. S, 10. Ho lias j for .^ . 
.•50, 11, K„ has P^ for ^^ . 30, 12 - l!i. K,„ om. 30,20- 21 illegible in 
K,o. 30,25,33. K,,u adds ). Z. 31,3. K,,o has J for M. Z. 31,5. Koq omits 
J. Z. 31,6. Ho adds jj to ^ . 31,7. 11^ adds j. 

Iiridokht Nask II. 32-33. 289 

)^ ^)y^^ o»)a ^ ^m^ ^o )^ei^A • '>^->^e) • >ow^^^»o» 

pavan zak-i fraztAintav gas yetibAiiast liumanam {atfjh gas mas baia kard 
humanani). ?>'2 Pavan ana hilmat, va pavan ana liuklit, va pavan ana 
hiivarsht-i lak varzii], adin li gal)ra akharich yezbekliund, pavan zak-i 
Auharniazd der-yazislinih va ham-pursakih, der zamdno aniatshan Au- 
liarmazd rut yazislnio va liam-pnisakih-i frdrimd kard. 

33 Fratiim gam fraz yedrand miin gabra-z yasharnbu i-ubano pa- 
van Ilumat bara yehabunad (/.ak jinak aigh humnt 

IF. 31, 15. K,o adds ^^. 32, 4, 8. K.q oni. 32, 27. K,o y^lAJ . 32, 30. Koo -»»3 , 

32,3-1. K.o omits final ). 32,35. K.o adds final ). Z. 33,1,11,21. He has 

J lor ^. Z. 33, 18. H,i has > for ». 33, 4. botli have ^ for ^. 

33, 6. K.20 omits J , 


290 ]Iii(iuklif .\ 11. 34 -."^o. 

jp-^c •':^ )i^ ^»v^^ o»)e) ^ -frO^ c% ^-^^Jf^^l • -"»ey 
0*0 vo^n: -jMj '^)*oP J^^ ->^-^ m )Y^y 

luahmanih); diuligar gam fraz ijcdrund luiui galna-/ ya:>liarCihu y\\hl\nC) 
jiavaii Huklit bara vGliabuniul; sadigar gam fraz iicclrund man gabra-/ 
yasliaiub)") rubdno pavan Huvarslit bara yeliabimad; ^U tasum gam 
t'raz ycdrund mun gabra,-/ yasliarubo rubauA ])nvau zak-i asar rushcoult 
bara ijeliahiindd. 

of) Yalman yemaldu'iid^ afasli purisr'iul zalc-/ /tv/// baia vadavd 
yasharubu aigh : Ohigun yasliarubi"* bara 

II. 33,21. K,o lias J^ for ^. ,".3, 1^3. K,,, omits j. 33,24. K,o luMs j. 
33,33. K.o liHs pi^ for ^. 33,3-3, K;,, omits J. 33,37. K.-u <-'"»its (in:il y 
33, ;;!). I\,|, !id(l> J. /. 34,1. II, lins J for ^. :;4, 4. Ho, ^U ) K,„ lias 
P^ for ^. 34. (;, K,,|| omits J. 34,12. K,„ adds j to \t{^. 3.4,14. K u 
hri.s ^ for ^. Z. 35, .J. 11,; lias JsiJ for i . /. 35,11-14. lis, (i. om. 
Z. 35, 12. K.Q 4J">0{V ^'- ■'''• '^---- ""1,V ill H,;. 35,2. K,o omits one j . 
35,5. K,o omits j. 35,(1. K.o adds linal ^. 

HA.Iokht Xnsk IT. 86. 291 

»!.. ^ >*00^^ >*00till V)*0^^^ Vr ^^e^J)* ->V^ >H5^ 

va(]ai(l homanih ? chigun yiishaviibu banx mad homanih val denman 
jinak, mill zak-/ manislm-liomand-i gospcnd-liumaud khvaliisbiunand (atgh- 
shdn kliadihan yin ghal khvdiicnd) 7??a?/<li;«fd-lu)mand (aigliasli dashtdn 
mdijd yhi vajdrcnd dakhshak-i gchan ycmakldncd) ; 30 min zak-i ast- 
hoinand alivaii madam val demiiaii-i minavadau ahvan, va miii zak-^ sej- 
homand alivaii-i patiyarak-horaaud madam val deiiman-ii asc'j-humand 
■d])i\tiyara.k-Jwina7id ? va aotim lak der naduk yeheviined, min zak chigun 
bara latamman yatund homanih, ]iat dc-r %umdn naduk yehevuncd ? 

IT. 85,20. K,>o y,^^. 35. 25. K,o omits J. 35. 31. K.o ^»^.5 ^. 35, 35. K20 
prefixes )'\. 35,36. Koq omits final j. .35,39—42. Hg has the Persian gloss: 
cU<" ^xAss.A! ^\ L ^*J. 35,45. Iv.o ^)hV« Z. 36,1. Hg, G. 
K,o ^JJ^ . ^JJ»iJfQ)ii , but see ITT. Z. 36, 1. Z. 36,4. He. G. J^4>|i>€ 5 
Kio J^^iijiig ^ but see III. Z.36, 4. Z. 36,6. Us has > lor >. Z. 3G, 10. Hg. 
K.o omit 0, Ho omits |. Z. 36, 12. He has > for ». 36,12. both omit J. 
36,10. Ho omits J. 36,22. Hs cm. 36,23. illegible in Iv,o. 36,36. K-.o adds 
^t . 36. 38. K.o yt^ . 

292 Hadokht Nask II. 37-38. 


o7 Afasli yeiualeimicd Aiihciimaxd at fjh: Al niin le-deiiman pursed 
munash pursed (aighasli minash al pursed) , uiamau pavan zak-i bini- 
gun-e tarik-i sahmkim-i reshkiin ras madam sdtuncd, amatasli min 
tanu bod 6ar« - vardishnih (aigh amat min tanu bara yatund) nsh 
dush-khvar yehc viiud . 

II. Z. 37,(5. Kio C{A. Z. '^7,0. Koq lias ^ for j. Z. 37,11. llg has ) for 
Mt 5 K.JO adds i» to / . Z. 37, 12. Hg has JJ for both J J K.-o lias JJ for 
last J 5 but see III. Z. 37, 11. Z. 37, 20. He has j for .jJ . 37, 2. K^o omits one 
^ . 37, 4. K.o om. 37, 18. Hg has .i fo)' J *, Kao omits it. 37. 20. Hg omits 
J) K.o has u for )a . 37,24. He C^^^ • 37,29. Hg om. 37,33. Kao )^' 
Z. 38,3, so in Vishhisp Yasht 24,^4; He, 0. GJt^{^-"l ') ^'^-'o torn off. Z. 38,4, 
He, K20 have gjj for JJg{ . Z. 38,6—7. K..,o torn oil'; K^i prefixes _u^^.MJLUJ 
P7 blank space. Z. 38, 13. so in K..., ; Ilg, K20 fiJ/JJU). Z. 38, 14. K-jo adds 
-u^.>. Z. 38,16. Hr, has J for ,^. 

Hadokht Nask II. 39. -III. 1. 293 

lo^ )>^V »n3^ -')^t)^r -^r^fy^ -^n^y^r* -^r^^y ^^ -^^-^ 
Chapter III. 

[Westergaard's Yasht Fragment XXII. 19 — 36.] 
^h^d)* irOfi continue as in II. 1.] o V^O0>0-*J^^ ♦ H-^^t^td) ^ 

38 Khurishno val valman yedrunyen zak-i zaremayo-i mishgdih : 
mamanash zHk-^■ ait yiulaii-i hu-minishn-i hii-gubishn-\ hu-kunishn-i 
hii-dino khurishno^ akhar min baia-vadirishnih ; 39 actmio nairik-i fra- 
humat-i fra-hukht-i fra-huvarsht-i kliup-amukht-i rad-khudai (aigh shut 
pavan sardar yakhsenuned)-i yashariibo khurishno^ akhar min bara- 

Chapter III. 

[Pahlavi.J 1 [Chigun fjufto; see 11. 1.] 

II. 38,7. K,o a(^^.^. 38,8. K,o -i{^)^' 38,9. K,.o omits J. 38, 18. Kjo 
adds f to ^. 38, 16. K,o omits final ). Z. 39,6. Hg has > for ». 39, 1. 
15. K.20 omits final | . 
III. Z. 1,2. the remaining text of this sentence is omitted in the MSS.. being the 
same as that of II. 1. 1,2. Kjo omits final ». 


294 HAdokht Nask III. 2-5. 

^ ^ -0-0 -oiiii ^^^J) u^v ,^a) ->^-^ -\)^^ -^-^ )ie) T^) tit 
Wv ->-o-*'^-^) Me) w^^i^-^jjy-^c -^ )M^^ till -"■^>^)*' 

f r^')y\ S -f^V-^l 5^K^ tiil -^^ till -^D^^ iro^-HT) He) )t^ 

2 aigh Jiuui darvand bara yemttuncd^ aigli valmaii pnvaii zak lelya 
zak-i nafshman ruhdno vajared ? (aighash gas aigli ?) 

3 Afasli giift AiMiarmazd aigh : Aehuio baia, yasharubo Zaratu- 
liaaht , pavan nazdikih-i kamav val ham diibaicd, 4 zak-i gasaiiik (jCi- 
hisJino srayad aigb : 'Yal kadar lUtimk cmaumcd, Auharmazd^ mini 
pavan ntydyislmd sdtunam?'' {aigh '■val ahjh jinak vazb*inani ? va 
nadukih min mun bavihunam ? ') 

II [. Z. 2,4. Jlfi, K,u )0^>C'*'"*6* ^- '^'•'^- "" -"»"*»3- 2^^- '^'-'0 adds ). 
2,13. K-o omits final ^. 3, 8. K,,o )^O0)^-^* '^^ 12—1:5. in K,o, the text 
from 3,4 to 17, 18 is not only hero, but has also been inserted, and struck 
out, after II. 37,3; and these two words are omitted in the second insertion. 
4, 3. He adds J ^ Kjo has J#« for ^ , in second insertion. 4, 8 — 17. K.-o omits. 
in second insertion; and Hi — 17 are torn off in insertion. 

ITiiduklit iNask III. <;— 17. 295 

_iiyo 5^ iS ^^ ^h) iS ))^ ^) ^ 6% "»o>^j^ • 4j-»tk 

[Loiiriiiiu' iis in J-J. compiuing- II. T-ilJ © fi^-*-*^ • G^^J ''—I" 21—22 

[continue ms in J-'., compiuing II. 12-i:] o'^C^jj^j/ci • G^)*0 I J— J" 23—24 

[see 2-:. ^ei^* )rt)C2 1 » ^^*5rQ) li^ ) » ^^^^ )^ 

-^ m -^^ ^Oi^^^m -^ ^i^y-Hy ,-^-^r ~o^^ ^hro) ^^-^ 
(j5 ])^y ^ip^ -^-^ )^ 0-^)^ ne) ^i;<^-^ 'ij;*o^-«0(^ 

5 Madam valmau, pavau zak lelya , ash zak and anasanih rflbano 
hit v'di urn-cut cliand hiivvisii zak zyasli pavan nazdikiU yiii alivdno 

fi — Hi Mun dadigai' * * % id niiiu sadiu'ar |(dugun gQft; see 
2 — 5, compnriiu) 11. 7 — 17]. 

IT Zak-/ sadigar lelya luesbmau, yasharubo Zaratuhusht.i ash 
pjivan hard- indalitslunh mednniniuned, pavan aushbam, mun gabra-i 
darvaud iiibano via 

in. 5,11. K.o omits j^. :>. I'j. K,u omits final |. Z. 6,2; 11,2. the remain- 
ing text of 0—10 and U — 16 is omitted in the MSS., being the same as Z. 
2. 5.— 5. 13. w-i li its corresponding Pahl. — 16,3. K-jo omits j. Z. 17,3. 
<i. thraosldo. Z. 17,6. H„ CJ^^^i? 5 ^n ^M^^i^\ but see 11. Z. 18,4. 
Z. 17,13—14. Kjo omits, in second insertion. 17,1. K o omits J. 17,6. Kjo 
omits JJ. 17,10. botii omit i, but aee II. 18,8. 17,17. K_.o omits, in se- 
cond insertion. 


296 Hadokht Nask III. 18 — 20. 

sneshar va gand bara dasht medammuned chigim tanu-i nafshman. 18 
Zak-i valman vad madam vayed, va medammftned miu apakhtar nemak, 
min nemak-i jiiiakan, va min apakhtaran nemak, min nemak-2 shedaan; 

19 diish-gand va dush-gandtum min zak-« vadan zyash pavan stih yatund. 

20 Valman vad pavan vinik lala vakhdiind medammiined mun gabra-/ 
darvand ruhdno ana yemaklmcd: Aigh min dahishn ae vad vayed, 
miinam akaraz 

III. Z. 18,5. K.o has ^ for ». 18,1. K,o omits J. 1S,12. He omits J. 18,19. 
both omit J. Z. 19,1. K,,o omits (g^. 19,5. K,o omits J. Z. 20,5. He, 
K,o omit first ^; K.,o adds Al to j. Z. 20,19. He, K^o, O, omit final Cj. 
20,9. both omit j. 20,11. K^o omits final ). 20.13. K,,o omits one ) . 
20, 16. K,o )H5^-^3 • 

Hftdfikht Nask IJl 21-35. 297 

[Oniirted in tlu' MSS., l)pino' tlio converse ol II. 2'.' -83| 'Jl— cJJ 27—33 

^■f -^ )H^& -^^r ^M^^ ^ve) ^)P^ )J0(^ Vit ^»<^^ 

r Vr ^))0"^ -»^T^^ )Hii>^)*> jV>*' ^)^? -*Vr' )H3>*>f 

vad pavan gandak va dushgandtar [vad ghal; the converse of II, 22- 
33] 33 tasiini gam fraz yedrund nmn galira-i darvand rubauo-? zak-i 
asar tarikih bara yehabunad. 

34 Valman yemalelund. afasb puvsend zak-i levino darvand-i trod 
yemitund, aigh: Chigun darvand trod yeni'ttimd homanih ? cliigiin bara 
wad humanth ■? 35 niin zak-i manishn- homatid-i gospend -/ioma/if/-? 
khvahishn - homand-i mayuvad - homfnid ae 

III. 20, 2>'. He at 5 ^^'^'^ regard to the contents o" the missing passage, compare 
Ard. Yir. XVII. 11-27 and Mkh. II. If;' — 182. Z. 33, 1. He has j for ^ . 
33,4. K.20 has P^ for ^. 33,8. K'.,„ omits J. Z. 34,11 — 14. Hg, O. om. 
34,2. K.,0 omits one t. 34,6. K,,o omits final t. 34,14. K (, has ««• for 
^. Z,,35, 3. Koo ha? Ji for Jj . 35,6,10. K^o omits ^^yo * 


298 Had6khf Xask m. 36—37. 

dakhshak-i stih yemaleluned: ofi min zak-/ ast-homand ahvSn madam 
val denman-i minnvadan ahvSn, va min zak-i sej-homand ahvSn madam 
val denman-'< sej-homandtar, patiyarak-homandtar ahvan ? netmio lak 
der anfikih yehevAned. 

37 Diiijcd-ash Ganrak-minavad aigli : Al min val pdrs^d , maman 

III, 35, 14. K,o ^)}^ft' '/'■ 30. 1- K,„ ujJ^ . Pii»Jt2)^7 ^^- «'^/'''^^- Z. 36,4. 
He has J fur ^' K,n CJOi^ij|i)G . Z, 36, 10. Hg , K,o omit first JJ . 

Z. 36, 12. Hg has > for », Z. ac, 14. U, oni. Z. 36, 16. 0, rtiww?. 36,2. 
both omit J. 36,7. K.,o omits J. 36,17. He omits J. 30,22. Koo omits 
final ). Z. 37..-.. K,o g{J . Z. .37,8. H^, K.,o have ^ for J. Z. 37, 10. 
Hs, K,o add jJ io /; llf, lias ) for J^ . Z. 37,11. Koo omits |. Z. 37,19, 
He has Jijj lor Q^ , 37, 1. so in both, but Hs marks it like <J(^^^V) 7 
it may be dvdd-ash, an imitation of the Zand. 37,7. for 5^) • 

Hld6kht Nask III. 38- 39. 299 

^MSO*^ ^ -0^^ ))^-K}^^ ■'^i^-*^ -^w^y ^^^ ne) i^ ^^ na 
—X))' -'))^>oo>'' ■>)n5>'^>»' -')^>> so^ )M^^ /vrff V-^^i* -^\ 

pavan sakht mun pavan zak-i yavdrtmd-i sahmkun-l reshkiin las ma- 
dam satuneil , amatash min taiiu bod baia - vardishnih yehevund ash 
dfish-khvar yehevraul. ' 

o8 Khuvishii val valuian yedru/itjm vish, zakich-i min vish gandak- 
far ; mamanash aettlno ait yudan-i diish - mmishno-i dush - gubishno-i 
diish-kfinishn-i dush-dino khiirishii , akhav min valman frod-mtrishnih ; 

III. 37, 15. 80 in Hg: K., )|yAlU. 37, 16. K,o lias u for )A . Z. 38,3. Hg, K,o 
omit )jt'^ G. frabaretam. Z, 38,5. Westergaard adds .JU . Z. 3fs. 14. Qf/My^ 
in all. Z. 38, 17. He has J for ^ . 38, 4. Hg has C^ ^oi* K) ^ ^^^ ^^® 
II. 38. 4. 38, 9, K20 3^^U. 38, 11. K,o omits final ). 38, 14, 15. K«o 
omits ) . Z. 39, 5, 7. only in Hg. Z. 39, 6. Hg haa > for > . Z. 39, 17. 
Hs hag J for ^ , 

300 H&dokht Nask PS. 

^ /v)^^-f ^y^ f ^-^ )^V ^)v^ J-^^^^^ 
0% )>H3^^ 1 /\;^ooo 1 -fro Mej ^d^a P^- 

39 net una jch-i frd - dushmat-i frd-dush-hukfd-i frd-dmh-huvarsht-i 
dush-anuikht-i aiad-khudai-i darvand khurisfm, akhar iiiin frod- 

PS. Frajaft pavan shlam va shadih va rdmishm. 

m. 39,1. K,o omits fliial ^. 39,2. Kjo J^-^i 39,3,1,5. K20 has Mii» for 

A V A ■ 

WJ, and so has Hg in 39. 4. 39, 9. K,.o adds final ) . PS. 3. Hg ^pi . 
PS. 4. K-o om. PS. 7. Hg lias j for | . This postscript indicates . the end 
of (what is traditionally called) the third fargard of tlie Hadokht Nask. The 
sentences which follow in the MSS. . and contain sections 37 — 38 of Wester- 
gaard's Yasht Fragment XXII, begin with the same words of invocation as 
those preceding ch. II. These sentences are a portion of the Urmazd Yasht 
I. 31, preceded by the additional passage: ahe narsh, etc. given in Wester- 
gaard's note. The remainder of Yasht Fragment XXII, sect. 39 — 42, does 
not occur in He, and is taken from another part of Kjo, separated from the 
Hftdokht Nask by about a hundred folios of nther Pahlavi texts. 

The three Fargards 

»f the 

Haddkht ¥ask 



M. Hang, Ph. D. 

v^ ,. t< 

Chapter L 

On the value of the recital of the Ashem-vohu prayer. 

1 Znrathus'tra asked Ahura-mazda : Ahura-niazda, most munifi- 
cent spirit, creator of the settlements supplied with creatures, holy one : 
2 in whom alone is thy word, the enunciation of all good, of all that 
is of rightful appearance ' ':' 

3 Ahura-mazda answered him : In the Ashem-reciter 2, Zarathus'tra. 

' The Huzvaresh translation renders this passage thus : 'which of those prayers 
of thine is it, in whose words are all prosperity, and all manifestation of right- 
eousness, the whole foundation and ett'ect of which is declared thus: 'It ia created 
excellence of which I said it is my own?'" This rendering is no strict translation, 
but rather a paraphrase. Kahtnya, which alone is the correct reading (see the note 
on the text), is erroneously rendered as a nominative ; acvahtni, which is clearly the 
locative of acva 'one', is translated by min valmanshdn gnbisM/nno. It is difficult 
to understand how the translators arrived at such a meaning ; they soem to have 
dentified ac in aevahnii with arsha 'this', and taken vahmi as vacho 'saying, 
prayer', which proceeding is grammatically inadmissible. The words: 'it is created 
excellence', etc. are evidently the translation of some other Avesta passage which 
is no longer known. 

* I have taken asheni-afnfo in the sense of a locative, since the answer must 
tally with the question. Kafinv/a (or kaftnii, as the other reading is) being a lo- 
cative case, the substantive corresponding to it in the answer, must be in the loca- 
tive also. Now mhem-sttUo does not look like a locative, but as to its form it. 
seems to be eirher a nominative of the part. pass, sti'tta , or a genitive of the part, 
pres. stnt — stacat , but hv no means a nominative of an abstract noun with th& 
meaning of sfi'iiti . as the lluzv&rosh translation has taken it, which renders it by 
stiUi'ishtuh. The genitive appears to stand for the locative. The following words : 
'who recites the Ashem'. etc. indicate that ntCito cannot be taken as 'praise', but 
must muiiu 'one who praises'. 

304 Had6kM Nask I.. 4-5. 

4 Who recites the Asheni, with believing inquiry (remembrance) in his 
mind for the continuance of life \ 5 he pvaisea me who am Ahura-mazda, 

1 The HuzvAresh translation renders this passage thus : 'Whoever praises piety 
(recites the Ashem) witli mucli invocation, that is, many times, and practises tliie 
work Avhich is in the thinking of the mind that there is continuation of life'. The 
words fraore'l-frahhshni — nnhuyad hacha occur several times in the Zand texts 
(Vspi 14,2. W. Y^t. 10,9,51. IB, 92.), and appear to be a quotation of a well-known 
sacred passage. As of all the texts, in which it is now found, the Visparad is the 
most sacred, the passage there (14.2. VY. 16,13. Sp.) is probably the original one, 
1 translate the first part of the chapter (Visp. 14) whicli forma one long sentence, 
at the end of which the passage is found, thus: '(We praise the verse) with the 
metrical lines, the stanzas, with the exphmation, with the questions and answers, 
with the words and syllables, ishich has been well remembered by those who re- 
member (learn by heart), and well praised by those who praise (which is) in the 
own making, the own manifestation, the own will, the own rule, the own mastership, 
the own possession of Ahura-mazda, through believing inquiry in (his) mind for the 
continuance of life'. This refers to the so-called Gathas, the most holy portion of 
the Avesta, each metrical line of this ancient part being called a gdtha (see Yas, 
57, 8). They are represented, as having been made by Ahura-mazda, as existing in 
his mind, and being constantly ke])t up by him, by inquiring into his own mind for 
the benefit of the good creation, and the continuance of life. In the snrae way, 
the priest who has learnt them, keeps them in his memory and reproduces them by 
questioning himself each time he repeats them. The words fraoreil-frahhshni avi 
mano clearly indicate the mental labour it costs the repeater when reciting the 
prayers. Frnnred 'believing", liter, 'professing', signifies that this mental labour is 
devoted to the furtherance of the good creation, which can only be kept up by 
praying. FraTchshui api)ears to be a locative of a form frakhshan 'inquiry' which 
1 can only trace to peres to ask, coinp. Yas. 44, 7. fralchshni' avdmi '1 go to ask' ; 
Yt. 10,24, 46.: yahmdi frakhshiii avi mano mithro jasaiti 'to whom, on asking 
in his mind, Mithra comes'. The Huzv&resh translation renders it by kabed 'many, 
much', which interpretation seems to rest on some misconception, since by its aj- 
plication we never obtain a good sense, nor can it be explained by etymology. 
The meaning of zaragdditi appears to be rendered correctly by the Huz. rubdk- 
dahishnih 'continuation'. This meaning can be proved from all passages in which 
the word occurs. The most ancient is that in Yas. 43, 11 : sddrd 'moi sas niash- 
yaeshti zara^tdditis' , tad verezidydi hyad mOi mraotd vahis'tem 'with difficulty, 

Had6kht Nask I. G-9. 305 

he praises the water, he praises the earth, he praises the cattle, he 
praises the trees, lie praises all good, created by Mazda, that is of 
rightful appearance. 7 For this saying, O Zaraithus'tra, being recited 
correctly, in addition to the saying Ahuna-vairya if out-spoken, 8 is 
to obtain strength and victory for the soul, and the religion that they 
are furthered '. 9 For one recital of the Aahem-vohu prayer, or one 

thou toldst me , is the continuation (of the religion connected) ; tell me that which 
is the best to be done'. Thus the passage is, I think correctly, interpreted by the 
Huzv&resh version. In Sir. 1,29. 2,29. Ys. 22,29. 25,18. Sp. the word is connected 
with mathra spenta in which context it can only mean the continuance of the sa- 
cred word; in Visp. 18,7. Sp. it refers in the same sense to the so-called Yasna 
kaptanhditi. The words zarasddo mazdui Yas. 31,1. mean 'making continuance, 
or giving furtherance for Mazda'; that is, to his religion. The words Hutaosa - 
yd me dahiam mdzdayasmm zaras'cha dud Yt. 9, 26. 17, 46. mean 'Hutaosa (said 
to be the wife of Vishtaspa) who made mo current the Mazdayasnian-religion', i. e. 
made it continue. The cha in zaras'cha has not the meaning 'and', but is rather 
an expletive, or gives only some emphasis to tlie word. 

' This passage offers several difficulties. The Huz. translation renders it 
thus: 'For that saying, Zarathus'tra , which is rightly spoken, spoken forth, and is 
spoken forth as true and proper, when with tlie words of the Ahunver it is spoken 
by a destur ; it will increase strength and victory and the soul and religion '. The 
words a vacho almnO vairyo can only mean 'in addition to', or 'including the 
Ahuna vairj-a'; a means *up to'. Instead of the nominative ahuno vairyo we ought 
to expect the genitive ahunehc oairyehe. Fraokhto (instead of fraokJitahe) belongs 
to ahuno vairyo. The genitives amahecha verethraghnahecha must be taken in 
the sense of datives, as is often the case in the Avesta languages, as for instance 
in the first chapters of Tasna and Visparad where the genitives after nivaedhayewi 
often take the place of the dative whicii would be the proper case. This tendency 
to put the genitive instead of the dative, has in tlie old Persian, which stands nearest 
to Zand, led to the complete suppression of all dative forms. Urunacha daenacha 
ure clearly instrumental cases ; but the sense seems to want a dative, or a genitive. 
Literally, the words mean: 'for strengtli and victory through the soul and religion', 
i. e. that the soul and religion may obtain strengtli and victory. Spanvanti is taken 
by the Huz. as a verbal form in the plural; but this is hardly admissible, as there 
is no subject on which it can depend ; besides, there is no root spenv known, 

306 Haddkht Nask I. 10. 

eulogy of a pious man, is worth, Spitama Zarathus'tra, 10 a hundred 
sleep-pra?/ers, a thousand prayers when eating meat, ten thousand pray- 
ers recited for the conception of the bodies which occurs in the pri- 
mary existence {of the good creation) '. 

either in Zand oi- Sanskrit. It can be only an adjectival form : spenvat 'increas- 
ing' ; the case is the locative: 'in the increasing, i. e. in the increase'. I have 
rendered it 'that they (the soul and religion) are furthered'. The auxiliary verb is 
to be understood. 

' This passage offers several difficulties, which are not sufficiently cleared 
away by the Huzv4resh translation which is as follows: 'one praise of the Asheui, 
O Zaratusht, descendant of Spitama, one Ashera-vohu, or one eulogy of the pious, is 
worth a hundred sleeps (sleeping prayers) and a thousand flesh meals, and ten 
thousand coitions (of animals), as if one should sleep a hundred sleeps (each time 
reciting a prayer), and should eat tiesh a thousand times, and ten thousand times per- 
mit the coition (of animals) ; of any of the bodies , when without the body's arrival, 
the life comes (i. e. when the life enters the womb before the body of the new 
animal is formed, which happens at the time of coition) ; so much it is worth'. The 
general meaning of the passage can be gathered from the following expositions 
which are given in the context itself. The unequal value of the repetitious of the 
Ashem-vohu prayer, on different occasions, is here spoken of; which single repetition, 
on a certain occasion, is worth ten, or a hundred, or a thousand, or ten thousand 
other repetitions of the same prayer without the occasion stated. The words qaftta 
and geus qareiti do not mean simply 'sleep', and 'eating of flesh', but prayers re- 
peated on those occasions. On such occasions, short prayers must be recited, of 
which the several repetitions of the Ashem form only part. For instance, when tak- 
ing a meal i(geus qareiti) the prayer which is contained in Yasna 37. 1 : itfid — 
vispdchd, is to be repeated, to which three Ashem-vohus are then added. After tlie 
meal is finished, in the first place, four Ashem-vohus must be recited, which are fol- 
lowed by two Yathd-ahu-vairyd, then by another Ashem-vohu and some other for- 
mulas, and lastly by an Ashem. — The most difficult part of the sentence is thu 
words : aniimayanam — jasoithydo. Anumaya, which is generally traaislated by 
'small cattle', has not in all passages the same meaning. In some, such as Vend. 
7, 43. 14, 10. it means undoubtedly the young ones of cattle, calves and lambs ; for, 
if several gnides of cattle are distinguished, it means the smallest and younge.>*c 
(Vend. 7,43); the same meaning it must have, if a certain large number of them is 
mentioned, a« in Vend. 18,70. 22,4. Yt. 5, 21.; but in at least two passages (Vend. 

Hadokht Na8k I. 11-13. 307 

H What is the one recital of the Ashem which is worth ten of the 
other recitals of the Ashem in greatness and goodness and excellence ? 

12 Ahura-mazda answered him: That indeed, pious Zarathus'tra, 
13 which a man recites for Ilaurvatad and Amoretad wlien eating, 

2,24 and 9,38) this meaniug is doubUuI. J'lie loinier: yad idha pasetish anunia- 
i/ehe paclhem vacndite, can be translated : 'that lie may espy a place (fit) for the 
calving- of cattle' ; the second : paseush garebush anumayehe, can only mean 'the 
fruit of the copulation of cattle'. Xow in our passage, the meaning of coition ap- 
pears to suit best, and is actually borne out by the Huzvaresh translation which 
has 'ten thousand coitions'. This may look rather strange, but one has to bear in 
mind, that it is regarded in the Zoroastrian religion as a very meritorious work to 
procure the coition of cattle at the proper time, and in the proper ])lace. That 
maya bears such a meaning, see the Zand-Pahlavi Ulossary 25, 3. and 100 s. v, 
maydo ; compare the modern Persian mdyah 'origin'. The number 'ten thousand', 
here refers to the prayers to be recited at the time of the copulation of cattle, when 
one wishes ro make it successful. — Paro-asti is the same as paro-asna meaning, 
even to the letter, 'pre-existence'. The pre-existence of souls is one of the doctrines 
of Zoroastrianism which is well known to all Parsi priests, but is, as yet, not pro- 
perly comprehended by European Zandists. This word occurs in the phrase : paro- 
asndi amihe (Ys. 55,2. Vend. 9,44. 13,8.), which is generally translated by hard 
pavan sak-i nasdih ahvo 'away to (or in) the next life'. This translation is quite 
literal, but does not express the sense of the original correctly; paro is rendered. 
by bard and asndi by nazdtk 'near, next'. The 'next life' is of course that one in 
the other world, after death. Although this seems to be hinted at in Ys. 55, 2. by 
the words pascha astascha baodhanhascha tn-unnstm 'after the separation of 
body and soul', which follow after paro-asndi anuM., I do not think this meaning 
is quite corvect. The paro-asti is not the life in the other world , as we under- 
stand it, but it signifies the primary state of the soul, to which it returns, after its 
separation from the body ; this state is then identified with that of everlasting life. 
This primary existence does not refer only to man, but also to cattle. Regarding 
the case, paro-asti is to be taken as a locative, which depends oh the gen. of the 
part. pres. fem, jasoithydo ([ualifying kahhdoschid which is also a gen. sing. fern, 
referring to fanunum. The meaning of the phrase paro-asti jas (comp. Yt. 1, 25 : 
paro-asti jasentam mana ddma) seems to be 'to occur in the primary existence', 
to take part in it. Here the bodies of all the young ones of animals, respectively 
their embryos, which all take part in the pre-existence, are to be understood. 

308 H&(]l6kht Nask I, 14 — 31. 

14 praising good thoughts and good words and good deeds, 15 re- 
nouncing evil thoughts and evil words and evil deeds. 

IH What is the one recital of the Ashem which is worth a hundred 
of the other recitals of the Ashem in greatness and goodness and ex- 
cellence ? 

17 Ahura-mazda answered him : That indeed, pious Zarathus'tra 

18 which a man recites after swallowing of the out -squeezed homa, 

19 praising good thoughts and good words and good deeds, 20 renoun- 
cing evil thoughts and evil words and evil deeds. 

21 "What is the one recital of the Ashem which is worth a thou- 
sand of the other recitals of the Ashem in greatness and goodness and 
excellence ? 

22 Ahura-mazda answered him : That indeed, O pious Zarathus'tra, 
23 which a man recites , starting up from sleep ' and going to sleep 
again 2 ^ 24 praising good thoughts and good words and good deeds, 
25 renouncing evil thoughts and evil words and evil deeds. 

26 What is the one recital of the Ashem which is worth ten thou- 
sand of the other recitals of the Ashem in greatness and goodness and 
excellence ? 

27 Ahura-mazda answered him: That indeed, pious Zarathus'tra, 
28 which a man recites, awaking and rising from sleep, 29 praising 
good thoughts and good words and good deeds , 30 renouncing evil 
thoughts and evil words and evil deeds. 

31 What is the one recital of the Ashem which is worth the whole 
region of Qaniratha with cattle, and with wealth in posterity^ , in 
greatness and goodness and excellence ? 

' This translates ustryamno which is rendered in Huz. by Idld-nipmishmh, 
a word which is not clearly intelligible to nie. The Zand word is best traced to 
the root tar + W5 = Sans, ut-tar which means 'come out, or u]i'. Qafnddha is 
evidently an ablative, with which tlie Sans, td-tar is likewise construed. 

-= Avauuhabdemno : lluz. bard-khelmunishnih , to be derived from qabda 'to 
sleep' -\- nva. 

3 The words mad-rathem paiii v'lrem are difficult to explain. The Huzvaresh 

HAd6klit Nask I. 32. -II. 6. 309 

32 Ahura-mazda answered him: That indeed, pious Zarathus'tra, 
33 which a man recites at the extreme end of life, 34 praising 2:ood 
thoughts and good words and good deeds, 35 renouncing evil thoughts 
and evil words and evil deeds. 

3ii What is the one recital of the Ashem which is worth all this 
which is in the earth and in the sky, and this earth, and those lights, 
and all good things created by Mazda which have their origin in truth ? 

37 Ahura-mazda answered him : That indeed, pious Zarathus'tra, 
38 when one renounces evil thoughts and evil words and evil deeds. 

Chapter II. 

On the fate of the soul of the pious after death. 

(Comp. Vishtdsp Nask VIII. 53—134. Vend. 19,27-32. Ar.Jd VirdfW. 8-35. 
Mai)nj6-i Khard II. 123— 157.) 

1 Zarathus'tra asked Aliura-mazda : O Ahura-mazda, most munifi- 
cent spirit, creator of the settlements supplied with creatures, holy one : 
2 when a pious man passes away, where remains his soul that night ? 

3 Then said Ahura-mazda : 4 It sits down near the head, 5 chant- 
ing the Ciatlia Us'tavaiti, imploring blessedness thus: 'Blessed is he. 
blessed is everyone to whom Ahura-mazda, the ruler by his own 
will, should grant (the two everlasting powers)' i. 6 On this night the 

version has: levatman ras , bard min vir, javid min anshntd; ras is iirobably the 
Zand ratha 'chariot': hard min vir translates paiti virem, but not correctly, I think. 
as this would mean 'without men'; and the same sense is conveyed by the gloss 
javid min amhiltd. But paiti can never bear the meaning 'without'; the trans- 
lator has, perhaps, confounded paiti with jiara. Rathem I have traced to the root 
rd 'to give' and taken in the sense of 'wealth' ; in this case, we must suppose that 
the a has been shortened. But it may, perhaps better, be traced to ratii 'head'; 
then rathem would be read rathtvem , and mean 'headship'; and the sense would 
be : 'men (offspring) who are chiefs'. 

' See Hang's 'Essays on the sacred language, writings and religion of the 
Parsis', pag. 147. 

310' HAd6kht Nask II. 7 - 20, 

soul perceives as much of pleasure as all that which he had when 
he was a living existence (living in the world) '. 

7 Where dwells his soul the second night ? 

8 Then said Ahura-mazda : i' — 10 {as in 4 — 5]. 11 On this night 
also the soul perceives as much of pleasure [as in (!]. 

12 Where dwells his soul also the third night? 

13 Then said Ahura-mazda: li- — 15 [as in 4 — 5]. 16 On this 
night also, 17 the soul perceives as nnich of pleasure [as in (>]. 

18 On the passing away of the third night, when the dawn ap- 
pears '^, the soul of the pious man appears passing through trees and 
sweet scents. lU To him there seems a wind blowing from the more 
southern side, from the more southern quarters, 20 a sweet scent more 


' The Huzvaresh traiiHlation has: 'unto it in that night, is as much comfort 
and (as?) the soul wants for, as much as all that which it saw, during lifetime in 
the world'. The sense conveyed by it, is certainly correct; but it is not so easy to 
explain it grammatically. Jui/6 may be, as to its form, the gen. sg. of a nom. joi fem. 
which never occurs; but it may also be taken as a nom. sg. standing for jcz/o ^^jivf/a. 
In our passage, 1 am rather inclined to take it in the latter sense; jtiyo anhns 
means 'the living existence'; the sense is: 'the soul lias in that night as much 
pleasure as his whole living existence comprised'. 

2 The Huz. has : 'at the end of the third night , at the rising (of the light) 
also appears to him, in the dawn, what is the soul of the pious man', etc. Thraos fa 
is thus translated by roeshman 'end', which seems to be correct as regards the ge- 
neral sense. Grammatically, thraosta is an instrumental, in the sense of a locative. 
I trace it to tlie root tar 'to pass by', standing for tarus'ta; this is, I think, an 
abstract noun oi tarus' the past part. act. of ^a>-, meaning 'having passed away'. 
The a of tar has disappeared, as the accent must have been on us., and t is changed 
to th according to rule; the change to ao — appears to be more a matter of 
pronunciation than of etymology. Vyusa sadhayt'iti is rendered by pavan nzda- 
hishmh medammtmed paean ai'ishbdm, whence it follows that vyusa was taken as a 
locative. In Vend. 19, 28. there is, in a parallel passage, really the locative vyusaiti, 
but without sadhaynti ; I am, therefore, inclined to take sadhayeiti as the locative 
part. pres. 'in the dawning appearing' i, e. when the dawn appears. 

Had6kht Nask II. 21—26. 311 

sweet-scented thtin other winds. 21 Then inhaling i that wind with the 
nose, the soul of the pious man considers: Whence- blows the wind, 
the most sweet-scented wind which I have ever inhaled with the nostrils? 
22 Advancing » with tiiis wind, there appears to him what is his own 
religion, 23 in the body of a beautiful maiden, brilliant, white-armed, 
strong, well-grown, high-statured*, tall, with prominent breasts, 
straight^, noble, with a dazzling face, of fifteen years, with a body as 
beautiful as the most beautiful of creatures. 

24 Then the soul of the pious man spoke to her, asking: What 
virgin art thou, whom I have seen here as the most beautiful of vir- 
gins in form ? 

25 Then answered him his own religion : 1 am, O youth, thy good 
thoughts, good words, good deeds (and) good religion, on account of 
which good religion in thy own possession, 2G everyone has loved thee 
for such greatness, and goodness, and beauty, and perfume, and victor- 

' Uzgeremhyo is translated by laid vakhdimd 'taken up', here 'snuffed up'. 
The translator has evidently derived it from gereiv 'to take' which is, I think, correct; 
mb stands apparently for w, which was, perhaps, some provinrialism. As to its 
form, it is the part, of the pres. tense of the causal form, but with suppression of 
the a before yd, which might have caused the change of to to nib. 

- Kiula-ilhaew, Huz. win a'igh dahishno 'whence originating', which render- 
ing is certainly correct as to the sense ; but there is some difficulty as to the con- 
struction. As it refers to vdto we ought to expect kuda-dhayo. 

' Fr'ere.uta, Huz. fravdft -advancing'; it is the instrunu-ntal of a noun fr'erenti 

* Iluzarshtaijdo., Huz. laid astddah ah/h yuddn va bCiland 'standing up, i.e. 
young and high ; I have accordingly translated it by 'high-statured". The derivation 
of the word is uncertain. 

^ Sraotauio. Huz. iiadnl: tana 'of a good body'. The first [art of the word 
is probably lo be traced to a word sarva, or srva, which is no longer extant in the 
Zand, but preserved in the modern Persian ^ j^ 'a cypress'; thus it means 'cypress- 
bodied' i. e. high, tall, or straight. Persian poets frequently compare tall female 
statures to cypresses; and sntotaiird is generally used in the description of female 

312 HftdOkht Nask II. 27-30. 

iousness which overcomes enemies , as thou appearest to me *. ~7 
Thou hast loved me, O youth, the good thoughts, good words, good 
deeds, the good religion with such greatness and goodness, and beauty 
and perfume, and victoriousness which overcomes enemies, as I ap- 
pear to thee, 28 When thou mightest see another performing burning 
(of the dead) and idolworship, and causing oppression, and cutting 
down trees, 29 then thou wouldst sit down, chanting the Gathas, and 
consecrating the good waters and the fire of Ahura-mazda, and extolUug 
the pious man coming from near and far 2. 30 Then thou madest me. 

' This is thus rendered by the Huz.: 'She said in reply who was his own 
religion, thus : I am thou, 1 am (that is, I am thou thyself), youth of good thought, 
of good words, ot good deeds, of good religion, who am thy own religion which 
remained as excellent as thy own self. This it is for whose will and whose deeds 
thou art as great and good and virtuous and sweet-scented and triumphant and 
unharmed as appears to me'. Yd hava daena is to be taken as an instrumental 
•through the own religion', i. e. on account of the own religion ; qaepaithe is loca- 
tive. The Huz. has, as is often the case, wrongly divided the sentences, and se- 
parated chischa chaJcana from the relative sentence i/d hava daena. 

- The Hu/, has : 'When thou sawest those others that they committed injury 
and idolworship [they made demon worship], and they, with their own will, destroyed 
the wills of fellow-creatures [that is, whoever desired any thing, it was not given 
to them], and they made trees the doors [that is, their door was shut up] ; then thou 
hast sat down, and the Clathas were chanted by thee, and the good waters were 
worshiped, and the fire of Auharmazd was cared for by thee, and the pious man 
was also praised by thee, who came from near and who was also from far'. Sao- 
chaya is rendered by afsos., 'ridicule, injury'; but this can be hardly correct, for 
it can only be derived from such 'to burn'; it probably refers to the burning of 
the dead which is a crime according to the Zoroastrian religion. — Baosavascha is 
rendered by hdndak (the meaning of which is not clear to me) , and explained by 
shedaydzah'ih 'demon-worship'. In JVIinokli. Jl. 132, the word seems to be explained 
by beshtdan U tar kardan 'causing oppression and overbearing", if 1 may venture 
upon a guess, I am inclined to take it as a foreign word to be identified with bodh- 
isatva., the well known buddhistic term by which the candidates for the dignity of 
a Buddha are designated, who are worshiped. Many scholars will object to the 
occurrence of buddhistic terms in Zand writings ; but in Yt. 13, 16. Gaofema is 

H&(16klit Nask II. 31 — 33. 313 

being beloved, more beloved, me being bcautifnl, more beautiful, me 
being desirable, more desirable, 31 me being seated in a high place, 
sitting down in a still higher place, 32 through this good thought, through 
this good word, through this good deed. Then men afterwards worship 
me, Ahura-mazda, the long worshiped and conversed with. 

33 The soul of the pious man first advanced with a footstep 
which he placed upon Ilumata {good thought) ; the soul of the pious 

mentioned, which can only refer to Gautama Buddha, as Gaotema is put in oppo- 
sition to Zarathus'tra (for he alone is to be understood by vydkhano vydkhamo hu- 
giishai/ad-ttkhdho), and made posterior to the Parsi prophet. Now we know that 
the religion of Zoroaster was partly superseded by that of Buddha, at a very early 
time, at Balkh. If Buddhism be alluded to in some parts of the Zandavesta, then of 
course, those pieces must be of a later date than the bulk of the Zand writings 
appear to be. There is , however, no reason to regard the Yashts as old ;. many of 
them are certainly not older than the Buddhistic times, — Varakhedhrdoscha vard- 
zJiintem is rendered by pavan kdmak-i tiafshman kdmak hamkMkdn makhitund, 
'with their own will they destroyed the wills of their fellow-creatures'. Vara is here 
taken in the sense of 'will, wish'; khedhra appears to be identified with Jj^ 
'himself, and zhintem traced to the root jan 'to slay'. All these identifications 
and derivations are more than doubtful. In Minokh. II. 132, which contains a 
somewhat free translation of the passage, these words are explained by qdsta ezh 
bazha andokhtan , 'acquiring wealth by crime' ; in the account of Arda Viraf, 
the passage is omitted. There is no doubt, the traditional interpreters referred the 
words to goods , or wealth , acquired in an improper manner, or unlawfully, or to 
oppression ; but I doubt whether this is the correct meaning. The first part of 
varakhedhra (the reading vakhedhra in Yt. 24, 37, 59. is certainly wrong) is vara 
which may mean 'choice', 'excavation, cavern, grotto', 'garden' or 'breast'. If we 
consider that urvaro-strayascha , which can only mean ' cutting down of trees' 
(a great crime according to the Zoroastrian religion) follows immediately, we are 
justified in supposing that varakhedhra may refer to a similar crime against the good 
creation. I therefore take it as 'excavation, grotto', and varozhintem as 'covering 
over, destroying', varozh being a denominative ; thus it means 'destroying excava- 
tions , or vaults', probably water-courses , which is a great sin according to the 
Zoroastrian religion. This is, however, only a guess of mine. In the translation, I 
have adopted the traditional view. 


314 Haclukht Nask II. 34 — 39. 

man secondly advanced with a footstep which he placed upon Ilukhta 
(good word) ; the soul of the pious man thirdly advanced with a foot- 
step which he placed upon Huvarshta (jjood action). 34 The soul of 
the pious man fourthly advanced with a footstep ivhich he placed on 
the eternal luminaries. 

35 To him spoke a pious one, previously deceased, asking: How, 
O pious one, didst thou die ? how, pious one, didst thou come away 
from the dwellings supplied with cattle, and from the copulating birds ? i 
36 from the life containing creatures to the spiritual life, from the 
perishable world to the imperishable world ? how long will have been 
thy blessing ! 

37 Then said Ahura-mazda : Ask not him whom thou askest, who 
is come along the frightful, deadly, destructive path, the separation of 
the body and soul. 

38 Of the nourishments brought to him, thcr^e is some of the Zare- 
maya-oil2; that is the food of a youth of good thought, of good 
words, of good deeds, of good religion, after death; 39 that is the 
food for a woman of very good thoughts, of very good words, of very 
good deeds, well-governed, ruled by a master and pious, after death. 

\ The Huz. renders this passage as follows: 'How didst thou come away, 
O pious one, to this place, from that dwelling-supplied, cattle-supplied, desire-sup- 
plied [that is, they desire others in it], cohabitation-supplied [that is, they cohabit 
after the menstruous discharge, which is said to be a characteristic of the world]'; 
vayaHhyascha hacha mdyavaitlhijascha I have translated by 'from the copulating 
birds'. Though this may seem strange, the sense can hardly be otherwise. The Huz. 
renders vayanhyascha by hhvaMshn 'desire' ; but this sense is too vague. Birds 
form part of the good creation ; and tlieir copulation is regarded as auspicious. 

- The Huz. has: 'Let them bring him as;, food the Zaremaya-oil'. Bere- 
tanam is taken as a Supers, plur. iraperat. ; but it is the gen. plur. of the past 
part, berefa, as to its form; though a verb is wanted by the sense. As the text 
now stands, the auxiliary verb must be supplied. 

Had6kht Nask III. 1-36. 315 

Chapter III. 

On tlie fate of the wicked soul after death. 

(Comp. Ardu Viraf XVII. 4-28; 3Iainy6-i Khard II. 158-194.) 

1 Zaratlius'tra asked Aliura-mazda [as mil. 1]: 2 when a wicked 
man dies, where remains his soul that night ? 

3 Then said Ahura-mazda : There, indeed, pious Zarathus tra, in 
the vicinity of the head it runs about, 4 chanting the Gatha Kam-neme- 
zam : 'To what land can I turn, where can I go to in turning?' 
5 On this night, the soul perceives as much of uneasiness as all that 
wdiich he had when he was a living existence. 

6 — 10 Where remains his soul the second night? etc. {as in S—5\. 

11 — 16 Where remains his soul the third night? etc. [as in .3 — .5]. 

17 On the passing away of the third night, pious Zarathus'tra, 
-when the dawn appears, the soul of the wicked man appears pass- 
ing through terrors and stenches. 18 To him there seems a wind 
blowing forth from the more northern side, from the more northern 
quarters, 10 a stench more foul -smelling than other winds. 20 Then 
inhaling that wind with the nose, the soul of the wicked man con- 
siders: Whence blows the wind, the most stinking wind which I have 
ever inhaled with the nostrils? 21 — 32 [Omitted in the MSS., being 
the converse of 11. 22—33], 

33 The soul of the wicked man fourthly advanced with a foot- 
step ivhich he placed on the eternal glooms. 

34 To him spoke a wicked one, previously dead , asking : How, 
wicked one, didst thou die? how, wicked one, didst thou come 
away 35 from the dwellings supplied with cattle, and from the copulat- 
ing birds, 36 from the life containing creatures to the spiritual life, from 
the perishable world to the imperishable world ? How long will be 
thy distress I 

316 Had6kht Xask III. 87-39. 

37 Anro-mainyu shouted : Ask not him whom thou askest, who is 
come along the frightful, deadly, destructive path, the 'separation of 
the body and soul. 

38 Of the nourishments brought to him, there are some from 
poison and poisonous stench ; that is the food, after death, of a youth 
of evil thought, of evil words, of evil deeds, of evil religion; 39 that 
is the food, after death, for a harlot of very evil thoughts, of very 
evil words, of very evil deeds, ill-instructed, not ruled by a master, 
and wicked.